The Declaration of Independence & The Revolutionary War. US History 2

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1 The Declaration of Independence & The Revolutionary War US History 2

2 The Declaration of Independence

3 The First Continental Congress Met from September 5 to October, 26, 1774 Meet in Philadelphia 56 delegates from 12 colonies John Adams referred to gathering as a nursery of American Statesmen Prominent members included future leaders of the American Revolution George Washington Patrick Henry John and Samuel Adams John Jay John Dickinson

4 The Second Continental Congress Met in Philadelphia John Adams suggests to the Congress Declare the colonies independent with their own governments Create a Continental Army from the current militia

5 The Second Continental Congress Congress agrees to the Continental Army and appoints George Washington as commander Orders the printing of paper currency Organizes a committee for foreign affairs

6 The Olive Branch Petition Proposed by John Dickinson of Pennsylvania As a pacifist, strongly opposed to conflict Still hoping for peace the Congress sends King George III a dispatch urging a return to the former harmony of yore Recognize our grievances and can return to our previous status George III rejected the petition and pushed for a naval blockade

7 Common Sense electrifies the colonies Written by Thomas Paine in January, 1776 Over 150,000 copies are printed Argues for independence which is our destiny ARGUMENTS: In favor of competitive trading with foreign powers We should solicit foreign aid from England s enemies (France, et al.) Independence creates a better society; free from tyranny Washington gave it a favorable review

8 The Declaration of Independence July 1776 We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal Authors Thomas Jefferson John Adams Benjamin Franklin Robert Livingston Robert Sherman

9 Intellectual Origins of Major Ideas in the Declaration Magna Carta 1215 no scutage (tax)..shall be imposed..unless by common counsel. The Enlightenment Jean Jacques Rousseau ( ) Social Contract men by joining together into civil society submit to the general will of the people John Locke ( ) Man hath by nature a power to preserve his life, liberty and estate against the injuries and attempts of other men..

10 Declaration of Independence The document has 3 main parts: Describes the basic rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Lists the wrongs that the British government committed against the colonies. Announces that the colonies have become the United States of America.

11 Beliefs Unalienable rights- rights given by God that cannot be taken away Government can only exist if the people agree People can revolt if the government takes away their rights The United Colonies are free and independent states

12 Grievances against the King Disbanding colonial legislatures Sending troops in peacetime Limits on trade Taxation without representation

13 Ratification Approved by a unanimous vote by the delegates New York has to initially abstain We mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our Sacred Honor We must all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately Benjamin Franklin.

14 Final version eliminated Jefferson s references to the slave trade The Continental Congress, meeting behind closed doors in Philadelphia, voted to delete all but the most oblique references to slavery from the final draft of the Declaration. As Jefferson later explained in his autobiography: The clause... reprobating the enslaving the inhabitants of Africa, was struck out in complaisance to South Carolina & Georgia, who had never attempted to restrain the importation of slaves, and who, on the contrary still wished it to continue. Our northern brethren also I believe felt a little tender under those censures; for tho' their people have very few slaves themselves yet they had been pretty considerable carriers of them to others.

15 Declaration Draft on Slaves Jefferson s rough draft (cont d)... and that this assemblage of horrors might want no fact of distinguished die, of which he has deprived them, by murdering he is now exciting those very people to rise in arms among us, and to purchase that liberty the people upon whom he also obtruded them; thus paying off further crimes committed against the liberties of one people, with crimes which he urges them to commit against the lives of another.

16 Happy Thursday 10/18 Please staple your definitions sheet to the back of your homework and make a pile next to the stapler. John Adams Response Paper DUE: MONDAY 10/22 You must staple the rubric to the back of your printed paper. John Adams screenings after school today come find me in Room 313 we will begin promptly at 2:35

17 The Revolutionary War

18 Americans The Revolutionary War: Advantages Could gather troops as they went along British Most powerful country in the world Fighting on own territory Fighting for a cause Spanish and French aided them Largest Navy Better economy Experienced soldiers Native Americans on their side

19 The Revolutionary War: Disadvantages Americans No organized army or navy No organized government Divisiveness within the colonies British War not popular in Great Britain lack of support British did not like financing the war Native Americans not happy with them Tories wanted to remain loyal to Britain Not on own territory Colonists often moved around and they did not know who was the enemy and who was loyal

20 Difficulties in Financing the War When Congress ran out of hard currency it borrowed by selling bonds to American investors and foreign governments Congress printed paper money called Continentals resulting in inflation. as worthless as a Continental Americans had to smuggle arms from Europe. Profiteering was engaged in by government officials and corrupt merchants. To pay the troops, Robert Morris (superintendent of Finance) and Hayn Solomon begged and borrowed on their personal credit In 1781, troops were paid in gold coin

21 Key Battles of The American Revolution Important Battles The Shot heard around the world fired at Lexington and Concord. The Battle of Bunker Hill showed that Americans would fight bravely and British would not be easy to defeat. New Jersey battles (Trenton and Princeton) were victories that gave Americans new hope. Battle of Saratoga gained France as an ally.

22 Battle of Bunker Hill June, 1775 a.k.a. Battle of Breed s Hill Important because it let the British know that the colonists were not going to give up While British won, it was a costly victory, both in funds and lives

23 Washington s Crisis Troops were deserting Washington left and right lost almost ¼ of his troops They were cold, out of supplies and out of food Thomas Paine wrote The Crisis that urged people not to desert Washington

24 Battle of Trenton Washington orders a surprise attack on the British Attacked Christmas morning and defeated Hessians Boosted American morale and soldiers re-enlisted

25

26 Battle of Saratoga Colonists defeated British who were moving south from Canada This win insured French backing of the American s cause Got Prussians to aid the Americans

27 War in the North

28 War in the South

29 Battle of Yorktown Washington's victory at Yorktown in October of 1781 marked the end of Britain's attempt to subdue its rebellious colonies. All that remained was to hammer out a peace treaty which would formalize what had been accomplished on the battlefield. With their political future suddenly upon them, many Americans, including members of congress and officers in the Continental Army, wanted George Washington to become King of America. Washington responded in no uncertain terms. If I am not deceived in the knowledge of myself, you could not have found a person to whom your schemes are more disagreeable if you have any regard for your Country or respect for me banish these thoughts from your Mind "

30 Treaty of Paris (1783) Colonies win independence United States took possession of more than two billion acres of land

31

32

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