2 The Articles of Confederation Approved by Congress on November 15, 1777, Congress sent to the states for ratification the Articles of Confederation. This was the first governing constitution for the United States. The Articles of Confederation were ratified on March 1, The Continental Congress became the Congress of the Confederation. Ratified means formally approved. 2
3 The Structure of the Congress of the Confederation Unicameral legislature One vote per state No executive or judiciary branch Two to seven delegates were chosen annually by state legislatures. Executive functions were handled by committees of Congress. Congress chose a leader for their body known as president, but he served only in Congress. Unicameral: One chamber or house The pillars represent states who had ratified the Articles 3 of Confederation.
4 Other Powers of the Congress of the Confederation Congress had the power to maintain an army and navy Congress could declare war and enter into foreign relations Most power rested with the state legislatures Set weights and measures Mint coins Final court of law Prayer at the first Congress of
5 Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Congress was not able to collect taxes. Congress could not regulate inter-state trade. States were not equitably represented. Needed consent of 9 of 13 states to exercise power. Need unanimous approval for amendments. Continental Currency 5
6 Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation The federal government did not have enough power to enforce state cooperation No national judicial system Small national army supported by state militias whose concerns centered on state issues Continental Congress picked by state legislatures, not citizens The delegates had limited national commitment Difficulty settling territorial disputes between states 6
7 The Mount Vernon Conference (1785) Because of the weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation, many interstate commerce problems arose. Delegates from Virginia and Maryland were sent to resolve issues of commerce, fishing, and navigation. George Washington invited them to convene at his home on Mount Vernon. The success of the meeting led to The Annapolis Convention. Mount Vernon 7
8 The Annapolis Convention The Annapolis Convention met in September 1786 to work out problems with the Articles of Confederation. The convention met at the Maryland State House. Chairman Alexander Hamilton called for states to send delegates to Philadelphia to amend the Articles. Hamilton Maryland State House 8
9 Shays Rebellion ( ) Farmers, a majority of whom were Revolutionary War veterans, faced high taxes and an economic recession after the war making it difficult to pay their mortgages. Debtors courts confiscated property and sent debtors to prison. Farmers demanded stable paper currency and tax relief. The wealthy class, concerned with getting repaid by the government, wanted more taxes. A local group led by Daniel Shay attempted to seize weapons at the Springfield Armory in Massachusetts but were stopped by a local militia. The inability of the national government to respond to this rebellion directly led to the drafting of a new constitution in Springfield Armory, Daniel Shays and rebel leader Job Shattuck 9
10 Excerpt from: The Winter Soldier, a novel of Shays Rebellion by James Lincoln Collier and Christopher Collier (1978) The sheriff stopped tying the rope and stared at Peter. "Look," he said, "I don't like this either. It's the law. You borrowed money from Mattoon and you didn't pay him. He's got a legal right to take the oxen." "As the law he signs the order; as my creditor he takes my oxen," Peter shouted. "How can I pay anybody anything when every time I turn around Mattoon and his kind in the General Court have plastered on another tax?" [ ] "You're not the only one," Sheriff Porter said. "Yesterday I took a horse and a plow from James Bacon and the day before, a hundred weight of flax from Hezakiah White. And last week we had to foreclose on a farm down in Amherst. I didn't like any of it, either, Peter, but that's the law." "Mattoon's law," Peter shouted. "How come the high and mighty have got the laws on their side and the plain man hasn't got any on his? Who makes the laws?" 10 "The General Court "
11 Samuel Adams: "Rebellion against a king may be pardoned, or lightly punished, but the man who dares to rebel against the laws of a republic ought to suffer death." Thomas Jefferson: "A little rebellion now and then is a good thing. It is a medicine necessary for the sound health of government. God forbid that we should ever be twenty years without such a rebellion." In the aftermath of the Shays Rebellion, people wanted a stronger central government to protect against internal rebellion. This led to the Connecticut Compromise. 11
12 The Framers were delegates who went to the Constitutional Convention at the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia to draft a new vision of America s system of government. They were the individuals who were actively involved in the drafting of the Constitution. The Pennsylvania State House is now known as Independence Hall 12
14 Government officials realized after Shays Rebellion that a change was needed A convention of representatives from each state were called to Philadelphia in 1787
15 STATEHOUSE IN PHILADELPHIA SITE OF THE CONVENTION
16 INSIDE OF STATEHOUSE (TODAY) SITE OF THE CONVENTION
17 There were 74 men asked to come to Philadelphia but only 55 delegates arrived in Philadelphia
18 CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION
19 The average age of a delegate was 44 years old
20 BEN FRANKLIN (Pennsylvania) was the oldest at age 81 JONATHAN DAYTON (New Jersey) was the youngest at age 26
21 Most had some experience as politicians in their home states
22 40 of the delegates had been members of the Continental Congress
23 34 of the 55 were lawyers Also included soldiers, planters, educators, ministers, physicians, financiers, and merchants
24 Most were very wealthy and many owned slaves
25 All the delegates were white men
26 None of the delegates were African- Americans, Hispanic, women, poor
28 A total of 12 states sent delegates to the convention Rhode Island is the only state that refused to send any delegates
29 Delegates had to make a choice: 1)Fix the Articles of Confederation 2) Write a new form of government
30 The delegates decided to write a new plan of government Challenge was to create a strong national government but one that would not overpowering
31 The Constitutional Convention was held in the summer of 1787 in the city of. PHILADELPHIA
32 Independence Hall - PHILADELPHIA
33 NATIONAL ARCHIVES WASHINGTON DC HOME OF THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION TODAY
35 There were 55 delegates at the Constitutional Convention.
36 JAMES MADISON read more than 100 books in preparation for the convention.
37 and THOMAS JEFFERSON JOHN ADAMS were not at the convention because they were overseas at the time.
38 PATRICK HENRY refused to attend the convention because he smelled a rat leading toward monarchy.
39 GEORGE WASHINGTON came out of retirement for the convention.
40 BEN FRANKLIN was a famous scientist and statesman, gave wit and wisdom to the convention.
41 JAMES MADISON is known as the Father of the Constitution and took detailed notes.
42 GEORGE WASHINGTON was chosen as president of the convention.
44 noun - a settlement of differences in which each side makes concessions (gives in a little) to come to a result which solves a problem
45 1. GREAT COMPROMISE 2. 3/5 COMPROMISE 3. TRADE COMPROMISE
46 Major debate was over how to set up the legislative branch of government
47 It becomes a battle between smaller states and the ones with larger populations VS
48 Several states submit plans for the type of legislature they want
49 1) The legislative branch would have two houses 2) Both houses would assign representatives based on wealth/population
50 1) The legislature would have one house 2) Each state would have only one vote in the legislature
52 The legislature would have two houses
53 SENATE number of representatives for each state are equal = 2 senators = 2 senators
54 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES - based on population = 1 representative (493,000 people) = 52 representatives (38,800,000 people)
55 CONGRESS SENATE (100) EVERY DATE HAS EQUAL NUMBER HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES (435) BASED ON POPULATION SO NOT EQUAL FOR EVERY STATE
56 TOTAL NUMBER OF REPRESENTATIVES IN CONGRESS FROM EACH STATE
57 VIRGINIA PLAN 1) 2 houses for legislature 2) NUMBER of people in congress set by wealth and population NEW JERSEY PLAN 1) 1 house for legislature 2) Each state would have only one vote in the legislature GREAT COMPROMISE SENATE Number of people BASED ON EQUALITY = EACH STATE HAS SAME NUMBER THE LEGISLATURE WILL HAVE 2 HOUSES Number of people BASED ON populations HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Unit 5 Creating a Government Page 4 of 10
58 Next major issue to be decided is slavery and if slaves should be counted as population
60 should slaves be counted as population for taxes and/or to determine representatives in the legislature
61 Northern states want slaves to not be counted to determine representatives but to be counted for taxes X
62 X Southern states want slaves to be counted to determine representatives but not for taxes
63 Compromise made was count slaves as 3/5 of a person This is used for taxes and to set up the number of reps in Congress
64 Northern states agree to do nothing about slave trade until 1808 Southern states agree to allow national government to regulate trade
65 No state gets everything they wanted but they wrote a constitution they thought would work overall
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