Ch. 6 Test Review. The Spirit of Independence

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1 Ch. 6 Test Review The Spirit of Independence

2 John Adams Wentworth Cheswell Samuel Adams Mercy Otis Warren Benjamin Franklin Crispus Attucks Biographical Glossary Rebellion & Revolution (Unit 3) He was a Harvard lawyer who defended the British soldiers after the Boston Massacre. He served as a delegate to both Continental Congresses and was on the committee to write the Declaration of Independence. A beloved and respected patriot from Massachusetts. He was elected town messenger for the regional Committee of Safety, one of the many groups established in Colonial America to monitor events pertaining to public welfare. He delivered messages for the Committee as a rider in the New England colonies. As soldier, he served in the Battles of Saratoga In 1765 he was elected to the Massachusetts Assembly. He was a member of the First Continental Congress and an outspoken patriot who was well known for his oratory skills and as a passionate advocate of independence from Britain. Adams was a member of the Sons of Liberty and secretly helped organize the Boston Tea Party. Cousin to John Adams, he helped organize the committees of correspondence to help bring unity to the colonies. An American patriot. She was a writer who authored plays, poems and essays supporting the idea of independence. Her writings convinced many in Massachusetts to become Patriots. Sister to James Otis and wife of patriot James Warren, co-founder of the Boston committee of correspondence, Mercy was a very outspoken woman for her time. She was also a close friend of Abigail Adams. Her writings have helped historians in the study of the American Revolution and she is often considered the first historian of the American Revolution An inventor, writer, printer, diplomat, scientist, humorist, and statesman. He was born in Boston in In 1733 he started publishing Poor Richard s Almanack. What distinguished Franklin s almanac were his witty sayings and lively writing. During the French and Indian War, Franklin advocated colonial unity with his Albany Plan which encouraged the colonists to Join or Die. He was a delegate to the both Continental Congresses and a member of the committee to write the Declaration of Independence. In 1770, Crispus Attucks, an African American former slave was the first of five unarmed American civilians to be shot and killed by British soldiers in a riot known as the Boston Massacre. Attucks was credited as the leader and instigator of the heroic upheaval against the British army.

3 King George III George Washington Patrick Henry Thomas Jefferson Thomas Paine King of England from During his reign, there were many conflicts involving his kingdom. After the French and Indian War, the British Parliament with the King s approval angered the American colonists by taxing them to pay for military protection. In 1776 the American colonists declared their independence and listed their grievances against the king. He was a Virginia planter and a delegate to the House of Burgesses. Washington fought during the French and Indian War and was a delegate to the Continental Congress. He was chosen Commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolution. A symbol of America s struggle for liberty and self-government, he was a lawyer, patriot, orator, and willing participant in virtually every aspect of the founding of America. He served as the first and sixth post-colonial Governor of Virginia from 1776 to He was a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses. During the American Revolution, he famously said Give me liberty or give me death. He was a delegate to the First Continental Congress from Virginia. As a Virginia planter, he was also a delegate to the House of Burgesses and to the First and Second Continental Congress. He was selected to draft the Declaration of Independence and is thus considered the author of the Declaration of Independence. He authored the pamphlet Common Sense which encouraged the colonies to break with England and become independent.

4 Stamp Act Intolerable Acts Declaration of Independence Common Sense Document Glossary Passed so that the American colonists should bear a heavier tax load, to raise revenue due to the debt from the F & I War. The act required Americans to buy special watermarked paper for newspapers and all legal documents. To many colonists, the Stamp Act represented all of the problems between England and the colonies, especially Taxation without Representation. It affected every one of the thirteen colonies equally, and every rank in society. The name given to a series of acts passed in response to the Boston Tea Party. The British called their responsive measures the Coercive Acts. Boston Harbor was closed to trade until the owners of the tea were compensated. Town meetings were banned, and the authority of the royal governor was increased. All of these were eventually addressed in the U.S. Constitution in some form. General Gage, the British commander of North American forces, was appointed governor of Massachusetts. British troops and officials would now be tried outside Massachusetts for their crimes. Greater freedom was granted to British officers who wished to house their soldiers in private dwellings. The Declaration of Independence is a document adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, It established the 13 colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. The committee appointed to write the Declaration of Independence included Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, and Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson wrote the most of it. The Preamble stated it was necessary to list the reasons why the colonies sought their own government. In three sections, Jefferson outlined the reasons: people have the right to control their own government; the British government and King used their power unjustly to control the colonies; and the colonies had tried to avoid separating from Britain, but Britain refused to cooperate. Published in 1776, Common Sense challenged the authority of the British government and the royal monarchy. The plain language that Thomas Paine used spoke to the common people of America and was the first work to openly ask for independence from Great Britain. The widespread success of Common Sense in the colonies lead to a greater acceptance of the idea of the need for a complete break from England among the American colonists.

5 Fundamental Orders of Connecticut 1639 the first constitution in the American colonies; extended voting rights to non-church members and limited the powers of the governor, expanded ideas of representative government Magna Carta 1215 granted rights to noblemen and freemen. Limited power of the king House of Burgesses 1619 The First Representative Body in the colonies; Virginia Mayflower Compact 1620 first system of selfgovernment in America. English Bill of Rights 1689 supported a limited monarchy, gov t based of laws made by parliament provided a system of shared power; rights given to ALL Englishmen

6 Founding Documents ec. of Ind. Revolution Events exington & Concord Jamestown -1 st perm. English settlement Mayflower Compact 1 st system of selfgov t Declaration of Independence Freedom from English Rule Middle Colonies subsistence farming, good soil, warm climate GA SC PA VA MD NC NH NY MA CT RI NJ DE New England Long winters, rocky soil, timber, fishing, shipbuilding, whaling Southern Colonies Hot climate, fertile soil, cash crops, plantation system Appalachian Mtns

7 Sugar Stamp 1765 Tea Townshend These acts following the French & Indian War ticked off the Colonies and eventually led to the Revolution! 1767 Declaratory 1766 uartering Act 1765 Super STAAR 130 Intolerable (Coercive) 1774

8 14. King George III of England: He offended the colonies with his taxes and abuses of our rights as Englishmen. King George III Statue being pulled down

9 15. The Sons of Liberty organized the Boston Tea Party to protest the Tea Act. In response, England passed the Intolerable Acts as punishment. Civil Disobedience non-violent resistance to a government

10 16. Important American Revolution minorities: Wentworth Cheswell 1st African American elected to public office and assisted Paul Revere in alerting the colonists of British troop movements Crispus Attucks African American killed at the Boston massacre who was the 1st colonist to die for American independence Mercy Otis Warren woman who wrote plays such as The Group and The Blockheads which were critical of the British government s actions

11 Committee that drafted the Declaration John Adams Benjamin Franklin Robert Livingston Thomas Jefferson John Roger Adams Sherman

12 18. Sam Adams, a member of the Sons of Liberty and leader of the Boston Tea Party, stirred public support for American independence. Die, you defenseless American rebels! We massacre you for no reason! (according to Paul Revere) If ye love wealth better than liberty... Crouch down and lick the hands which feed you.

13 19. The first battle of the American Revolution was at Lexington and Concord in April Hey Ralph! I bet they hear this shot round the world! That s good stuff!

14 20. Common Sense - a pamphlet by Thomas Paine that convinced many colonists to support independence from Great Britain. It is Paine-ful to not use Common Sense. Get it? Ha ha! Washington read Thomas Paine s The Crisis to his men to inspire them to continue fighting in the face of defeat.

15 21. The fiery orator, patriot Patrick Henry called for American independence Give me liberty or give me death!

16 22. George Washington was the leader of the Continental Army who later became the first President of the United States.

17 23. A patriot is someone who supported American independence during the Revolution.

18 24. A loyalist is someone who supported maintaining British rule over the colonies during the Revolution. Why don t you hold the end of this electrified string, you dirty loyalist! I sure do like England, Dad.

19 25. The Declaration of Independence - a list of grievances against King George III - was written by Thomas Jefferson-July 4, 1776 in Philadelphia. It declared the colonies independent from England.

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