1 Articles of Confederation Essential Question: Why was the central government s power too weak under the Articles of Confederation?
2 Objectives Discuss the ideas that guided the new state governments. Describe the government under the Articles of Confederation. Explain the Ordinances of 1785 and 1787 and their importance to westward expansion. Identify the problems created by a weak central government.
3 Terms and People constitution document stating the rules under which a government will operate executive person who runs the government and sees that the laws are carried out economic depression period when business activity slows, prices and wages drop, and unemployment rises Daniel Shays army veteran and Massachusetts farmer who led an uprising to protest economic conditions
4 What were the major successes and failures of the government under the Articles of Confederation? With independence came a new nation and a new form of government. As troubles plagued the country, many feared that their new government had created new problems.
5 Even before independence was won, many colonies now states began to create new state governments. State Constitutions
6 Colonists believed the king had abused his powers. For this reason, the states gave few powers to the governor. Most powers went to legislatures elected by the people. Powers of the executive Powers of the legislature
7 Most states allowed more people to vote than in colonial times. Voter Qualifications White Male Over 21 Property ownership Still, African Americans and women were not allowed to vote in almost all the states.
8 To make sure that people s rights would not be abused again, many states included a bill of rights in their constitutions. Virginia was the first. Virginia Bill of Rights Freedom of Religion Freedom of the Press Trial by Jury Limits on Searches Limits on Arrests No Cruel and Unusual Punishment
9 While the states were writing new constitutions, so was the Continental Congress. In 1777, the Congress adopted a new plan of government for the nation: the Articles of Confederation. Articles of Confederation
10 Many of the concerns about colonial rule that shaped the new state constitutions also shaped the Articles of Confederation. Under the Articles, the powers of the central government were given to Congress a legislature elected by the people. Powers of the legislature
11 In fact, the legislature was the only branch of government created by the Articles. There was no leader of the country. There were no national courts. Executive Branch Judicial Branch
12 To make sure the new legislature did not become too strong, its powers were limited. Powers given to Congress deal with foreign countries deal with Native Americans make laws declare war coin or borrow money run a postal service
13 Even more important than the powers given to Congress, however, were the powers not given to Congress. Powers not given to Congress regulate trade collect taxes Congress was forced to depend on the states when it needed money. This weakened the central government and gave considerable power to the states.
14 It's All About Power! Look at the Americans' experience with the powerful central government of Britain Do the opposite!
15 If the central government doesn t have enough power then we are going to have. Federal Rights States' Rights BIG PROBLEMS!
16 Weak Government = Problems! Here's an explanation of how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to Shays' Rebellion, which led to the creation of the Constitution.
17 Daniel Shays Captain in the Revolutionary War Retired from the army Wanted to be a farmer in Massachusetts
18 Uh oh...no money! Remember! The Congress didn't have the power to tax states...they could only ask for money! The states said no! So Congress couldn't pay its bills!
19 SCENARIO: How can you be a farmer if you have no money? Get a loan from the bank! Plant your seeds! When your crops are grown, harvest them, sell them, and pay your loan back!
20 What if the bank wants its money back NOW? Uh oh...problems! But your crops haven't grown yet?
21 THE REPO MAN COMES! The bank repossesses the farms and kicks the former soldiers out of their homes!
22 Why didn't they have any money? Taxes! The state of Massachusetts had placed high taxes that hit the farmers very hard.
23 Who cares about having a farm anyway? Without property, you can't feed your family! Without property, you can't vote! Without property, you can't make money! Without making money, you get thrown into debtor's prison!
24 Give me my house! Daniel Shays and the farmers pick up their guns and go to the state courthouse to stop the government from foreclosing on their homes. AND IT WORKED!!!
25 So they kept doing it... And made the people in the government afraid! The government made new laws that were meant to punish Shays and his followers.
26 The Congress can't help Since the Articles of Confederation did not give Congress the power to raise a standing army, the federal government could not help stop Shays rebellion.
27 The Climax The state of Massachusetts sets up an army. Shays and his followers try to take over a federal arsenal to get more guns so that they could fight the army.
28 Shays and his men lost the battle. Some of them got the death penalty for having participated in the rebellion.
29 To the Constitution... The failure of the federal government to solve the problem of Shays' Rebellion made people understand that the Articles of Confederation had made the government too weak. A Constitutional Convention was called to solve the problem.
30 What about the West? Some states refused to approve the Articles until other states gave up their claims to lands in the west. Finally, the Articles were approved, and the land was turned over to the national government.
31 The western lands were very valuable and in great demand. To provide for the sale and settlement of these lands, Congress passed two new laws. The Land Ordinance of 1785 The Northwest Ordinance of 1787
32 Land Ordinance of 1785 Lands were divided into townships. Townships were divided into sections. Each section was sold piece by piece.
33 Within each township, one section would be set aside for schools. The nation s leaders believed that democracy could not survive without education.
34 Northwest Ordinance of 1787 created a government for the Northwest Territory the lands north of the Ohio River. guaranteed basic rights for settlers. banned slavery in the new territories. created a three-step process for admitting new states.
35 Three step process to becoming a state: Once a territory was settled, Congress would appoint a governor, a secretary, and three judges Once there were 5000 free adult males, it could elect a legislature to make laws. Once the free population reached 60000, they could apply to be a state
36 Five states were eventually carved from the lands of the Northwest Territory.
37 Making a Constitution
38 Terms and People James Madison delegate from Virginia who took notes at the Constitutional Convention; called the Father of the Constitution judicial branch branch of government that consists of a system of courts to interpret the law Roger Sherman delegate from Connecticut who helped draft wrote the Great Compromise James Wilson delegate from Pennsylvania who argued in favor of election of the legislature
39 Terms and People (continued) compromise agreement in which each side gives up part of what it wants Gouverneur Morris delegate responsible for writing the Preamble to the Constitution
40 What role did compromise play in the creation of the United States Constitution? In the summer of 1787, leaders from across the country met in Philadelphia to discuss the nation s growing problems. They agreed that the current government had many weaknesses. The question was how to fix them.
41 Fifty-five delegates attended the meeting in Philadelphia. Only12 of the states attended the Constitutional Convention. Rhode Island did not. The delegates included heroes of the Revolution as well as younger state leaders. George Washington was elected the convention s president.
42 The purpose of the convention was to revise the Articles of Confederation. From the beginning, however, many delegates believed that the Articles could not be saved.
43 On just the third day of the convention, a proposal was presented to replace the Articles with a totally new plan of government. The plan was written largely by James Madison of Virginia.
44 The Virginia plan was written largely by James Madison and it called for a strong central government with three separate branches. Central Government Legislative Branch Congress make laws Executive Branch President carry out laws Judicial Branch Courts interpret laws
45 The Virginia Plan also called for Congress to have two separate houses an upper and a lower house. Congress Upper House Lower House Representation in both houses would be determined by a state s population.
46 Delegates from the small states opposed the Virginia Plan. Each state, they argued, should have the same number of votes in Congress. William Paterson of New Jersey introduced his own plan, calling for Congress to have one house, and for each state to have two votes. New Jersey Plan
47 The issue of representation in Congress nearly tore the convention apart. Virginia Plan More people, more votes New Jersey Plan One state gets one vote
48 Finally, Roger Sherman of Connecticut introduced a compromise that gave each side part of what it wanted. The convention approved Sherman s compromise, which became known as the Great Compromise.
49 The Great Compromise Congress House of Representatives Representation based on population Senate Each state given two representatives
50 The issue of representation in Congress came up again this time concerning slavery. Should slaves be counted as part of a state s population? Southern delegates said yes. Northern delegates said no. A compromise was reached. Each enslaved person would be counted as three fifths of a free person.
51 The Three-Fifths Compromise, however, did not address the issue of the slave trade itself. Some Northern delegates wanted to completely ban the slave trade. Southern delegates argued that such a move would ruin the South s economy. Again, a compromise was reached.
52 Slave Trade Compromise Ships could bring enslaved people into the country for 20 years. After 1808, enslaved people could not be brought into the country. The slave trade within the country would stay the same.
53 When the last compromise was reached, the delegates finally agreed on the provisions of the new Constitution. Gouverneur Morris wrote the Preamble, which identifies the source of the new government s authority in its opening words. We the People of the United States...
54 After weeks of debate, the delegates stepped forward to sign the Constitution.
55 Ratification and The Bill of Rights
56 Terms and People ratify approve Alexander Hamilton supporter of the Constitution and an author of the Federalist Papers John Jay supporter of the Constitution and an author of the Federalist Papers George Mason Anti-Federalist leader who argued in favor of a bill of rights
57 How did those in favor of the Constitution achieve its ratification? The nation s leaders had written a new plan of government, but it could not yet be put in place. Constitution of the United States First, it had to be approved by the states. And approval was far from certain.
58 The process for the states to ratify the new Constitution had been set up by the delegates in Philadelphia. Each state holds a convention. Ratification The Constitution takes effect when approved by nine states.
59 From the beginning, Americans were divided over whether to support the new Constitution and its strong national, or federal, government. Federalists favored ratification. Anti-Federalists were against ratification.
60 James Madison was a leading Federalist. Madison and others argued that a strong national government was necessary for the Union to survive. At that time, the national government could not even enforce its own laws making it impossible to have time to create a Bill of Rights.
61 Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay explained their support for the Constitution in a series of newspaper articles that drew wide attention. Federalist Papers
62 George Mason and Patrick Henry were among Anti-Federalist leaders who argued that the new national government would have too much power. weakened the states Constitution of the United States had no bill of rights would allow President to become a king
63 The debate over the Constitution intensified as the states began to hold their ratifying conventions. Delaware was the first to ratify, followed quickly by Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, and Connecticut. 1 Delaware
64 A close vote was expected in Massachusetts, where hard feelings still lingered from Shays Rebellion. Federalists Anti-Federalists Massachusetts A final push by Federalists helped win the state. Ratification in Maryland and South Carolina followed.
65 Eight of the nine states needed had now approved the Constitution. Attention turned to Virginia. Virginia A no vote in this large, powerful state could trigger no votes elsewhere. Despite the arguments of Patrick Henry, an Anti- Federalist, Virginia approved the Constitution in a narrow vote.
66 While Virginia debated, however, a ninth state ratified the Constitution. 9 New Hampshire In time, the remaining states New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island also voted to ratify.
67 The new government could now be put in place. George Washington was elected President. John Adams was elected Vice President. A new Congress was elected, too, and one of its first tasks was to take up the question most debated during the ratification process whether to add a bill of rights to the new Constitution.
68 The first Congress passed a series of amendments to the Constitution, listing individual rights. By 1791, the states had ratified ten amendments. Bill of Rights
69 The Bill of Rights The first four amendments protect citizens from possible abuses by the federal government.
70 The Bill of Rights The next four amendments protect people who are accused of crimes.
71 The Bill of Rights The last two amendments limit the power of the federal government.
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