Ratification. By March 1781, all 13 Colonies had ratified the Articles of Confederation, making it the official written plan of government.

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3 The Goal To form a confederation of states - A Firm League of Friendship To continue the form of government established by the Second Continental Congress

4 Ratification By March 1781, all 13 Colonies had ratified the Articles of Confederation, making it the official written plan of government. Ratify- To Sign or Give Formal Consent

5 Legislature Under the Articles A unicameral or single-chamber Congress Each state received one vote in Congress Congress settled disputes amongst States State legislatures selected their representative to Congress, paid them, and could recall them.

6 The Powers of Congress 1. Make War and Peace 2. Send & Receive Ambassadors 3. Enter Into Treaties 4. Raise & Equip a Navy 5. Maintaining an Army by requesting troops from the states

7 Cont. 1. Appoint Senior Military Officers 2. Fix Standards of Weights and Measures 3. Regulate Indian Affairs 4. Establish Post Offices 5. Decide on Disputes Amongst States

8 Powers of the States 1. Enforce or Impede National Government Policy 2. To Control State Militias 3. To Withhold or Grant Revenue to the National Government 4. To Veto any Amendments to AoC 5. To Regulate Foreign and Interstate Commerce

9 Successes: Treaty with Great Britain Signed in 1783 Britain recognized American Independence Acquired the remainder of British land from the Atlantic to Mississippi, including present day Florida

10 Successes: The Departments The departments of Foreign Affairs, War, Marine, and the Treasury were established under a single secretary. This would set the precedent for the creation of the cabinet under George Washington.

11 Successes: Land to the West All states ceded their territory west of the Appalachians as a sign of unity.

12 Northwest Ordinance One of the major accomplishments of the Confederation Congress! Statehood achieved in three stages: Congress appointed 3 judges & a governor to govern the territory. When population reached 5,000 adult male landowners elect territorial legislature. When population reached 60,000 elect delegates to a state constitutional convention (1787)

13 A Lack of Central Power Leads to Problems States begin to quarrel over boundaries and tariffs. Farmers would often pay a tax to sell in another state. War is Expensive: By 1787 we owed $40Mil to Foreign Governments Unpaid Soldiers

14 American Trade To & From Britain

15 Turmoil An economic depression sets in by Farmers, over run with debt, begin losing their farms and are placed in debtor s prison. Daniel Shays, a former Captain in the Continental Army, organized a band of downtrodden farmers.

16 Shays to the Rescue The began by writing letters to the Massachusetts government pleading for debt relief. They then protest at court hearings and make it impossible for judges to handle debt collection cases. The rebels took inspiration from the recent revolution.

17 Massachusetts Reacts Governor Bowdoin calls in the Militia to suppress Shays protests. When Shay gets word of this he decides to march on the Springfield armory and get weapons. General Shepard and the Springfield militia decided to get more weaponry before marching on Shays

18 Showdown As Shays arrived at the armory, the militia happened to be there waiting. Shepard s forces fired a warning shot, followed by a single volley into the crowd. 4 of the rebels were hit and subsequently died. Shays and his rebels turned and fled causing a swift end to the conflict.

19 Huh??? Thomas Jefferson, who was serving as an ambassador to France at the time, refused to be alarmed by Shays' Rebellion. In a letter to a friend, he wrote that a little rebellion now and then is a good thing. The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants.

20 Washington Takes Charge Again After retiring to Mount Vernon, George Washington noticed a lot of problems/conflicts between Maryland and Virginia. He invited representatives from both states to discuss problems with currency, tariffs, and the use of the Potomac and Chesapeake

21 Annapolis Convention (1786) 12 representatives from 5 states [NY, NJ, PA, DE, VA] GOAL address barriers that limited trade and commerce between the states. Not enough states were represented to make any real progress. Sent a report to the Congress to call a meeting of all the states to meet in Philadelphia to examine areas broader than just trade and commerce.

22 Cont. Alexander Hamilton, NY and James Madison, VA were proponents of a strong central government. They persuaded the other delegates to call for another Philadelphia convention in May of The purpose would be to discuss commerce and changes to the national government. Despite some hesitation, the Confederation Congress agreed to hold a convention in Philadelphia for the sole purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation

23 Looking at Primary Sources We ll looking at 6 different primary sources from and the Articles of Confederation themselves. The goal will be to identify the problems according to each of the sources writers, link the problem to the AoC specifically, and make predictions of determinations about how we could solve the problem.

24 Weaknesses of the AoC No Power to Levy Taxes No Power to Regulate Trade Difficult for individual states to make arrangements Could only Advise States to Comply with Laws 9/13 of Delegates had to pass a law. Usually only 10 were present at any time. Amendments Required Unanimous Support

25 Even More Weaknesses No Executive Branch Work by committees, but no one to coordinate committees. No National Court System Each State Receives 1 Vote No matter the size or population

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27 The Convention Begins May 25 th, 1787 Rhode Island is the only state to not attend 74 delegates are selected for the Convention 55 attend Eventually 39 will sign the Constitution

28 Overflowing with Experience 39 were members of the Confederation Congress Many were designers of their state constitutions 8 had signed the Declaration of Independence 6 had signed the Articles of Confederation

29 The Celebrities George Washington- gave credibility to the convention. Ben 81 years of age he was a world famous diplomat. James Madison- One of America s leading activists on behalf of a strong national government. Father of the Constitution

30 The Leader Washington is chosen, UNANIMOUSLY, to preside over the convention. It is also decided that each state would be given 1 vote on all questions. A simple majority would decide decisions. 7 states had to be represented at all time. The convention was closed to the press and public.

31 The Rules are Set That the Articles were worthless That a limited and representative government The Three Branches (Executive, Legislative, Judicial) No states rights to coin money Desire to strengthen the national government

32 Let the Battle Begin Virginia Has The Floor!!!

33 The Virginia Plan On May 29th, Edmund Randolph introduces 15 resolutions drafted by James Madison. 1. A strong national legislature with 2 chambers. 1. Lower chosen by people, Upper chosen by Lower 2. By quotas of contribution or the number of free inhabitants. 3. The Legislature could bar state laws 2. A strong executive chosen by the legislature 3. A judiciary appointed by the legislature

34 NOPE!!! New Jersey has the Floor

35 New Jersey Plan June 15 th William Patterson Speaks on behalf of the small states with the major features of the Articles of Confederation. 1. Unicameral Legislature- 1 Vote Per State 1. Strengthened and given power to impose taxes and regulate trade. 2. A weak executive consisting of more than one person would be elected by Congress 3. National limited judiciary appointed by executives

36 Nope!!!! Back to Virginia? Should the states be represented on the basis of population or represented equally? The debate was bitter and the convention was at great risk of dissolving.

37 Hamilton (NY) to the rescue Two House Legislature 1. consisting of (1) an assembly, directly elected by the people to three year term ; and (2) a senate, chosen by electors from senatorial districts to serve during good behavior A Judiciary consisting of twelve justices to serve during good behavior. The judiciary would have both original and appellate jurisdictions. An executive "Governor," whose election is made by electors chosen by electors chosen by the people from the senatorial districts, to serve during good behavior. Good Behavior means a life term unless wrong is done. A Monarchist Sympathizer?

38 Connecticut Compromise A special committee, including Roger Sherman of Connecticut, devised a compromise. A Two House Legislature 1. A House of Representatives based on population. All revenue laws would begin in the House. 2. A Senate based on equal representation, State Legislatures would elect Senators.

39 Another Debate The Connecticut Compromise bred more discussion and subsequent compromise What counts toward a population?

40 The South Almost 1/3 of the people in the south were enslaved African Americans. Southern states wanted to include them in the population count. Southern states didn t want slaves included when it came to levying taxes. Is this fair, why or why not? The North took the opposition stance

41 The Three-Fifths Compromise For both representation and taxation an enslaved African American would count as 3/5 a person. What did a decision like this say about slavery? What did a decision like this say about our framers?

42 Another Compromise Northern States wanted the government to have complete regulation of trade. Southern States did not due to their high agricultural exports and the need for slavery as an import. It was decided that Congress would have control over International& Interstate Commerce. Congress could not ban the slave trade until To also please the South Congress couldn t tax exports. To this day the US is one of the few nations that doesn t tax exports.

43 Even more compromises The present Electoral College for selecting the President was a compromise over the people, Congress, State Legislature debate. The 4 year term was another compromise.

44 CrashCourse: Constitution

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