History of the USA K A T A R Z Y N A B U C Z E K

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1 History of the USA K A T A R Z Y N A B U C Z E K

2 Colonial Period Most people who came to the British colonies in the 1600s were English. Others came from The Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, France, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. By 1690, 250,000 people lived in the New World. By 1790, there were 2.5 million people. People came for different reasons. Some left their homes to escape war. Others sought political or religious freedom. Some had to work as servants to pay back the cost of their trip before gaining their freedom. Some, like black Africans, arrived as slaves.

3 English Settlement The English decided to found a colony in North America in the late 1500s. Sir Walter Raleigh received a charter, a document giving him permission to start a colony. He sent an expedition that landed in present-day North Carolina and Virginia. The colony established at Roanoke by John White in 1587, in what is now Virginia, mysteriously disappeared.

4 Roanoke Colony 1 Attempt 1585, 100 men were sent to colonize Roanoke Colony Colonists did not know how to survive in their new environment Things were so rough during the winter, they returned to England

5 Roanoke Colony 2 Attempt 1587, Raleigh sends another group of settlers 91 men, 17 women, and 9 children Led by John White Needed supplies, White returns to England While he was gone, his ship was taken to fight a war with Spain and he was unable to return to Roanoke Island for three years.

6 Colony was deserted of all inhabitants The only clue was the word Croatoan carved on a gatepost Nothing was ever found of the people of Roanoke Island. Some people believe the settlers went to live with the Croatoan Indians who later were called the Lumbee Indians.

7 The Southern Colonies Jamestown was the first permanent English settlement in America. Daily life in Virginia was challenging to the colonists: climate, diseases, failing crops hunger, hostile Indians Religious freedom and economic opportunities were motives for founding other southern colonies, including Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia. Farming and slavery were important to the economies of the southern colonies.

8 Jamestown King James I allowed the Virginia Company of London to settle in a region called Virginia. The first colonists arrived in America on April 26, They settled in Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in America. The colonists were not prepared to build and farm. Two-thirds died by their first winter. There is scientific evidence that the settlers at Jamestown had turned to cannibalism during the starving time

9 Relations with Native Americans John Smith became the leader of Jamestown in Smith's law was: "he who works not, eats not" Colonists were helped by the powerful Powhatan Confederacy of Native Americans. More settlers arrived, but many died from famine and disease. Settler John Rolfe married Pocahontas (1614), which helped form peaceful relations with the Powhatan. POCAHONTAS - Powhatan princess - the mythical mother of Virginians - saved Smith from Indian attacks. Converted to Protestantism and traveled to England - dies on the journey back, leaving a newborn son.

10 Jamestown s troubles

11 Tobacco Plantation Tobacco saved the colony Very few women settled in early Virginia so in 1619 the Virginia Company shipped over a group of ninety young women as wives for its settlers To obtain a bride the wouldbe husbands had to pay the Company 120 pounds weight of best tobacco leaf. The Good Ship Jesus - The Beginning of the British Slave Trade

12 Virginia' s affairs had been controlled by governors sent over by the Virginia Company. Some time later the Company allowed a body called the House of Burgesses to be set up. The burgesses were elected representatives from the various small settlements along Virginia's rivers. They met to advise the governor on the laws the colony needed. The House of Burgesses met for the first time in August 1619

13 AMERICAN COLONIES PLYMOUTH Pilgrim Fathers Besides wealth, people came to North America because of religious dissent (disagreement with the Anglican Church) English leaders viewed any protest or refusal to follow Anglican teachings as a betrayal Puritans wanted to purify the Anglican Church and have a community built on pure biblical teaching In 1620 Puritans, called Pilgrims established a colony in Plymouth (celebrated first Thanksgiving in 1621) MAYFLOWER COMPACT - FIRST written document on government and democracy in American history stressing civil body politic and just and equal laws is signed on board

14 NEW AMSTERDAM (today s NYC ) Manhattan bought for 24 dollars 1664 New Amsterdam is captured by the English and renamed New York - after the Duke of York MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY 1628 Later the port of Boston MARYLAND 1634 founded by English Roman Catholic fleeing persecution RHODE ISLAND 1636 founded by Roger Williams, a separatist banished from Puritan Mass Founds Providence - the first land in America allowing religious freedom First true democracy in America

15 PENNSYLVANIA 1681 established by William Penn and QUAKERS liberal religion and law honest land purchase from Indians - ban on alcohol for the natives Philadelphia - "city of brotherly love" - the largest in the colonies. Society of Friends (Quakers)-one of largest religious groups in New Jersey supported nonviolence and religious tolerance

16 THIRTEEN COLONIES ALONG THE EAST COAST New England Middle Colonies The South

17 New England (New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island) free farming and handicraft - family life fishing and shipping trade with West Indies the first British colonists to promote public education New England founded the nation s earliest colleges: Harvard and Yale (to train ministers) Puritan church was central part of life in New England In 1692, commitment to protect the Puritan faith led to the Salem Witch Trials

18 Middle Colonies (New York, Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania) mercantile-capitalist and aristocratic merchant-based economy large cities - New York, Philadelphia ethnically diversified economic relationship with Natives did not recognize class differences, promoted equality of the sexes Benjamin Franklin - personification of Middle Colonial life

19 The South (Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia) aristocratic-oligarchic, slave-holding plantation small white wealthy population - large black lack of towns tobacco, cotton, rice strong class distinctions male members of the upper class should be the ones in positions of power and authority Public education did not exist (wealthy used private tutors or sent their children to Europe)

20 The Road to Independence The main causes of the American Independence war: Britain's attempt to tighten imperial con trol in the economic field by regulating American commerce and industry to suit British interests English Navigation or Trade Acts required goods to be shipped to and from America, only in English ships. Many goods like tobacco, cotton, sugar could be sold only in England, where they were taxed. European goods sold to America had to be landed first in England, taxed and then transported in English ships. The Stamp Act 1765 increased the tension, as colonists were forced to pay a tax on stamps which were to be fixed on many kinds of documents. This led to the demand 'No taxation without representation'.

21 The Boston Massacre A crowd gathered in Boston after a British soldier struck a colonist on March 5, Soldiers fired into the crowd, killing three-five colonists The shootings were called the Boston Massacre by colonists. This caused more resentment against the British. The British remove all taxes except that on TEA

22 Boston Tea Party Colonial merchants smuggled tea to avoid paying the British tea tax. Parliament passed the Tea Act in 1773 to allow the British East India Company to sell cheap tea to the colonists. Colonial merchants and smugglers were opposed to this. On December 16, 1773, colonists disguised as Indians attacked British tea ships and threw the tea overboard. The incident was called the Boston Tea Party.

23 Boston Tea Party - British reaction Intolerable Acts 1774 Boston Harbor was closed. Royal officials accused of crimes would be sent to Great Britain for trial. power of local assemblies reduced George III: "the die is cast; the colonies must either submit or triumph" American reaction - FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS, Philadelphia 1774: - assembly of all colonies loyal to the King - appeal to colonists to refuse buying British goods - organization of armed militia and preparing for war

24 Revolution Battles at Lexington and Concord April, 1775 British troops arrived in Lexington and colonists fire the shot heard round the world. (historians have attributed it to the first shot fired at the Battle of Lexington) British Redcoats continue on to Concord but are forced to retreat back to Boston. Their red uniforms made an easy target for Patriot marksmen. Ralph Waldo Emerson s poem about the Battle of Concord: Concord Hymn By the rude bridge that arched the flood, Their flag to April s breeze unfurled, Here once the embattled farmers stood, And fired the shot heard round the world

25 Battle of Bunker Hill Patriots attacked British at Fort Ticonderoga on May 10, 1775, to seize large supply of weapons. Colonial forces fortified Breed s Hill to prevent British escape from Boston. Army of 2,400 Redcoats fought 1,600 Americans at the Battle of Bunker Hill. Americans forced had to retreat, but only after causing more than 1,000 British casualties.

26 Second Continental Congress Second Continental Congress Delegates from twelve colonies met in Philadelphia in May Some called for peace, others for war. Compromised created army but also sent Olive Branch Petition to King George American national government starting anti-british PROPAGANDA - seeking aid in Europe, particularly in France Continental Army Congress created the Continental Army. George Washington to command army and prepare for the war

27 Choosing Sides Patriots Patriots chose to fight for independence. About 40 to 45 percent of Americans were Patriots. Loyalists Loyalists, sometimes called Tories, remained loyal to Britain. About 20 to 30 percent of Americans were Loyalists. Neutral About 25 percent of Americans remained neutral.

28 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE July 4, 1776 Thomas Jefferson - the main author. Formally announced break with Great Britain. the most important document in American history the name: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA appears 'Life liberty and pursuit of happiness', 'the consent of the governed', 'all men are created equal Declaration ignored many colonists. Did not address the rights of women Did not recognize the rights of enslaved African Americans Did not address the rights of Native Americans to life, liberty or property

29

30 The British capture NEW YORK; the city remains the loyalist bastion until the end of the war. British fleet arrives June 1776 Washingtons 23,000 militiamen opposed by 32,000 better-equipped British soldiers. Series of battles Washington s forces pushed into New Jersey.

31 Battle of Saratoga British General John Burgoyne planned to seize Hudson River Valley to cut off New England. British army crushed by Patriot forces under General Horatio Gates on October 17, Battle of Saratoga in New York was the turning point of the Revolutionary War. FRENCH HELP After the Battle of Saratoga, France, Spain, and Holland joined the fight on the side of the Patriots.

32 BATTLE OF YORKTOWN, 1781 General Charles Cornwallis moved British forces to Yorktown, Virginia, in Washington s Continental Army and French troops surrounded the British. Cornwallis surrendered on October 19, 1781, after weeks of fighting. Patriots took 8,000 prisoners the largest British army in America. The Battle of Yorktown was the last major battle of the American Revolution After Yorktown, there were only a few small battles. The British lacked money to pay for a new army, so they entered into peace talks with the Patriots.

33 Treaty of Paris of 1783 It took two years to come to a peace agreement. Britain recognized American independence. British accepted America s right to settle west of the original thirteen colonies The British evacuate from New York; loyalist colonists Tories move to Canada

34 Forming a National Government American Models of Government Early models of self-government were town meetings, the Virginia House of Burgesses, and the Mayflower Compact. Thomas Jefferson s ideas on religious freedom were written in the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom.

35 The Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation created a national government with limited powers. Congress could settle conflicts among states, make coins, borrow money, ask states for money and soldiers, and make treaties with other nations. States had the power to refuse requests. There was not a president or a national court system. The Second Continental Congress passed the Articles of Confederation on November 15, 1777, and sent them to each state for ratification. The first national government of the United States was established after the last state ratified the Articles in March 1781.

36 The New Nation Faces Challenges Problems faced by the young nation made it clear that a new constitution was needed. The United States had difficulties with other nations. Internal economic problems plagued the new nation. Many Americans called for changes in the national government. Inflation was a problem in many states, which struggled to pay off war debts by printing money

37 The Constitutional Convention Constitutional Convention held in Philadelphia in 1787 Convention leaders included James Madison, Benjamin Franklin, and George Washington. Goal was to improve the Articles of Confederation. Delegates decided to create a new U.S. Constitution. After long debates they disagree on many matters and split into: FEDERALISTS for strong government Madison, Hamilton, John Adams ANTI-FEDERALISTS (Republicans) for more power given to states Jefferson, Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams

38 The issue of representation Virginia Plan gave larger states more representation because it was based on population. New Jersey Plan gave smaller states equal representation with larger states. Great Compromise resolved issue with a twohouse legislature. An upper house the Senate provided for two representatives from each state. A lower house the House of Representatives provided for representation based on state population.

39 Regional debate over slavery The South Wanted slaves to be counted as part of their population The North Wanted slaves counted only to determine taxes but not for representation Three-Fifths Compromise Resolved differences by counting each slave as threefifths of a person

40 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA federal system - authority divided between the federal government and state governments checks and balances - three branches of government: executive (PRESIDENT); legislative (CONGRESS) and judicial (SUPREME COURT) no mention of 'slavery' in the text of the Constitution Campaigning for ratification begins: 9 out of 13 states are required to ratify the Constitution Constitution goes into effect in first 10 amendments are introduced to the Constitution known as THE BILL OF RIGHTS which deal with basic citizen rights.

41 THE CAPITALS OF THE USA New York ( ) Philadelphia ( ) Washington DC (1800-)

42 PRESIDENCY OF GEORGE WASHINGTON ( ) Americans saw George Washington as an honest man and a hero of the Revolution. Many Americans wanted him to be president. Electors from the 11 states that had passed the Constitution met in January 1789 to vote. They formed a group called the electoral college a body of electors who represent the people s vote in choosing the president. They selected Washington unanimously and picked John Adams to be vice president. leaving office established the two-term precedent - not regulated by the Constitution

43 First American Cabinet Very small - later developing with each new presidency John Adams - Vice President Thomas Jefferson - Secretary of State Alexander Hamilton - Secretary of Treasury establishment of National Bank and national debt national mint; dollar becomes the currency based on decimal system. d. John Jay - Chief Justice of the United States

44 Presidency of John Adams ( ) Moving capital to Washington DC Presidency of Thomas Jefferson ( ) Republican Informality of presidency: walking from inauguration, smaller government

45 ECONOMY Treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton s biggest challenge was paying off the national debt money owed by the United States. The United States owed $11.7 million to foreign countries and $40.4 million to U.S. citizens who had purchased bonds from the government to help finance the war. Hamilton planned to pay foreign debt first, and all debt at full value. Some politicians, including Thomas Jefferson, opposed the plan, but Hamilton went ahead with it.

46 Thomas Jefferson opposed Hamilton s views Hamilton s Views Believed in a strong central government Wanted a balance of power between the mass of people and wealthier citizens Wanted to promote manufacturing and business Wanted higher tariffs on foreign goods to protect American manufacturers Jefferson s Views Wanted to protect the states power Believed in the right of the people to rule the country Supported agriculture and farmers Wanted lower tariffs to keep costs low for goods farmers bought

47 TERRITORIAL EXPANSION Gradual expansion of the US to the Northwest the socalled Ohio Territory. The process of westward expansion is ruled by an act of law passed by the US Congress called NORTHWEST ORDINANCE ACT, 1787 Land to be bought with consent of the Indians - contrary in practice organization of government in new territories Bill of Rights guaranteed to settlers No slavery in Ohio Territory New states can have their own constitutions and jurisdiction. PATTERN for future states - prevention of the original 13 to control the rest.

48 Napoleonic Wars The French Revolution against the French king broke out in France and Great Britain later went to war. Some Americans, including Thomas Jefferson, supported the French. President Washington and others wanted to remain neutral. He believed this was the safest plan for the U.S. in the long run. The United States issued the Neutrality Proclamation, in 1793, saying it would not take sides.

49 EXPANSION AND DEVELOPMENT 1812 increased westward expansion bring on conflicts with the Indians 1819, FLORIDA CESSATION Florida is ceded from Spain 1830s steady settlement of Texas by Americans

50 The Indian Removal Act Native Americans had long lived in settlements stretching from Georgia to Mississippi. Jackson and other political leaders wanted to open land to settlement by American farmers. Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in The act authorized the removal of Native Americans living east of Mississippi to lands in the West. Congress then established the Indian Territory. Native Americans would be moved to land in present-day Oklahoma. Congress approved the creation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs to manage removal.

51 In 1788, 13 colonies become the United States of America.

52 By 1796, a few more states have been created.

53 America buys Louisiana from France in 1803.

54 By 1837, new states have been created around the Mississippi.

55 1843: One thousand people travel to Oregon 1848: USA wins Texas in the Mexican War 1849: California gold rush 1862: A new law gives free land to settlers By 1850, Oregon and California become states.

56 By 1912, all states except Alaska and Hawaii have been created.

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