The Economics of European Integration

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1 The Economics of European Integration

2 Chapter 12 Trade Policy

3 EU25 67% EFTA 4% CIS 2% EU25 exports, 2003 EFTA 4% EU25 67% CIS 3% Pattern of Trade: Facts Turkey 1% Other 24% Turkey 1% Other 25% Other Europe 1% Other Europe 1% North America 9% Asia 7% Africa 3% Latin America 2% RoW 1% Middle East 3% Asia 12% North America 6% Africa 3% Latin America 2% Middle East EU25 Imports, % Source: Eurostat. The latest data can be down loaded from Eurostat s new user - friendly service europa.eu.int/comm/ eurostat / 2/3rds EU25 exports are to other EU25 nations. More than 90% of this is actually among the EU15 trade (10 new Member States are fairly small economically). Add all other European nations, 3/4 th of Europe s trade is within Europe.. North America and Asia are the EU25 s main markets outside Europe, each accounts less than 1/10 th EU exports. Africa, Latin America and the Middle East are not very important. The pattern on the import side is very similar Rounding off, 3/4ths of EU imports are from Europe, with the fourth quarter split into two more or less even groups of nations Asia, and all other nations.

4 Differences among Member States NonEU Europe N. Amer. Africa Latin Amer. Asia RoW Luxembour Ireland Malta Belgium UK Netherlands Spain Cyprus Portugal France EU25-Avg Greece Italy Hungary Czech Rep. Germany Denmark Sweden Poland Slovenia Estonia Finland Austria Slovakia Lithuania Latvia 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

5 Composition imports & exports, Machinery, transport equipment Other manufactured Chemical products Other raw materials Food & live animals Fuel products aggregate trade Manufactured Goods, 87% Exports, 2004 Imports, 2004 M achinery, trans port equipment 45% 34% Other manufactured 26% 26% Chemical products 16% 9% Fuel products 3% 18% Other raw materials 2% 5% Food & live animals 5% 6% Misc. 2% 3% Manufactured Goods, 69% Manufactured goods 90% (half of all exports being machinery and transport equipment). Import side, 2/3rds on manufactured goods. EU25 is a big importer of fuel. Other types of goods play a relatively minor part in the EU s trade.

6 What with whom?

7 EU s MFN tariff structure (the CET) Textiles and clothing Transport equipment Leather, rubber, shoes & travel gds C hemicals and photographic supplies Electric machinery N on- agricultural articles n.e.s. M ineral products, precious stones Metals N on-electric machinery W ood, pulp, paper and furniture Average High Dairy products Grains Live animals and products thereof Tobacco C offee and tea, cocoa, sugar, etc. Fruit and vegetables Beverages and spirits Fish and fishery products O il seeds, fats, oils and their products O ther agricultural products Cut flowers and plants Source: WTO s Treade Policy Review, EU 2004.

8 Institutions Trade policy is an exclusive competency of EU. Customs Union requires agreement. Trade in goods: Commission has responsibility for negotiating, Council of Ministers sets Directives for Negotiation. Peter Mandelson (Trade Commissioner). Council accepts/rejects final deal by QMV. Commission in charge of surveillance and enforcement of 3 rd nation commitments to EU. Trade disputes with US, China, etc.

9 Services, IPR, etc. World trade negotiations involve far more than trade in goods. TRIPs, TRIMs, Services, TBTs, trade facilitation, etc. Treaty of Rome only gave Commission power over trade in goods. Treaty of Nice (& Amsterdam) extended Commission s authority to some aspects of Services trade and TRIPs, & made QMV the rule in Council on such matters. Parallelism -> if the issue would be subject to QMV in Single Market considerations, it s subject to QMV on trade matters, and same for unanimity voting. Constitutional Treaty expanded Commission authority to include FDI & more role of Parliament.

10 Contingent Protection WTO allows members to raise tariffs to: Counter unfair trade practices, e.g. Antidumping Countervailing duties Provide temporary protection safeguards. The various WTO articles on these require a procedure; in EU the Commission is in charge of these procedures, but the final decision is subject to QMV approval of the Council.

11 EU External Trade Policy EU has special deals with 139 nations; often more than one per partner. Each can be very complex.

12 EU External Trade Policy European-Mediterranean area: West, Central and East Europe = Single market in industrial goods; EU + EEA + Swiss bilateral agreements Euro-Med Association Agreements: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Israel, the Palestinian Authority, Lebanon, Jordon, Syria and Turkey. Asymmetric (EU cuts its tariffs faster) FTAs in manufactures, by Turkey unilaterally in Customs Union in manufactures. Asymmetric dependence (e.g. 70% of Morocco s exports to EU, but <1% of EU to Morocco) EFTA s FTA union with EU; EFTAns mimic EU to avoid discrimination against EFTA-based exporters.

13 Former Soviet republics & Western Balkans Partnership and Cooperation Agreements (PCAs). These are GSP+ (GSP=Generalised System of Preference). Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova and Uzbekistan. Stabilisation and Association Agreements (SAAs). Former Yugoslavian states. Croatia has started membership; others likely to follow.

14 Preferential arrangements with former colonies Colonial preferences conflicted with Common External Tariff. EU made exception for these nations to avoid imposing new tariffs; signed unilateral PTAs Yaoundé Convention and Arusha Agreement When UK joined 1974 extended to many Commonwealth nations. ACP nations (Africa, Caribbean & Pacific); the new agreement = Lomé Convention. Duty-free but subject to quota for sensitive items (sugar, banana, etc.). These didn t help the ACP nations (c.f. Asian success w/o preferences). When Lomé Convention renewed in 2000, the EU and the ACP nations agreed to modernise the deal. Cotonou Agreement; eventually reciprocal free trade.

15 GSP 1971 GATT provision. EU grants GSP to almost all poor nations. General GSP. Super-GSP more generous on market access. Everything but Arms for least developed nations. On paper, EBA grants zero-tariff access all goods, except arms and munitions. Goods in which these nations are most competitive are in fact excluded from the deal. Tariffs on bananas, rice and sugar products where these poor nations could easily expand their EU sales are to come down only in the future. Moreover, even though all tariffs on these items will be gone by 2009, the exports quantities are limited by bilateral quotas. 49 nations qualify for EBA in principle in 2005.

16 Non-regional FTAs Mexico, Chile, and South Africa, done. Ongoing with Mercosur, & the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates).

17 Non-preferential trade About 1/3 EU imports are not granted some sort of preferential treatment (US, Japan, etc.).

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