2 The British did not even stay for the official portrait at the Treaty of Paris in 1783!
3 The treaty ending the war with Britain, more than doubled the territory of the United States!
4 During the American Revolution, our forefathers created a form of government for the United States known as a Republic. In a REPUBLIC, the people rule through elected representatives.
5 At the beginning of the Revolution, many government officials who remained loyal to Britain had to flee. They were afraid of mob violence and of being attacked. This created a need for people in the new states to create new governments.
6 Many states wrote their own CONSTITUTIONS, which are documents that set out laws and principles of a government. Written constitutions spell out the rights of all citizens. Constitutions also set limits on the power of the government.
7 Colonists did not want state governments to have too much power, so they divided the government into two groups. State LEGISLATURES were selected by voters, and were responsible for making laws. Power in the legislatures was divided between upper and lower houses. All states except for Pennsylvania had a governor who was responsible to make sure the laws were EXECUTED, or carried out.
8 Virginia even went so far as to add a Bill of Rights to its constitution. A BILL OF RIGHTS lists freedoms the government must protect. In order to vote, you had to be a white male citizen over the age of 21. You also had to own land, or pay a certain amount of taxes. (It took awhile to extend the vote to others.)
9 Our first national government (our first republic) was known as the ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION Created a firm league of friendship. Required 9 of 13 states to approve laws. Could not regulate trade or raise taxes. Did allow Congress to declare war, appoint military officers, and coin money. Did not have a president or executive to carry out the laws.
10 Our first constitution, the Articles of Confederation, was created on November 15, 1777, and was RATIFIED (approved) on March 1, 1781
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13 The Articles of Confederation government proved to not be strong enough to keep the country unified.
14 Disputes Over Western Lands One of the earliest problems to arise was what to do with lands gained from Britain. Little states didn t like having the big states control so much territory.
15 Small states worried that bigger states would become too powerful. For instance, if tax laws were passed, they could just sell off land to make money.
16 Other Problems with the Articles There was a huge war debt, and Congress couldn t force states to pay taxes. Congress had printed more money, but there wasn t enough gold and silver to back it up. Printing extra money can lead to INFLATION (an increase in the price of goods). States were also printing their own money.
17 Not knowing the value of a dollar in each state was confusing, and hurt economic activity.
18 Despite its problems, the Articles of Confederation had some successes: It governed the nation during the Revolution. It successfully negotiated the Treaty of The two biggest successes of the first government were: The Land Ordinance of 1785 The Northwest Ordinance of 1787
20 Land Ordinance of 1785 Helped settle the Northwest Territory Divided land into townships Each township had 36 sections. Each section was 1 square mile or 640 acres.
22 Land in Ohio was the firs to be surveyed under the Ordinance.
23 The 36 sections can be further divided into smaller pieces.
24 The Northwest Ordinance Set up governments in the region. Could become a state with 60,000 free settlers. When new states were let in, they would be treated as equals. Slavery was not allowed north of the Ohio River.
25 After the Revolution, America went through an ECONOMIC DEPRESSION. Farmers were especially hit hard, and many could not repay their loans. In Massachusetts, taxes were further raised and banks began seizing property of people who owed money. A farmer named Daniel Shays led a revolt. This revolt called SHAY S REBELLION showed the Articles of Confederation were not working and needed fixing.
26 Shay s Rebellion helped show the Articles of Confederation government was not working.
27 It was decided that delegates from the different states would meet during the summer of 1787 in Philadelphia.
28 Philadelphia has a rich history, as it was one time America s largest city and former capital.
29 Carpenter s Hall Meeting place of the First Continental Congress Framework of Ben Franklin s home, one of the most famous founding fathers, and leading citizen of Philadelphia.
30 Originally the delegates were only going to fix the Articles of Confederation. They ended up creating a whole new constitution. The work they were able to accomplish, became known as The Miracle at Philadelphia. It truly was!!!
31 James Madison A crucial delegate to the Constitutional Convention The Father of the Constitution
32 Madison Delegate from Virginia Read and studied before the convention. Waited eagerly for delegates to arrive. Took a seat close to the front so he could see all of the action. Kept clear and concise notes of what happened. Wanted an accurate record kept for future generations.
33 The Pennsylvania Statehouse, now known as Independence Hall. Site of the Constitutional Convention
34 All states except Rhode Island sent delegates. Delegates wanted to keep their talks secret, so the doors and windows were closed. The Convention Begins
35 George Washington s Desk and Chair The windows and doors were shut and locked at Independence Hall.
36 Two Plans Emerge The Virginia Plan which favored the big states. The New Jersey Plan which favored the smaller states.
37 The Virginia Plan Called for a strong national government with 3 branches executive, legislative, and judicial. The legislature would be divided into two houses with representatives based on population. Under the Articles of Confederation, each state had been given 1 vote no matter its size.
38 The New Jersey Plan Also called for a federal government with 3 branches legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislature would have only 1 house, and every state would receive 1 vote. Small states felt they would always get out-voted if it wasn t this way.
39 The Virginia Plan The New Jersey Plan Branches Legislature Three - legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislature was more powerful, as it chose people to serve in the executive and judicial branches. Two houses (bicameral). The House of Representatives was elected by the people and the Senate was elected by the state legislatures. Both were represented proportionally. Branches Legislature Three - legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislature appoints people to serve in the executive branch, and the executive branch selects the justices of the Supreme Court. One house (unicameral). States would be represented equally, so all states had the same power. Other Powers The legislature could regulate interstate trade, strike down laws deemed unconstitutional and use armed forces to enforce laws. Other Powers The national government could levy taxes and import duties, regulate trade, and state laws would be subordinate to laws passed by the national legislature.
40 There was a great debate between the delegates of both large and small states. Large states argue that because they have more people, they should have more representation. Smaller states respond by saying their interests will never be listened to.
41 Roger Sherman, a delegate from Connecticut came up with a COMPROMISE.
42 Although not popular with all delegates, the Great Compromise may have saved the Constitutional Convention of 1787.
43 The Great Compromise Have the 3 Branches of Government. Divide the legislative branch in two. The lower house will be called the HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES and will be based on population. The upper house will be called the SENATE, and all states will receive two votes.
44 The delegates narrowly approved the Great Compromise. Next they dealt with the 3/5 COMPROMISE. It was agreed that 3/5 of slaves in any state could be counted for taxation and representation. The importation of slaves was allowed to continue for 20 more years.
45 For 8 more weeks the Constitutional Convention continued. Other issues were discussed, like the length of a presidential term and how to organize the court system. Not all were happy with the document, and some left the convention, vowing to defeat the Constitution. On September 17, 1787, the Constitution was ready. One by one, the remaining delegates came forward to sign the document.
Creating a Republic The British did not even stay for the official portrait at the Treaty of Paris in 1783! The treaty ending the war with Britain, more than doubled the territory of the United States!
It was decided that delegates from the different states would meet during the summer of 1787 in Philadelphia. Philadelphia has a rich history, as it was at one time America s largest city and former capital.
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