1 New Nation establishing the government of the US during the 1780s & 1790s
2 CREATING THE CONSTITUTION From the Articles of Confederation to the Bill of Rights (1780s)
3 The Articles of Confederation After independence, states chose how they were to carry out a their own republican form of government 1777 Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation (Ratified 1781) Some powers granted to central government but MOST were left up to individual states
4 Problems with the Articles Federal gov t could declare war and other foreign affairs Federal gov t has no power to collect taxes, relying only on contributions from states Resolving MAJOR issues required 2/3 of the states to approve (9 total) Any amendments to the Articles took the approval of all 13 states
5 Governing Western Lands Land Ordinance of 1785 Stated that disputed land the Old Northwest was to be equally divided into townships and sold for federal income set up guidelines for funding education ended confusing legal disagreements over land The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Outlined the steps for a territory to apply for statehood. OH, IN, IL, MI, WI and parts of MN BANNED SLAVERY in these territories Led to increased interaction with Natives; broke the promise of the Proclamation of 1763 Called for establishment of free public schools
7 Shays s Rebellion (MA, ) Farmers in western MA (many veterans) were angered at state for calling in all debts owed and seizing land. Many farmers imprisoned for failure to pay Daniel Shays led charge to violently protest these taxes, foreclosures and imprisonments.
8 Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Massachusetts was unsuccessful in quelling the rebellion. Private militia raised to stop protests. Event highlighted a weakness in the Articles; the inability of states to effectively respond to crisis situations.
9 Call for a stronger central government Shays rebellion forced Americans to reevaluate the effectiveness of the Articles of Confederation in responding to the needs of its citizens. Led to a call for a stronger central government.
10 Constitutional Convention, 1787
11 Meeting of demi-gods in Philadelphia, 1787 Spring/Summer 1787, leaders from 12 states (except RI) met in Philadelphia at Independence Hall to REVISE the Articles of Confederation Elected George Washington as president of the convention
12 Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists Two different factions emerged from the debate over whether to revise the Articles or create a brand new Constitution Federalists (Washington, Madison, Hamilton); favored a strong central government Antifederalists- (Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry); favored states and individual rights, feared a strong central government would lead to tyranny
13 James Madison Rival to Hamilton at the Convention Father of the Constitution Believed a large republic with diverse interests would preserve the common good
14 Alexander Hamilton Rival to Madison at Convention Favored government ruled by aristocracy (vs. Jefferson s Populist agrarian republic) Looked out for business interests and wanted to stimulate the economy of the young US
15 Separation of Powers In order to avoid potential tyranny from a King, the Founding Fathers agreed to separate the new government into three distinct branches. This idea came from the Enlightenment thinker baron de Montesquieu. (at right) Legislative Branch = make laws Executive Branch = enforce laws Judicial Branch = interpret laws
16 Checks and Balances each branch has the power to limit actions of the other two
17 Rival Plans of Government Delegates debated how best to distribute representatives to the new Congress for each state Virginia Plan proposed by Madison; bicameral (two house) legislature with larger populated states having more members New Jersey Plan would retain unicameral (one house) legislature and all states have EQUAL number of members
18 The Great Compromise Proposed bicameral legislature to appease both sides Senate EQUAL representation; 2 per state House of Representatives based on population Also divided power between federal and state governments (system known as Federalism)
19 Slavery and the Three-Fifths Compromise Debate sparked between Northern and Southern delegates South feared domination by North, which had far more free peoples South feared that the institution of slavery would be in jeopardy All knew that the issue of slavery could tear apart the newly formed country
20 Slavery and the Three-Fifths Compromise 1st Constitution forbade Congress from blocking the importation of slaves for 20 years. 2nd Slaves counted as 3/5 of a person in allocating state representation rd 3 All states required to return fugitive slaves to their owners
21 Ratifying the Constitution Founding Fathers decided that ratification by only 9 states would be enough to put into law the new Constitution The Federalist Papers series of essays written by Hamilton, Madison and John Jay (left) The Federalist Papers promoted the views of the Federalist faction, supporting a strong central government. Still many states were Anti-Federalist and refused to ratify
22 Bill of Rights Only after Anti-Federalists were promised an individual Bill of Rights did they support ratification of the Constitution. Bill of Rights first 10 Amendments; composed by James Madison Intended to protect individuals and states from a strong central government and give them certain specified rights Included freedom of religion, petition, assembly, the press, legal rights, right to bear arms, etc. Anti-Federalists also stressed the idea of a limited government meaning that the federal government was giving ONLY the powers specifically granted to it in the Constitution.
24 LAUNCHING THE NEW SHIP OF STATE The Presidencies of George Washington and John Adams (1790s)
27 Washington as President George Washington unanimously elected President by the Electoral College in 1789 and Set many precedents that future Presidents would follow. Created the Presidential cabinet, a group of advisors: Thomas Jefferson served as Secretary of State Alexander Hamilton served as Secretary of the Treasury. Washington also favored non-intervention in Europe and avoided siding with France against Great Britain in their continued fighting.
28 How has the power of the President changed? Use the census results from 1790 and 2000 to compare and contrast: million people ; million people
29 The Whiskey Rebellion In order to pay back Revolutionary War debt, Washington passed a series of taxes. One tax in particular hit farmers in Western Pennsylvania hard. These farmers used excess crop to produce whiskey which they also used as currency. To protest the new taxes, the farmers led a revolt against tax collectors in the area.
30 Washington Responds In order to crush the revolting farmers in Western Pennsylvania, Washington orders in the federal troops. They quickly force the farmers to disband. Washington s quick, firm handling of the Whiskey Rebellion proved that this new Constitution could in fact work.
32 Washington Warns of Political Parties "It serves to distract the Public Councils, and enfeeble the Public Administration...agitates the Community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms; kindles the animosity of one...against another...it opens the door to foreign influence and corruption...thus the policy and the will of one country are subjected to the policy and will of another."
33 Formation of Political Parties Political parties had their origin in the difference of opinion between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. Both men felt differently about how the new nation should be run and operated. Hamilton s group (known as the Federalists) wanted to further expand the power of the government and create a national bank. Jefferson s group (known as the Democratic-Republicans) believed the federal government should limit itself to powers delegated in the Constitution.
34 Difference Between Parties Federalists Democratic-Republicans Wealthy Poor Urban Rural Loose interpretation of the Constitution Strict interpretation of the Constitution Federal rights States rights Business Agriculture England supporters French supporters
35 Visions for the Young Republic Hamilton s vision Jefferson s vision Complex economy Agrarian Republic Industrious cities Small, farming families Global trade Communities organized around agriculture Big business
36 France Asks for Help The French Revolution began in 1789 Tensions between France and England were high, and they were on the verge of war. Citizen Genêt =French diplomat who came to the US in 1793 to ask the American government to send money and troops to aid the revolutionaries in the French Revolution President Washington asked France to recall Genêt after Genêt began recruiting men and arming ships in US ports Washington later relented and allowed Genêt US citizenship upon learning that the new French government planned to arrest Genêt
37 France Asks for Help Jefferson (Secretary of State) advised helping France (When the US was fighting a revolution/ fighting the British, France helped. Now France was fighting a revolution/ fighting the British.) Hamilton (Secretary of the Treasury) advises non-intervention (stay out of the fight ) (Worried about national debt and political instability in France) Washington decided not to involve the US in the conflict between England and France, because he believed that it would weaken the young US
38 Washington Steps Down After his 2nd term, Washington announced that he would not seek another four years as President. Seen as one of the most important things he ever did. When the announcement was made Jefferson and Hamilton s respective parties began fighting to replace him. In Washington s Farewell Address he warned the infant nation about the danger of political parties.
40 The Presidency of John Adams 2nd President of the US Defeated Jefferson in 1796 election Federalist His administration was plagued by the continuing conflict between England and France and an undeclared war with France with France, known as the Quasi-War
41 Adams Continues Non-Intervention Policy Adams found himself at odds with the French in a series of slights (insults) aimed at the United States. These insults led many Federalists to call for a formal declaration of war on France. Adams refused to follow his party s wishes choosing a path of non-intervention. His refusal to engage in open conflict with the French is seen as one of the most important political decisions of the early nation.
42 Alien and Sedition Acts Early political fighting between the D-R s and the Federalists led to the enactment of the Alien and Sedition Acts in the late 1790s. These laws were passed by a Federalist controlled Congress in an attempt to limit political support for Thomas Jefferson and his party. Alien Act: increased citizenship requirements and simplified the deportation process to prevent Jefferson from receiving support from immigrants. Sedition Act: An attempt to limit freedom of speech by punishing or imprisoning anyone who spoke out against Federalist s policies or President Adams himself.
43 Origin of States Rights Ideology Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions: political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799 respectively The state legislatures of KY and VA claimed that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. The resolutions argued that states had the right to declare unconstitutional any federal act that was not specifically authorized in the Constitution. This refusal to follow federal laws is seen to be the beginning of states rights ideology that will play a large role in the forthcoming Civil War.
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