Propaganda and Challenges to the Russian Regime

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Propaganda and Challenges to the Russian Regime"

Transcription

1 Propaganda and Challenges to the Russian Regime April 4, 2017 Moscow is trying to maintain an image of strength. By Xander Snyder A bomb was detonated on a Russian subway train Monday afternoon, killing at least 11 people and injuring dozens. As of this writing, no one has claimed responsibility for the attack. The impact on President Vladimir Putin s government will heavily depend on who orchestrated the bombing. If it was a Chechen group, for example, it could hurt Putin s credibility. This is because early in his first presidency, Putin established a popular base by invading and violently suppressing Chechen separatists. A Chechen resurgence has the potential to make Putin look incapable and weak, which are unacceptable qualities for a Russian leader. One known consequence of this attack, regardless of the perpetrators, is that the Russian government will try to spin it to the Kremlin s advantage. This speaks to the deeper question of how the Kremlin controls information. Growing Skepticism The bombing is important but represents a small blip amid a number of challenges facing Putin. The economy is declining and the opposition is growing in organization and power. Both of these developments present ongoing threats to the regime. To influence public perception of its increasingly weak position, the Russian government will try to control how the media reports this week s attack. This is not new Russia has long used different forms of propaganda as a tool to sway popular opinion. However, Russian citizens response to government-directed information is changing, from begrudging toleration to growing skepticism. 1 / 6

2 Emergency services personnel and vehicles are seen at the entrance to Technological Institute metro station in St. Petersburg on April 3, OLGA MALTSEVA/AFP/Getty Images Geopolitical Futures discussed in a prior piece how the effectiveness of propaganda relating to a regime s international activities weakens and can dissolve entirely when its message no longer bears a semblance to reality. For example, Putin has appealed to Russian nationalist identity by projecting an image of strength abroad. Russia s intervention in Syria was effective in bolstering support for Putin because it made Russians proud of their nation s might, and it partially restored the country s image as a global power. Putin s portrayal of Russian military strength matched up, at least somewhat, to reality. Propaganda related to domestic issues, however, has been more difficult to deliver. The Russian government s strategy of maintaining social stability by invoking nationalist sentiments is proving increasingly problematic as the country s economic situation deteriorates. The unauthorized March 26 protests organized by opposition leader Alexei Navalny signal a disconnect between how Russia s domestic conditions are being presented in propaganda and the reality experienced by most Russians. The concept of Russian strength, dependent at least partly on the perception of a healthy economy and stable institutions, is difficult to square with 2 / 6

3 ongoing financial challenges, such as cuts in pensions and other declining social services, and the persistently corrupt political environment. That these protests occurred in 99 cities across the country many of which are relatively poor, conservative and dependent on central government handouts is a sign that this dissatisfaction is not restricted to the most progressive strata of Russian society. Lessons from the Past The rich tradition and history of propaganda in both the Soviet Union and Czarist Russia reveal two things about the country. First, it is difficult to rule a country that spans 11 time zones and is vulnerable to invasion. Second, Russians have an impressive ability to unify and endure in extreme situations if given a sufficiently convincing message to unite behind. Propaganda was used in the Soviet Union to siphon off incoming information from the West to unite against an ideological enemy. In World War I, Czar Nicholas II encouraged purchases of war bonds to defend against the invading Germans despite social upheaval that was destabilizing Russia. The use of propaganda in Russia grew following the war with Japan. After the Russian military moved east to confront Japan, space was created for an anti-regime movement that opposed a number of political and economic issues that had developed over the previous five decades, such as unserviceable taxes placed on peasants small land lots. The czar s mishandling of the war further fanned the flames of revolution. Russia was losing and decided to speedily conclude the war with Japan, moving its military back to the west to put down the rebellion. In 1905, Russia s still-intact military was able to restore order (which was not the case in 1917 after the Russian military had been devastated). But to diffuse the ire directed at the czarist government, the regime encouraged anti-semitic propaganda that either blamed Jews for aiding the war effort or stoked pre-existing fears of Jewish control of industry. Two famous examples of propaganda from this period include The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a fake document that supposedly recounted a meeting of Jews conspiring to take over the world, and the demonization of Jacob Schiff, a Jewish banker who extended a loan to Japan in 1904 to aid in its war effort against Russia. While propaganda was less common in Russia before 1905, the need for it grew following the Emancipation of the Serfs in 1861, which came about partly as a result of Russia s defeat in the Crimean War in For hundreds of years, the Russian nobility were divided through both geographical separation and a governmental power structure that resulted in almost complete dependence on service to the czar. Until the 18th century, all male nobles were required to serve lifelong careers in either the military or civil service. The czar also tightly controlled new land grants and the transfer of intergenerational wealth. While the nobility owned serfs, they did so at the czar s pleasure through service grants and relied directly on the czar s control of the military to prevent any uprisings against them. Russia s defeat in the Crimean War exposed a great disconnect between the image of strength 3 / 6

4 projected by Imperial Russia and its actual capacity to muster resources from its serf-based, agrarian economy in a confrontation against industrialized powers. Serf revolts increased during and after the war, leading Czar Alexander II to declare that it was better to abolish serfdom from above than to wait until it will begin to abolish itself from below. This was an emancipation more in name than in practice. Former serfs were unable to move from their newly given plots of land and were also responsible for paying taxes. These changes kept the serfs tied to a single location and beholden to the local aristocracy, which was in charge of tax collection after the emancipation. It was a move meant to diffuse the pressure from liberal sentiments without actually granting any new freedoms. Nonetheless, freeing the serfs required that the nobility accept the serfs new legal status and hand over parts of land that they had previously considered exclusively theirs. It also placed greater responsibility on the central government in managing the peasantry, thereby creating the need for more direct messaging to sway mass opinion. Controlling the Message Today, the regime s challenge isn t sending directed messages to the Russian people but preventing the dissemination of unwanted ones. The government tightly controls Russian media and social media platforms like VK.com and OK.ru, which have tens of millions of users. However, Navalny was still able to create a video that received 15 million views and was used to turn out approximately 70,000 protesters across the country. Navalny s intercity volunteer networks were able to quickly exploit the attention the video received and transform it into physical action. The protests revealed that this political infrastructure was better developed than the government had previously recognized and was able to turn calls to action from mere annoyances into more serious threats to the regime. Last week, the Russian Education and Science Ministry announced a new social media campaign to encourage moral and patriotic upbringing among young people. This is just one program funded by the growing Russian state budget for patriotic education. However, people willing to publicly challenge the Putin government are beyond the point where patriotic education can be wholly effective, which is why the government is focusing more of its efforts on Russia s youth. Approximately 80 percent of the growth in the budget is in Ministry of Education programs. The Russian government is trying to inculcate greater loyalty to the state among young people who have not yet been exposed to conflicting political ideas. For the previous generation, an appeal to unity could be made by referring to the chaos of the post- Soviet 1990s. But Russia s young adults did not live through these times and therefore cannot compare their current political dissatisfaction to those from a prior era. 4 / 6

5 (click to enlarge) A regime that feels threatened will resort to more overt forms of repression to control a particular group that has become resistant to its propaganda. This can be done with detentions approximately 1,000 demonstrators were arrested in Moscow alone during last week s protests or other forms of intimidation. For example, two of Navalny s local coordinators in the Siberian city of Tomsk were sealed into their apartment from the outside on the same day that Navalny arrived in town for a rally. As propaganda becomes less effective, and as groups not influenced by propaganda grow, the use of physical violence will increase. This will be a sign that the Russian government is struggling to maintain its grip on power and needs a more immediate method to suppress dissent. Of course, Russia isn t unique. All countries use forms of propaganda. But despite Russia s substantial efforts in constructing state-approved media channels and alternatives to Western social media platforms, its propaganda efforts are beginning to fail. How Russia manages the 5 / 6

6 Powered by TCPDF ( Geopolitical Futures coverage of the metro bombing will heavily depend on who ends up claiming responsibility for the attack. Regardless, that coverage will be managed amid an environment in which Russia s propaganda efforts are becoming less impactful. The recent protests are an indication that a turn to more violent methods of repression will be coming. 6 / 6

Nations in Upheaval: Europe

Nations in Upheaval: Europe Nations in Upheaval: Europe 1850-1914 1914 The Rise of the Nation-State Louis Napoleon Bonaparte Modern Germany: The Role of Key Individuals Czarist Russia: Reform and Repression Britain 1867-1894 1894

More information

TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Reform and Reaction in Russia

TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. Reform and Reaction in Russia Reform and Reaction in Russia Objectives Describe major obstacles to progress in Russia. Explain why tsars followed a cycle of absolutism, reform, and reaction. Understand why the problems of industrialization

More information

Unit 11: Age of Nationalism, Garibaldi in Naples

Unit 11: Age of Nationalism, Garibaldi in Naples Unit 11: Age of Nationalism, 1850-1914 Garibaldi in Naples Learning Objectives Explain why nationalism became an almost universal faith in Europe. Describe the unifications of both Germany and Italy-in

More information

A Purge Is a Purge Is a Purge

A Purge Is a Purge Is a Purge A Purge Is a Purge Is a Purge Aug. 1, 2016 Four major global powers are in the midst of different types of purges. By Jacob L. Shapiro Coups may be going out of style, but purges are in vogue. Some of

More information

WACE Modern History. Published Jan 3, Modern History ATAR Russia and the Soviet Union. By Yasmin (99.2 ATAR)

WACE Modern History. Published Jan 3, Modern History ATAR Russia and the Soviet Union. By Yasmin (99.2 ATAR) WACE Modern History Year 2016 Mark 93.50 Pages 72 Published Jan 3, 2017 Modern History ATAR Russia and the Soviet Union By Yasmin (99.2 ATAR) Your notes author, Yasmin. Yasmin achieved an ATAR of 99.2

More information

After World War I, Nations Were Changed Forever

After World War I, Nations Were Changed Forever After World War I, Nations Were Changed Forever World War I was larger than any war that came before it. It was fought between two sides. The winners were Britain, France, Russia, Italy and the United

More information

How effectively did the reforms of Alexander II solve the internal problems of Russia? Timespan 1855 (death of Nikolas I) 1881 (assassination of A II)

How effectively did the reforms of Alexander II solve the internal problems of Russia? Timespan 1855 (death of Nikolas I) 1881 (assassination of A II) RUSSIA 1855 1914 How effectively did the reforms of Alexander II solve the internal problems of Russia? Timespan 1855 (death of Nikolas I) 1881 (assassination of A II) The reforms of Alexander II nov 10

More information

BETWEEN WORLD WAR I AND WORLD WAR II,

BETWEEN WORLD WAR I AND WORLD WAR II, BETWEEN WORLD WAR I AND WORLD WAR II, 1919-1939 SSWH17 The student will be able to identify the major political and economic factors that shaped world societies between World War I and World War II. a.

More information

The Rise of Russia and Russia s Interaction with the West

The Rise of Russia and Russia s Interaction with the West The Rise of Russia and Russia s Interaction with the West I. Introduction A. Between 1450 and 1750 Russia 1. Land based empire B. Foundation derived from C. Began Selective Westernization WHAT??? 1. Emulated

More information

RUSSIAN INFORMATION AND PROPAGANDA WAR: SOME METHODS AND FORMS TO COUNTERACT AUTHOR: DR.VOLODYMYR OGRYSKO

RUSSIAN INFORMATION AND PROPAGANDA WAR: SOME METHODS AND FORMS TO COUNTERACT AUTHOR: DR.VOLODYMYR OGRYSKO RUSSIAN INFORMATION AND PROPAGANDA WAR: SOME METHODS AND FORMS TO COUNTERACT AUTHOR: DR.VOLODYMYR OGRYSKO PREPARED BY THE NATO STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE Russia s aggression against

More information

Ch 19-1 Postwar Havoc

Ch 19-1 Postwar Havoc Ch 19-1 Postwar Havoc The Main Idea Although the end of World War I brought peace, it did not ease the minds of many Americans, who found much to fear in postwar years. Content Statement 12/Learning Goal

More information

INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL FARM. Buzan, Ballard, Novak, McGlothlin, Millhouse

INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL FARM. Buzan, Ballard, Novak, McGlothlin, Millhouse INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL FARM Buzan, Ballard, Novak, McGlothlin, Millhouse Where We ve Been Where We ve Been GOVERNMENT, is the idea that a system can regulate, organize, rule, or control a community or

More information

Ch. 6.3 Radical Period of the French Revolution. leader of the Committee of Public Safety; chief architect of the Reign of Terror

Ch. 6.3 Radical Period of the French Revolution. leader of the Committee of Public Safety; chief architect of the Reign of Terror the right to vote Ch. 6.3 Radical Period of the French Revolution leader of the Committee of Public Safety; chief architect of the Reign of Terror period from September 1793 to July 1794 when those who

More information

A WANING KINGDOM 1/13/2017

A WANING KINGDOM 1/13/2017 A WANING KINGDOM World History 2017 Mr. Giglio Qing Dynasty began to weaken During the 18 th & 19 th centuries. Opium Wars Taiping Rebellion Sino-Japanese War Spheres of Influence Open-Door Policy REFORM

More information

Changes in Russia, Asia, & the Middle East TOWARD A GLOBAL COMMUNITY (1900 PRESENT)

Changes in Russia, Asia, & the Middle East TOWARD A GLOBAL COMMUNITY (1900 PRESENT) Changes in Russia, Asia, & the Middle East TOWARD A GLOBAL COMMUNITY (1900 PRESENT) RUSSIA Toward the end of WWI Russia entered a civil war between Lenin s Bolsheviks (the Communist Red Army) and armies

More information

The Rise of Totalitarian Governments

The Rise of Totalitarian Governments The Rise of Totalitarian Governments Enduring Understanding: The influence of both world wars and the worldwide Great Depression are still evident. To understand the effects these events had on the modern

More information

Something Rotten in the State of Russia?

Something Rotten in the State of Russia? Something Rotten in the State of Russia? Feb. 20, 2017 Indicators show that Russia s long-term destabilization already may be taking shape. Originally produced on Feb. 13, 2017 for Mauldin Economics, LLC

More information

HUMAN RIGHTS, DEMOCRACY AND RULE OF LAW IN RUSSIA: MAKING THE CASE

HUMAN RIGHTS, DEMOCRACY AND RULE OF LAW IN RUSSIA: MAKING THE CASE HUMAN RIGHTS, DEMOCRACY AND RULE OF LAW IN RUSSIA: MAKING THE CASE BY THE DEMOCRACY & HUMAN RIGHTS WORKING GROUP* Under President Vladimir Putin, Russia has experienced the worst crackdown on human rights

More information

Ch 13-4 Learning Goal/Content Statement

Ch 13-4 Learning Goal/Content Statement Ch 13-4 Learning Goal/Content Statement Explain how the consequences of World War I and the worldwide depression set the stage for the rise of totalitarianism, aggressive Axis expansion and the policy

More information

UNIT 6 THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION

UNIT 6 THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION UNIT 6 THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION I; LONG-TERM CAUSES A. AUTOCRACY OF THE CZAR 1. Censorship 2. Religious and ethnic intolerance 3. Political oppression I; LONG-TERM CAUSES B. ECONOMIC PROBLEMS 1. Russia began

More information

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN The Rise of Russia

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN The Rise of Russia CHAPTER EIGHTEEN The Rise of Russia World Civilizations, The Global Experience AP* Edition, 5th Edition Stearns/Adas/Schwartz/Gilbert *AP and Advanced Placement are registered trademarks of The College

More information

The Former Soviet Union Two Decades On

The Former Soviet Union Two Decades On Like 0 Tweet 0 Tweet 0 The Former Soviet Union Two Decades On Analysis SEPTEMBER 21, 2014 13:14 GMT! Print Text Size + Summary Russia and the West's current struggle over Ukraine has sent ripples throughout

More information

AS History. Paper 1H Tsarist and Communist Russia, Additional Specimen Mark scheme. Version: 1.0

AS History. Paper 1H Tsarist and Communist Russia, Additional Specimen Mark scheme. Version: 1.0 AS History Paper 1H Tsarist and Communist Russia, 1855 1917 Additional Specimen Mark scheme Version: 1.0 Mark schemes are prepared by the Lead Assessment Writer and considered, together with the relevant

More information

Countering Color Revolutions

Countering Color Revolutions Countering Color Revolutions RUSSIA S NEW SECURITY STRATEGY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR U.S. POLICY PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo No. 342 September 2014 Dmitry Gorenburg CNA; Harvard University The May 2014

More information

A Tale of Two Economies: Russia and the US

A Tale of Two Economies: Russia and the US A Tale of Two Economies: Russia and the US Nov. 29, 2016 Regionalization can reveal much about countries economic structure and relative power. By Jacob L. Shapiro Power is a relative concept. To say that

More information

Western Responses to the Ukraine Crisis: Policy Options

Western Responses to the Ukraine Crisis: Policy Options Chatham House Expert Group Summary Western Responses to the Ukraine Crisis: Policy Options 6 March 2014 The views expressed in this document are the sole responsibility of the author(s) and do not necessarily

More information

RUSSIA, UKRAINE AND THE WEST: A NEW 9/11 FOR THE UNITED STATES

RUSSIA, UKRAINE AND THE WEST: A NEW 9/11 FOR THE UNITED STATES RUSSIA, UKRAINE AND THE WEST: A NEW 9/11 FOR THE UNITED STATES Paul Goble Window on Eurasia Blog windowoneurasia2.blogspot.com 540-886-1222 41 N. Augusta St., Apt. 203 Staunton, VA 24401 WHY CRIMEA AND

More information

Judeo-Christian and Greco-Roman Perspectives

Judeo-Christian and Greco-Roman Perspectives STANDARD 10.1.1 Judeo-Christian and Greco-Roman Perspectives Specific Objective: Analyze the similarities and differences in Judeo-Christian and Greco-Roman views of law, reason and faith, and duties of

More information

After World War I: The Rise of Communism

After World War I: The Rise of Communism After World War I: The Rise of Communism D. Challenges at Home and Abroad (ca. 1914-1945) 3.The United States in a Changing World a. Identify and analyze the causes and significant events of World War

More information

Tsar Nicholas II and his familly

Tsar Nicholas II and his familly Tsar Nicholas II Nicholas II of Romanov family was Tsar at the start of the 1900s Was married to an Austrian, Tsarina Alexandra Had 4 daughters and 1 son Alexei Tsar Nicholas II and his familly Problems

More information

FRENCH REVOLUTION. LOUIS XIV Sun King LOUIS XV. LOUIS XVI m. Marie Antoinette. Wars (most go badly for France) 7 Years War (F + I War)

FRENCH REVOLUTION. LOUIS XIV Sun King LOUIS XV. LOUIS XVI m. Marie Antoinette. Wars (most go badly for France) 7 Years War (F + I War) FRENCH REVOLUTION LOUIS XIV Sun King Wars (most go badly for France) LOUIS XV 7 Years War (F + I War) Death bed prediction of great change in France Deluge LOUIS XVI m. Marie Antoinette Louis XVI and Marie

More information

International Justice and the Prevention of Atrocities Case Study: 1

International Justice and the Prevention of Atrocities Case Study: 1 International Justice and the Prevention of Atrocities Case Study: International Intervention, Justice and Accountability in Yemen by Ibrahim Sharqieh ECFR background paper, November 2013 1 The Yemeni

More information

An American Recession and the World

An American Recession and the World An American Recession and the World April 26, 2017 The U.S. appears to be on the cusp of a cyclical recession. By George Friedman A recession in the United States is likely to come in the next two years.

More information

PERSONAL INTRODUCTION

PERSONAL INTRODUCTION Forum: Issue: Student Officer: Position: Legal Committee The Referendum Status of Crimea Leen Al Saadi Chair PERSONAL INTRODUCTION Distinguished delegates, My name is Leen Al Saadi and it is my great pleasure

More information

What Drives Russia s Unrelenting Position on Syria?

What Drives Russia s Unrelenting Position on Syria? What Drives Russia s Unrelenting Position on Syria? Nicholas Kosturos August 14, 2012 Introduction A growing consensus of leaders around the world believe the fall of Syrian President Bashar al-assad is

More information

Trump, Taiwan and an Uproar

Trump, Taiwan and an Uproar Trump, Taiwan and an Uproar Dec. 5, 2016 Putting China on the defensive. By George Friedman U.S. President-elect Donald Trump spoke on the telephone with the president of Taiwan. This caused deep upset

More information

World War I. The Great War, The War to End All Wars

World War I. The Great War, The War to End All Wars World War I { The Great War, The War to End All Wars M Militarism: Fascination with war and a strong military A Alliances: Agreements among varying nations to help each other out I Imperialism: Building

More information

TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. The Age of Napoleon

TEKS 8C: Calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas. The Age of Napoleon The Age of Napoleon Objectives Understand Napoleon s rise to power and why the French strongly supported him. Explain how Napoleon built an empire and what challenges the empire faced. Analyze the events

More information

The Russian Revolution(s)

The Russian Revolution(s) The Russian Revolution(s) -1905-1921- Pre-Revolutionary Russia Only true autocracy left in Europe No type of representative political institutions, but did have instruments of oppression (secret police)

More information

Unification of Italy & Germany. Ideologies of Change: Europe

Unification of Italy & Germany. Ideologies of Change: Europe Unification of Italy & Germany Ideologies of Change: Europe 1815 1914 Creation of Italy and Germany Revolutions reverberated throughout Western Europe: Failures did not diminish impact: To what extent

More information

TOTALITARIANISM. Part A. Two Despots

TOTALITARIANISM. Part A. Two Despots Part A TOTALITARIANISM [1] The author George Orwell wrote a book about a totalitarian society. the book was called 1984. In the book the people are controlled by a strict government that not only regulates

More information

The Enlightenment. European thinkers developed new ideas about government and society during the Enlightenment.

The Enlightenment. European thinkers developed new ideas about government and society during the Enlightenment. Main Idea The Enlightenment European thinkers developed new ideas about government and society during the Enlightenment. Content Statement 5 /Learning Goal Describe how the Scientific Revolution s impact

More information

LG 5: Describe the characteristics of totalitarianism and fascism and explain how Mussolini and Hitler came to power.

LG 5: Describe the characteristics of totalitarianism and fascism and explain how Mussolini and Hitler came to power. LG 5: Describe the characteristics of totalitarianism and fascism and explain how Mussolini and Hitler came to power. Background Reading (if time) Class Discussion: Based off the reading, how did the global

More information

TABLE OF CONTENTS. Introduction Russia s Political Cycle Current Overview Russia in the Next 1-3 Years Long-Term Forecast...

TABLE OF CONTENTS. Introduction Russia s Political Cycle Current Overview Russia in the Next 1-3 Years Long-Term Forecast... TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction... 2 Russia s Political Cycle... 2 Current Overview... 3 Russia in the Next 1-3 Years... 5 Long-Term Forecast... 7 Key Personalities and Institutions... 10 About Stratfor...

More information

Introduction to the Cold War

Introduction to the Cold War Introduction to the Cold War What is the Cold War? The Cold War is the conflict that existed between the United States and Soviet Union from 1945 to 1991. It is called cold because the two sides never

More information

On your own paper create the following layout LEADER PROBLEMS MAJOR REFORMS

On your own paper create the following layout LEADER PROBLEMS MAJOR REFORMS On your own paper create the following layout LEADER PROBLEMS MAJOR REFORMS EXAMPLES OF TOTALITARIAN RULE Joseph Stalin Benito Mussolini Adolph Hitler Hideki Tojo Francisco Franco Rise of Totalitarianism

More information

Absolutism Activity 1

Absolutism Activity 1 Absolutism Activity 1 Who is in the painting? What do you think is going on in the painting? Take note of the background. What is the message of the painting? For example, why did the author paint this?

More information

Protecting Our History

Protecting Our History Protecting Our History Politics, Memory, and the Russian State PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo No. 64 Viatcheslav Morozov St. Petersburg State University September 2009 On May 14, 2009, Russian president Dmitri

More information

The French Revolution and Napoleon,

The French Revolution and Napoleon, The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789 1815 Why was it so hard for the French to establish a republic than it was for the Americans? How was Napoleon able to take power twice? The French Revolution and

More information

The Last Czar: Nicholas II and Alexandra 6.1

The Last Czar: Nicholas II and Alexandra 6.1 The Last Czar: Nicholas II and Alexandra 6.1 totalitarian: dictatorship: petition: civil liberties: universal: emancipation: hemophilia: List reasons why Russia's Czar Nicholas II became increasingly unpopular

More information

Georgia High School Graduation Test Tutorial. World History from World War I to World War II

Georgia High School Graduation Test Tutorial. World History from World War I to World War II Georgia High School Graduation Test Tutorial World History from World War I to World War II Causes of World War I 1. Balkan Nationalism Causes of World War I 2. Entangled Alliances Causes of World War

More information

Russia. Chapter 20. Chapter 20, Section

Russia. Chapter 20. Chapter 20, Section Chapter 20, Section World Geography Chapter 20 Russia Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Chapter 20, Section World Geography

More information

Evaluate Stolypin's Land Reform: Was it Unsuccessful, or inconsistent, or unfinished?

Evaluate Stolypin's Land Reform: Was it Unsuccessful, or inconsistent, or unfinished? Evaluate Stolypin's Land Reform: Was it Unsuccessful, or inconsistent, or unfinished? Following the revolution of 1905 the newly appointed Prime Minister suggested implementing policies which would deal

More information

What is nationalism? What impact can it have? Objective: Explain what nationalism is and what effect it can have on individuals and on society.

What is nationalism? What impact can it have? Objective: Explain what nationalism is and what effect it can have on individuals and on society. What is nationalism? What impact can it have? Objective: Explain what nationalism is and what effect it can have on individuals and on society. Introduction Directions: Examine the images and information

More information

Postwar Havoc. Chapter 19 Section 1 From War to Peace Riddlebarger

Postwar Havoc. Chapter 19 Section 1 From War to Peace Riddlebarger Postwar Havoc Chapter 19 Section 1 From War to Peace Riddlebarger Communism Economic and political system in which government owns the means of production and control economic planning Socialism A system

More information

Chapter 4: The Fall of Tsarism. Revolution

Chapter 4: The Fall of Tsarism. Revolution Chapter 4: The Fall of Tsarism Revolution What is a Revolution? A complete change in the way things are done (Agricultural Revolution, Industrial Revolution, Russian Revolution) Sometimes peaceful Sometimes

More information

Absolute Monarchs: The Kings and Queens Who Ruled Europe

Absolute Monarchs: The Kings and Queens Who Ruled Europe Absolute Monarchs: The Kings and Queens Who Ruled Europe By ThoughtCo.com, adapted by Newsela staff on 10.20.17 Word Count 545 Level 590L Portrait of King Louis XIV of France, 1701. Image from the public

More information

The Revolutions of 1848

The Revolutions of 1848 The Revolutions of 1848 What s the big deal? Liberal and nationalist revolutions occur throughout Europe France Austria Prussia Italy Despite initial success, 1848 is mostly a failure for the revolutionaries

More information

Name: Adv: Period: Cycle 5 Week 1 Day 1 Notes: Relations between the US and Russia from 1991 Today

Name: Adv: Period: Cycle 5 Week 1 Day 1 Notes: Relations between the US and Russia from 1991 Today Cycle 5 Week 1 Day 1 Notes: Relations between the US and Russia from 1991 Today Tuesday 6/6/17 Part A US Russian Relations at the end of the Cold War: (1986 1991) Soviet Union under leadership of. US under

More information

A NATIONAL CALL TO CONVENE AND CELEBRATE THE FOUNDING OF GLOBAL GUMII OROMIA (GGO)

A NATIONAL CALL TO CONVENE AND CELEBRATE THE FOUNDING OF GLOBAL GUMII OROMIA (GGO) A NATIONAL CALL TO CONVENE AND CELEBRATE THE FOUNDING OF GLOBAL GUMII OROMIA (GGO) April 14-16, 2017 Minneapolis, Minnesota Oromo civic groups, political organizations, religious groups, professional organizations,

More information

Reading Essentials and Study Guide

Reading Essentials and Study Guide Lesson 3 The Rise of Napoleon and the Napoleonic Wars ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS What causes revolution? How does revolution change society? Reading HELPDESK Academic Vocabulary capable having or showing ability

More information

established initially in 2000, can properly be called populist. I argue that it has many

established initially in 2000, can properly be called populist. I argue that it has many Vladimir Putin s Populism, Russia s Revival, and Liberalism Lost. Kathryn Stoner, Stanford University October 20, 2017 In this memo, I wrestle with whether or not Vladimir Putin s regime, established initially

More information

Lead up to World War II

Lead up to World War II Lead up to World War II Overview 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 1910 s 1930 s Event Recap Political Spectrum Rise of Dictators Failure of the League of Nations Preview: Appeasement Compare and Contrast Causes of World

More information

Lessons from Russia A Neo-Authoritarian Media System

Lessons from Russia A Neo-Authoritarian Media System Lessons from Russia A Neo-Authoritarian Media System European Journal Of Communication, June 2004 Current Critics Russia is one of five countries on the International Press Institute s Watch List of countries

More information

In China, a New Political Era Begins

In China, a New Political Era Begins In China, a New Political Era Begins Oct. 19, 2017 Blending the policies of his predecessors, the Chinese president is trying to liberalize with an iron fist. By Matthew Massee The world has changed since

More information

Example Student Essays for: Assess the reasons for the Breakdown of the Grand Alliance

Example Student Essays for: Assess the reasons for the Breakdown of the Grand Alliance Example Student Essays for: Assess the reasons for the Breakdown of the Grand Alliance Table of Contents 1. Student Essay 1.2 2. Student Essay 2.5 3. Student Essay 3.8 Rubric 1 History Essay Access the

More information

Type 2 Prompt. Following the Revolution of 1911, what happened to China? Was it stable or unstable? Who was in control, if anyone? Write 3 lines.

Type 2 Prompt. Following the Revolution of 1911, what happened to China? Was it stable or unstable? Who was in control, if anyone? Write 3 lines. Type 2 Prompt Following the Revolution of 1911, what happened to China? Was it stable or unstable? Who was in control, if anyone? Write 3 lines. 1/3/12 The Revolution? of 1911 What happened to each of

More information

6. The invasion of started the Second World War. 7. Britain and France adopted the policy towards the aggression of the Axis Powers.

6. The invasion of started the Second World War. 7. Britain and France adopted the policy towards the aggression of the Axis Powers. Fill in the blanks 1. Germany and Italy were discontented with the results of the Paris Peace Conference. he Germans were particularly resentful about the harsh. hey were determined to take revenge in

More information

Ch 29-1 The War Develops

Ch 29-1 The War Develops Ch 29-1 The War Develops The Main Idea Concern about the spread of communism led the United States to become increasingly violent in Vietnam. Content Statement/Learning Goal Analyze how the Cold war and

More information

The Age of Napoleon Early Life:

The Age of Napoleon Early Life: The Age of Napoleon Early Life: Napoleon Bonaparte is born in Corsica (1769), Shy, timid, bullied in school for his thick Corsican accent, and short stature. Military school, Joins the Army, rapidly advances

More information

Section 1: Dictators and War

Section 1: Dictators and War Section 1: Dictators and War Objectives: Explain how dictators and militarist regimes arose in several countries in the 1930s. Summarize the actions taken by aggressive regimes in Europe and Asia. Analyze

More information

Modern World History

Modern World History Modern World History Chapter 19: Struggles for Democracy, 1945 Present Section 1: Patterns of Change: Democracy For democracy to work, there must be free and fair elections. There must be more than one

More information

Russians Support Putin's Re-Nationalization of Oil, Control of Media, But See Democratic Future

Russians Support Putin's Re-Nationalization of Oil, Control of Media, But See Democratic Future Russians Support Putin's Re-Nationalization of Oil, Control of Media, But See Democratic Future July 10, 2006 Americans Endorse Russia's G-8 Membership, Are Optimistic about Democracy in Russia Russian

More information

Thinking About a US-China War, Part 2

Thinking About a US-China War, Part 2 Thinking About a US-China War, Part 2 Jan. 4, 2017 Sanctions and blockades as an alternative to armed conflict would lead to armed conflict. By George Friedman This article is the second in a series. Read

More information

Cover Page. The handle holds various files of this Leiden University dissertation

Cover Page. The handle  holds various files of this Leiden University dissertation Cover Page The handle http://hdl.handle.net/1887/31556 holds various files of this Leiden University dissertation Author: Slaman, Pieter Title: Staat van de student : tweehonderd jaar politieke geschiedenis

More information

Russia During the Early- Modern Period

Russia During the Early- Modern Period Russia During the Early- Modern Period Review of Russian History Kievan Rus Dominated by Kiev, but various other principalities throughout Ties with Byzantine Empire Adopted Orthodox Christianity in 900

More information

Russian Civil War JCC: The Russian Imperial Army (The White Army) Committee Abstract

Russian Civil War JCC: The Russian Imperial Army (The White Army) Committee Abstract THE EIGHTH ANNUAL ALABAMA MODEL UNITED NATIONS Russian Civil War JCC: The Russian Imperial Army (The White Army) Committee Abstract Crisis Director Ciara Malaugh clmalaugh@crimson.ua.edu Chair Rachel Brasier

More information

The red Scare. Background. Background 12/12/2014. Could it happen here!?

The red Scare. Background. Background 12/12/2014. Could it happen here!? The red Scare Could it happen here!? At the beginning of WWI, Russia was still ruled by Tsar Nicholas II who, like Kaiser Wilhelm in Germany, was an autocrat (like a king, or emperor). If you have ever

More information

Modern World History - Honors Course Study Guide

Modern World History - Honors Course Study Guide Created 1-11 Modern World History - Honors Course Study Guide Unit I Absolutism 1. What was absolutism? How did the absolute monarchs of Europe in the 16 th and 17 th centuries justify their right to rule?

More information

Peter Stolypin. 5 th Year Higher Russia

Peter Stolypin. 5 th Year Higher Russia Peter Stolypin 5 th Year Higher Russia Arguably the most outstanding statesman of Imperial Russia Richard Pipes Peter Stolypin How important was the work of Stolypin in delaying the downfall of the Tsarist

More information

European Parliament resolution of 17 January 2013 on the human rights situation in Bahrain (2013/2513(RSP))

European Parliament resolution of 17 January 2013 on the human rights situation in Bahrain (2013/2513(RSP)) P7_TA-PROV(2013)0032 Human rights situation in Bahrain European Parliament resolution of 17 January 2013 on the human rights situation in Bahrain (2013/2513(RSP)) The European Parliament, having regard

More information

RISE OF TOTALITARIANISM: ITALY, GERMANY, USSR, AND JAPAN

RISE OF TOTALITARIANISM: ITALY, GERMANY, USSR, AND JAPAN RISE OF TOTALITARIANISM: ITALY, GERMANY, USSR, AND JAPAN Characteristics of Totalitarianism Authoritarian Dictator who has Total control of the state Unquestioning obedience to one leader Widespread use

More information

The Hidden Hand of External Enemies

The Hidden Hand of External Enemies The Hidden Hand of External Enemies THE USE OF CONSPIRACY THEORIES BY PUTIN S REGIME PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo No. 192 June 2012 Serghei Golunov Volgograd State University Deploying and seeking to capitalize

More information

The Enlightenment and the scientific revolution changed people s concepts of the universe and their place within it Enlightenment ideas affected

The Enlightenment and the scientific revolution changed people s concepts of the universe and their place within it Enlightenment ideas affected The Enlightenment and the scientific revolution changed people s concepts of the universe and their place within it Enlightenment ideas affected politics, music, art, architecture, and literature of Europe

More information

The Congress of Vienna

The Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna A. When the great powers of Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain met at the Congress of Vienna in 1814, they wanted to restore the old order after Napoleon s defeat. B. Prince

More information

Reducing Poverty in the Arab World Successes and Limits of the Moroccan. Lahcen Achy. Beirut, Lebanon July 29, 2010

Reducing Poverty in the Arab World Successes and Limits of the Moroccan. Lahcen Achy. Beirut, Lebanon July 29, 2010 Reducing Poverty in the Arab World Successes and Limits of the Moroccan Experience Lahcen Achy Beirut, Lebanon July 29, 2010 Starting point Morocco recorded an impressive decline in monetary poverty over

More information

Poland s Rising Leadership Position

Poland s Rising Leadership Position Poland s Rising Leadership Position Dec. 23, 2016 Warsaw has increasingly focused on defense and regional partnerships. By Antonia Colibasanu Poland s history can easily be summed up as a continuous struggle

More information

Revolutions of 1848 France February Revolution

Revolutions of 1848 France February Revolution Revolutions of 1848 France - Causes o Dissatisfaction with current political and social situation Bourgeois Monarch Louis Philippe Failure to act to address problems Nobility Backed by conservatives Catholic

More information

Eastern Absolutism Serfdom In the west peasants gained rights as a labor shortage swept eastern Europe workers became a necessity In eastern Europe

Eastern Absolutism Serfdom In the west peasants gained rights as a labor shortage swept eastern Europe workers became a necessity In eastern Europe Eastern Absolutism Serfdom In the west peasants gained rights as a labor shortage swept eastern Europe workers became a necessity In eastern Europe during the seventeenth century the rights of the peasants

More information

Student Handout: Unit 3 Lesson 3. The Cold War

Student Handout: Unit 3 Lesson 3. The Cold War Suggested time: 1 Hour What s important in this lesson: The Cold War With the end of the Second World War, a new international tension between Western Democratic countries and the Communist Soviet Union

More information

E. America Enters World War II (1945-Present) a.describe circumstances at home and abroad prior to U.S. involvement in World War II b.

E. America Enters World War II (1945-Present) a.describe circumstances at home and abroad prior to U.S. involvement in World War II b. Dictators of WW II E. America Enters World War II (1945-Present) a.describe circumstances at home and abroad prior to U.S. involvement in World War II b.identify the significant military and political

More information

From Reset to Regret: Views of Russia Fall to Levels Not Seen Since Cold War

From Reset to Regret: Views of Russia Fall to Levels Not Seen Since Cold War From Reset to Regret: Views of Russia Fall to Levels Not Seen Since Cold War Dina Smeltz, senior fellow, public opinion and foreign policy Craig Kafura, senior program officer, studies July 2014 New Chicago

More information

Bill of Rights in Action

Bill of Rights in Action Bill of Rights in Action Constitutional Rights Foundation SUMMER 2016 Volume 31 N o 4 PUTIN S ILLIBERALDEMOCRACY President of Russia (CC BY 4.0) Russian President Vladimir Putin speaking at the Grand Kremlin

More information

Patterns of illiberalism in central Europe

Patterns of illiberalism in central Europe Anton Shekhovtsov, Slawomir Sierakowski Patterns of illiberalism in central Europe A conversation with Anton Shekhovtsov Published 22 February 2016 Original in English First published in Wirtualna Polska,

More information

Bell Work. Describe Truman s plan for. Europe. How will his plan help prevent the spread of communism?

Bell Work. Describe Truman s plan for. Europe. How will his plan help prevent the spread of communism? Bell Work Describe Truman s plan for dealing with post-wwii Europe. How will his plan help prevent the spread of communism? Objectives Explain how Mao Zedong and the communists gained power in China. Describe

More information

1. America slowly involves itself in the war in Vietnam as it seeks to halt the spread of communism.

1. America slowly involves itself in the war in Vietnam as it seeks to halt the spread of communism. The War in Vietnam Indochina was still another Cold War battlefield. France had controlled Vietnam since the middle of the 19th century, only to be supplanted by Japan during the Second World War. Meanwhile,

More information

4 Rebuilding a World Economy: The Post-war Era

4 Rebuilding a World Economy: The Post-war Era 4 Rebuilding a World Economy: The Post-war Era The Second World War broke out a mere two decades after the end of the First World War. It was fought between the Axis powers (mainly Nazi Germany, Japan

More information