England and the 13 Colonies: Growing Apart

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1 England and the 13 Colonies: Growing Apart

2 The 13 Colonies: The Basics 1607 to 1776 Image: Public Domain

3 Successful and Loyal Colonies By 1735, the 13 colonies are prosperous and growing quickly Colonists consider themselves English citizens and are loyal to England s king But events will cause a split to occur in the mid-1700s

4 Politics Each colony has its own local government with royal governors and elected councils Final say comes from England s king and parliament (the king s top elected council) Mostly colonies were mostly left alone because they were so far away from England

5 Colonial Concerns Between 1754 and 1776, the relationship between the colonists and the king grew tense The primary causes of tension were: Taxes enacted by the British Parliament Colonists felt they had no representation in decisions that affected them Colonists felt that state s rights and individual rights were not protected King George did not answer the petitions

6 1 st Cause: The Great Awakening Preachers traveled through the 13 colonies spreading their religious message to colonists in the 1730s Preachers wanted to inspire people to go to church again Said things at sermon s like all men are created equal in the eyes of God

7 1 st Effect: Revolutionary Ideas Spread Think For Yourself QUESTION AUTHORITY Colonists take religious ideas and begin to think politically Talk starts about being treated as equals by the English king and parliament Colonists begin to think of themselves as Americans because they all feel connected by the Great Awakening

8 2 nd Cause: French and Indian War Long and expensive war fought from 1756 to 1763 between: England and the 13 Colonies vs. France and Native American tribes England wins the war, gains lots of new land from France Colonists play a big part in the war, with people like George Washington getting their first army experience

9 2 nd Effect: Colonial Tax Increase England is broke because of the war with France Decides to tax the colonies without asking: Stamp Act in 1764 puts taxes on all official papers Townshend Act in 1767 lets English troops live in colonial houses for free Tea Act in 1773 puts a large tax on tea Colonists very upset because they have no say in these taxes

10 3 rd Cause: Proclamation of 1763 English King s Proclamation of 1763 reserves new land won from France for Native American tribes England hopes this will stop fighting between Native Americans and the colonists who keep moving westward in search of cheap land

11 3 rd Effect: Colonists Feel Betrayed Proclamation of 1763 Colonists angered by Proclamation of 1763 because they assumed England won the new land for them to farm and settle Colonists break the rules set by England and begin moving onto Native American lands English troops begin burning colonial houses on this reserved land

12 4 th Cause: Protesting English Actions After the Stamp Act 1764, secret colonial groups were formed to protest English taxes and laws The Sons of Liberty spread through the colonies and held violent protests Got more people actively involved in protesting against England The Repeal of the Stamp Act 1765

13 4 th Effect: Major Trouble in Massachusetts Violence breaks out during protests in Boston, Massachusetts At the Boston Massacre in 1770, 5 American protesters are killed by English soldiers Boston Tea Party protests the Tea Act in 1773 by destroying royally protected tea shipment England decides to punish Massachusetts with the Intolerable Acts, setting a harsh example for other troublemakers

14 5 th Cause: The 13 Colonies Unite! The 13 Colonies hold a meeting in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1774 Called the First Continental Congress Colonies agree to not trade with England and train their own American soldiers until problems with England are resolved England sees this as more troublemaking by the colonists

15 5 th Effect: Shooting Starts and Spreads Massachusetts rebels against England in early 1775 First battles fought between English and Americans there Second Continental Congress forms the Continental Army in 1775 Congress votes the American army will be led by George Washington in their fight against England

16 6 th Cause: T. Paine s Greatest Hit Best-selling book called Common Sense written by Thomas Paine in early 1776 Told Americans all monarchs (kings) were bad and had to go Said what many Americans were already thinking and created a new Revolutionary fervor

17 6 th Effect: Independence is Declared Continental Congress meets again in 1776 Thomas Jefferson, representative from Virginia, wrote the Declaration of Independence Said that the king of England had violated the colonists rights as English citizens as stated in the Magna Carta from 1215 Declaration of Independence signed on July 4, 1776 saying the colonies were free from English rule

18 Successful and Angry Colonies By 1776, 13 colonies are still growing quickly Colonists are upset with how England has treated them unfairly just because they live in the colonies Many colonists start to call themselves and identify as Americans Begin to fight for the right of self-rule

19 Summary Taxes No Representation Rights not protected King George ignored petitions That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

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