History of Our Parties

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2 History of Our Parties -the first parties -Federalist/Democratic- Republicans Hamilton did not trust people Jefferson give power to people -Democrats/Whigs Formed just before Civil War -Democrats / Republicans Alexander Hamilton did not trust the people. His political party, the Federalists, agreed with him. Thomas Jefferson believed political power should rest with the people and states. The Dem.- Republicans agreed.

3 Federalists Dem.-Republicans Whigs Democrats Republicans Democrats Democrats

4 U.S. Political Parties: Beginnings George Washington against political parties parties serve their own interests parties not beneficial to American people Parties formed after his exit: 1. Democratic-Republicans 2. Federalists

5 Democratic- Republicans Supported states rights Supported economy based on agriculture Power in hands of all people U.S. Political Parties: Led by Thomas Jefferson Beginnings

6 Federalists Supported strong national govt. Supported economy based on industry U.S. Political Parties: Power in hands of wealthy and educated Led by Alexander Hamilton Beginnings

7 Federalists Breakup U.S. Political Parties: Federalists gradually disappear no political momentum John Adams only party member to be elected President Supporters formed new party: Whig Party ( ) Beginnings

8 U.S. Political Parties: Beginnings Mid 1820 s: Democratic- Republicans breaking up Democratic Party formed to continue representing small farmers and working people

9 U.S. Political Parties: Beginnings 1850 s: Democratic Party and Whig Party split over slavery Pro-slavery voters form Democratic Party Whigs and anti-slavery Democrats formed Republican Party

10 U.S Political Parties: Republican Party 1860: Abe Lincoln becomes 1 st Republican President Emerges as stronger of 2 parties after Civil War :Only 2 Democratic Presidents elected Grover Cleveland Woodrow Wilson Beginnings

11 Political Parties: Who are they? What do they want? Democrats and Republicans

12 Two Party System Democrats Republicans

13 U.S. Political Parties: Democratic Party Tends to Attract Working people (blue collar) Liberals Catholics Minorities Union Members People in favor of govt. involvement in social policies Characteristics

14 U.S. Political Parties: Republican Party Tends to attract Businesspeople (white collar) Protestants Conservatives Non-minorities Non-union supporters People against govt.involvement in social policies Characteristics

15 The History of Democrats The first two presidents of the US, George Washington and John Adams were Federalists. They believed in a strong central government. Both were wealthy men who owned property and were very concerned with improving commerce and ensuring property rights. The Anti-Federalists evolved into the Democrat- Republican party. Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States was the first Democrat-Republican to be elected President. They were mostly supported by working class small farmers from the South who valued their liberties, resented big business and possessed a general suspicion of government.

16 George Washington and John Adams were both Federalists who believed in a strong central government.

17 Andrew Jackson used a donkey to symbolize his working class roots and ever since the Democrats have been known as the party of the donkey.

18 Democrat History Continued Democrats evolved into the party that represented mainly the working classes of cities in the North and predominantly white agricultural workers in the South until Famous Democrats of this time period included James Polk, Andrew Johnson, and Woodrow Wilson.

19 Franklin Delanor Roosevelt transformed the Democrat party into what it is today. FDR captured the White House in 1932 and led the United States out the Great Depression by expanding government services like welfare, social security, jobs programs and to a lesser extent supporting civil rights laws. John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Baines Johnson continued the tradition set by FDR in pushing forward civil rights laws such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and expanding the welfare state (a type of government designed to take care of its citizens, rather than ask them to take care of themselves) government s role in society with the creation of Medicare, Medicaid and the expansion of welfare.

20 Democrats Today Today the Democrats are commonly perceived as the party of big government, civil rights, women s rights, environmentalism, the poor and pacifism (slow to go to war).

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22 History of the Republicans The Republicans were born in 1854 with support of abolitionists (people against slavery) and those who supported a strong federal government. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican to be elected President. The Radical Republicans were responsible for pushing for Reconstruction efforts after the Civil War in the South. Later, in the late 1880s Republicans became known as the party of big business.

23 The Republican Party was born amidst tensions between slave and free states in 1850s. They tended to find more support in northern states.

24 History of Republicans In the 1920s Republicans such as Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover were known for laissez faire economics (free market) and isolationism (the US should mind its own business and stay out of world affairs). They favored small government, were against taxes and thought that the economy could take care of itself if left to its own devises.

25 Republicans came to be associated with elephants due to the political cartoons of Thomas Nast in 1874.

26 The Republican Party transformed itself from a political party of the North to one of the South and West in The modern Republican Party was born out of Richard Nixon s Southern Strategy in which Nixon appealed to southern white voters by proclaiming his support of states rights and promised to make the US safer. Today the Republican party stands for many of the issue Richard Nixon supported such as lower taxes, small government, the rights to carry arms, pro-life policies, a strong military and a smaller welfare state.

27 Republicans Today! The Republican party today tends to support public policies that limit the size of government and cut taxes. Typically, they also support the War on Terror, are generally opposed to the legalization of abortion (prolife) and vote against programs to increase the size of the welfare state. George W. Bush Mitt Romney Paul Ryan Sarah Palin John McCain

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29 The map below shows the states that were won by the Democrat Presidential nominee Al Gore and the Republican Presidential nominee George Bush in 2000.

30 Abraham Lincoln Lincoln was the 1st Republican President. He was elected in The Republicans were the more liberal party initially, but now are the more conservative.

31 Many say the 2-Party System in America restricts and confuses public policy.

32 Are you a Democrat or Republican?

33 The Economy and Taxes Democrats Are generally in favor of large government and a progressive tax system in which the wealthy pay a larger share than the poor Tend to be against international free trade agreements because they claim that such trade agreements hurt American workers and in particular unions Tend to believe in a balanced budget and are willing to raise taxes if needed Tend to make laws to protect American businesses from international competition Republicans Are generally in favor of a smaller government Generally for free market agreements with other countries, like NAFTA- North American Free Trade Agreement. Vehemently against raising taxes even if it means a budget deficit Tend to believe in global trade and don t tend to protect US businesses from international competition

34 National Defense and Security Democrats Tend to cut the military budget Generally want to avoid American military intervention unless supported by the United Nations Tend to believe in diplomacy and are slow to go to war Republicans Believe in a strong military and are willing to pay for it with government money Believe in confronting American enemies with or without UN support Believe in using military intervention when American interests or security is threatened more quickly than Democrats

35 Entitlements- Welfare, Medicaid, Social Security, Health Care Democrats Generally think that the government should provide a broad safety net (health care, education, welfare, food stamps) for the poor and others. They generally think these policies help the common good and are compassionate Republicans Generally think the government should limit or reduce the safety net for the poor. They believe that private businesses and nonprofit charities can provide the same services

36 Crime and Punishment Democrats Tend to focus on rehabilitation programs over long prison sentences for convicted criminals Usually against the death penalty Focus on rights of the accused Republicans Tend to focus on prison sentences as a deterrent to crime Usually for the death penalty Usually for stiffer penalties for convicted criminals

37 Democrats Environmental Protection Favor stricter regulations on businesses to protect the environment Believe global warming is a real threat Republicans Favor fewer restrictions on businesses in the hopes that wealthier companies will be able to be more environmental Many do not believe global warming is a real threat

38 Abortion and Stem Cell Research Democrats Tend to be pro-choicebelieve that a woman should always have the right to choose to have an abortion Tend to favor stem-cell research Republicans Tend to be pro-life- do not believe that women have a right to have an abortion and instead call abortion a form of murder Tend to be against stem-cell research

39 Energy Policy Democrats Focus on researching alternative energy sources for the future Republicans Focus on securing existing energy sources for the present and future

40 Values- Same Sex Marriage and Civil Rights Laws Democrats Tend to support the right for same-sex couples to marry Republicans Tend to oppose the right for same-sex couples to marry

41 Education Democrats Oppose using tax money for school choice (vouchers and charters) Republicans Favor using tax money for school choice (vouchers and charters)

42 Immigration Democrats Favor looser immigration laws Some favor Amnesty for illegals already in the country Republicans Favor stricter immigration laws Some favor punishment or deportation for illegals already in the country

43 History of Our Parties -Political Machines Strong party organization that can control political appointments and deliver votes Corrupt units (took bribes) Supported by the poor I ve been called a boss. All there is to it is having friends, doing things for people, and then later on they ll do things for you You can t coerce people into doing things for you you can t make them vote for you. I never coerced anybody in my life. Where you see a man bulldozing anybody he don t last long. ~ Big Jim Pendergrass, Kansas City Boss

44 Political Machine It is an unofficial system of a political organization based on patronage and the spoils system. Machines often have a boss like Boss Tweed in NYC in the late 1800s. Often times these political machines are corrupt.

45 Boss Hogg is the Political Boss of the Machine in Hazzard County, Georgia.

46 Third Party A third party is a party other than the two dominant ones. A third party has never won a presidential election and rarely wins other major elections. Third parties try to influence the outcome of elections and influence policy. Former president Teddy Roosevelt ran as a 3 rd party candidate in 1912 after loosing the Republican nomination to Taft. The Republican vote was split and this allowed Woodrow Wilson to win the election.

47 Formation of Third Parties Challenge the two major parties -3 rd parties form to bring out specific issues ignored by the major parties -3 rd Parties are formed in one of the following ways -issues based party Arise to promote different issues -single idea Promote an idea (new government) While the U.S. has traditionally been a twoparty system, that does not mean that other political ideas do not exist and are not welcome. Political parties that form to challenge the two major parties are called third parties. These third parties have never won a Presidential election and they rarely win general elections, but they do impact decision-making by forcing the government (and the two major parties) to respond to issues. -single person Promote an individual person H. Ross Perot A third party has never won the presidency and they rarely win elections Affect the outcome of other elections

48 With four candidates running in the election of 1912, Democrat Woodrow Wilson only gained 42% of the popular vote. However, he won an overwhelming 82% of the electoral vote, winning him the election.

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50 Ross Perot Ross Perotwon 20% of the popular vote in the 1992 election.

51 -Democratic Party Today s Parties Believe federal government should be more involved in lives of the people More government programs -Republican Party Help the economy grow, poor people will have a better chance at finding jobs and meeting needs on their own Less government programs -American Socialist Party Government ownership of businesses and land, equal distribution -Libertarian Party Strictly follow the Constitution More power to the states

52 -Reform Party Today s Parties The Prohibition Party is against alcohol and other risk-causing substances. They want these substances outlawed in the United States. Ross Perot -Green Party Opposes big corporations and favors more power at local level -Prohibition Want use of alcohol and other risk-causing substances to stop The Right to Life Party was to make abortion illegal and the death penalty unconstitutional in all states. -Right to Life Against abortion and the death penalty

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