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1 Supplementary figures Source: OECD (211d, p. 8). Figure S3.1 Business enterprise expenditure on R&D, 1999 and 29 (as a percentage of GDP) ISR FIN SWE KOR (1999, 28) JPN CHE (2, 28) USA (1999, 28) DNK AUT (22, 29) DEU OECD (1999, 28) ISL (1999, 28) FRA AUS (1999, 28) BEL CHN LUX (2, 29) SVN IRL EU27 GBR CAN CZE NOR NLD RUS PRT ESP HUN ITA EST ZAF (21, 28) NZL (1999, 27) TUR SVK POL MEX (1999, 27) GRC (1999, 27) CHL (28) %

2 2 The economics of European integration, second edition % IRL (27) ISR (27) BEL (27) HUN CZE (27) AUT (27) GBR SVK (27) SWE (27) CAN (27) NLD POL (27) NOR (27) SVN (27) DEU (27) ITA PRT (27) FRA FIN (26) CHE USA JPN Source: OECD (211d, p. 81). Figure S3.2 R&D expenditures generated by foreign- controlled affiliates, 28 (as a percentage of BERD)

3 Supplementary figures 3 Source: OECD (211d, p. 9). Figure S3.3 Government- financed R&D in business, 1999 and 29 (as a percentage of R&D performed in the business sector) RUS ZAF (21, 28) ESP (22, 27) HUN TUR CZE POL FRA (26, 28) EST AUT (22, 27) NOR USA (1999, 28) NZL (21, 27) SVN (1999, 27) GBR (21, 29) EU27 (1999, 28) SVK OECD (1999, 28) MEX (24, 27) SWE (25, 29) ITA (1999, 28) BEL (1999, 27) ISL (1999, 28) KOR (1999, 26) GRC (1999, 27) AUS (21, 26) DEU (1999, 28) CHN (2, 29) ISR (1999, 28) IRL NLD LUX (2, 29) PRT (1999, 28) FIN DNK (1999, 25) CAN CHL (28) CHE (2, 28) JPN 4.76% (1999) 57.37% (29) %

4 4 The economics of European integration, second edition Source: New Innovation Union Scoreboard, IP/11/114, 1 February 211. Figure S3.4 EU comparison with key competitors Performance lead/gap to EU Russia US Japan India Brazil China 8 4.% 2.%.% 2.% 4.% 6.% 8.% Average annual growth rate of performance lead/gap Modest innovators Innovation followers Moderate innovators Innovation leaders.1. LV BG LT RO SK PL HU MT GR ES CZ IT PT EE SI CY EU FR LU IE BE NL AT UK DE Note: Average performance is measured using a composite indicator building on data for 24 indicators going from a lowest possible performance of to a maximum possible performance of 1. Average performance in 21 reflects performance in 28/9 due to a lag in data availability. The performance of Innovation leaders is 2% or more above that of the EU27; of Innovation followers it is less than 2% above but more than 1% below that of the EU27; of Moderate innovators it is less than 1% below but more than 5% below that of the EU27; and for Modest innovators it is below 5% that of the EU27. Source: New Innovation Union Scoreboard, IP/11/114, 1 February 211. Figure S3.5 Innovation performance in the EU member states, 21 FI DK SE

5 Supplementary figures 5 Source: European Commission, Facts and figures on state aid in the member states: State Aid Scoreboard, SEC(21) 1462 final, Brussels, 1 December 21. Figure S3.6 Share of aid instruments in total aid for industry and services in the EU, 29 Guarantees 36% Grants 1% Tax exemptions 6% Tax deferrals % Soft loans 1% Equity participation 47% Source: European Commission, Facts and figures on state aid in the member states: State Aid Scoreboard, SEC(21) 1462 final, Brussels, 1 December 21. Figure S3.7 Share of aid instruments in aid for industry and services excluding crisis measures in the EU, 29 Equity participation 1% Soft loans 4% Tax deferrals % Guarantees 2% Tax exemptions 42% Grants 51%

6 6 The economics of European integration, second edition Source: OECD (211c, p. 42). Figure S4.1 Extra- EU agro-food trade balance, , , Agro-food imports Agro-food exports Agro-food balance EU EU EU EU Source: OECD (211c, p. 43). Figure S4.2 Extra- EU agro- food products in total external EU trade, , , 27 8 % Import Export EU EU27

7 Supplementary figures 7 Coffee, tea and cocoa, 11.5% Byproducts, 8.7% Processed products, 8.5% Animal fats and oil, 8.4% Oilseeds, 8.3% Tobacco, 2.3% Sugar, 2.3% Other, 6.9% Fruit and vegetables, 26% Meat and live animals, 5% Beverages, 5.4% Cereals and rice, 5.8% Dairy products and eggs, 1.1% Beef, 34% Pigmeat, 3% Poultry, 11% Sheep, 24% Other, 28% Source: OECD (211c, p. 43). Figure S4.3 Composition of EU agro- food imports, 27 8 Brazil United States Argentina China Turkey Switzerland Indonesia New Zealand South Africa Thailand Chile India Canada Colombia Côte d lvoire Source: OECD (211c, p. 44). Figure S4.4 Main suppliers of agro- food products to the EU, 27 8 (% of total external food imports)

8 8 The economics of European integration, second edition Other, 8% Dairy products and eggs, 9% Fruit and vegetables, 1% Cereals and rice, 6% Coffee, tea and cocoa, 5% Animal fats and oil, 4% Tobacco, 3% Byproducts, 3% Oilseeds, 2% Sugar, 2% Meat and live animals, 7% Beef, 4% Pigmeat, 41% Poultry, 15% Other, 41% Processed products, 17% Beverages, 23% Source: OECD (211c, p. 44). Figure S4.5 Composition of EU agro- food exports, 27 8 United States Russian Federation Switzerland Japan Norway Canada Algeria Saudi Arabia Turkey China Hong Kong, China Ukraine Australia United Arab Emirates Korea, Republic Source: OECD (211c, p. 44). Figure S4.6 Main export markets for EU agro- food products, 27 8 (% of total agro- food exports)

9 Supplementary figures 9 Source: OECD (211c, p. 7). Figure S4.7 Developments of export refunds, m 12, 1, Cereals Beef and veal Rice Sugar and isoglucose Milk and milk products Poultry meat and eggs Processed products Fruit and vegetables Pigmeat Other products 8, 6, 4, 2, Source: WTO (211b, p. 111). Figure S4.8 Subsidies for exports of select agriculture- related products from the EU in 23 4 and 27 8 million 3, 2,5 2, 1,5 Pigmeat Skim milk powder Cheese Beef meat Sugar Incorporated products Butter and butteroil Other milk products 1, 5 23/4 27/8

10 1 The economics of European integration, second edition 38% 36.8% 37.% 37.% EU27 EA17 36% 34% 35.3% 35.3% 35.8% 35.2% 35.2% 34.1% 34.4% 33.5% 33.% 32% 31.9% 31.8% 3% 3.7% 3.4% 29.6% 28% 26% 24% 29.3% 28.3% 27.% 28.1% 27.7% 26.8% 25.7% 25.6% 25.6% 25.3% 25.5% 25.3% 24.5% 23.6% 23.5% 23.3% 23.1% 22% Source: European Commission (211c, p. 62). Figure S5.1 Development of adjusted statutory tax rate on corporate income, and euro area (EA) averages (%) Imports Exports Balance Source: DG Trade, 212. Figure S8.1 EU trade in goods with the US, 28 1

11 Supplementary figures Imports Exports Balance Source: DG Trade, 212. Figure S8.2 EU trade in services with the US, ,4. 1,2. 1, ,14. 1, Inward stocks Outward stocks Balance 1,21.4 1,134. 1, , Source: DG Trade, 212. Figure S8.3 EU FDI stock with the US, 28 1

12 12 The economics of European integration, second edition Imports Exports Balance Source: DG Trade, 212. Figure S8.4 EU trade in goods with China, Imports Exports Balance Source: DG Trade, 212. Figure S8.5 EU trade in services with China, 28 1

13 Supplementary figures Inward stocks Outward stocks Balance Source: DG Trade, 212. Figure S8.6 EU FDI stock with China, Imports Exports Balance Source: DG Trade, 212. Figure S8.7 EU trade in goods with Russia, 28 1

14 14 The economics of European integration, second edition Imports Exports Balance Source: DG Trade, 212. Figure S8.8 EU trade in services with Russia, Inward stocks Outward stocks Balance Source: DG Trade, 212. Figure S8.9 EU stock of FDI with Russia, 28 1

15 Supplementary figures Imports Exports Balance Source: DG Trade, 212. Figure S8.1 EU trade in goods with Japan, Imports Exports Balance Source: DG Trade, 212. Figure S8.11 EU trade in services with Japan, 28 1

16 16 The economics of European integration, second edition Inward stocks Outward stocks Balance Source: DG Trade, 212. Figure S8.12 EU stock of FDI with Japan, EU27 Luxembourg Malta Slovenia Cyprus Sweden Spain Denmark United Kingdom Austria Ireland Netherlands Italy Czech Republic Finland Germany Portugal Estonia Slovakia Hungary Lithuania Latvia Switzerland Iceland Norway Note: *Data on the number of inhabitants refer to 1 January 21; Belgium, Greece, France, Poland and Romania, not available. Source: Eurostat, 212. Figure S11.1 Immigrants, 29* (per 1, inhabitants)

17 Supplementary figures Non EU foreigners EU foreigners 2 1 EU27 Luxembourg Latvia Estonia Cyprus Spain Austria Belgium Germany Ireland Greece United Kingdom Italy Sweden Denmark France Malta Portugal Czech Republic Slovenia Netherlands Finland Hungary Slovakia Lithuania Poland Notes: 1 Excluding Bulgaria and Romania. 2 Provisional. Source: Eurostat, 212. Figure S11.2 Share of non-nationals in the resident population, 21 1 (%) Romania Poland Italy Portugal United Kingdom Germany France Netherlands Bulgaria Spain Turkey Morocco Albania China Ukraine Russia Algeria India Eucador Serbia and Montenegro Citizens of other EU27 member states Citizens of non-member countries Source: Eurostat, 212. Figure S11.3 Main countries of origin of non-nationals, EU27, 21 (million)

18 18 The economics of European integration, second edition Age Nationals Foreigners % 2% 1% % 1% 2% 3% Men Women Note: * Based on those member states for which data are available. Source: Eurostat, 212. Figure 11.4 Age structure of the national and non-national populations, EU, 21* (%) Source: Eurostat database, 211. Figure S12.1 Energy import dependency in the EU, oil, 29 EU27 Malta Sweden Bulgaria Luxembourg Cyprus Latvia Ireland Spain Finland Slovenia Portugal Poland France Netherlands Greece Czech Republic Germany Belgium Italy Austria Lithuania Slovakia Hungary Estonia Romania United Kingdom Denmark

19 Supplementary figures 19 Source: Eurostat database, 211. Figure S12.2 Energy import dependency in the EU, gas, 29 EU27 Latvia Slovakia Czech Republic Portugal France Lithuania Finland Luxembourg Estonia Sweden Greece Slovenia Belgium Spain Bulgaria Ireland Italy Germany Hungary Austria Poland United Kingdom Romania Netherlands Denmark

20 2 The economics of European integration, second edition Source: Eurostat database, 211. Figure S12.3 Energy intensity, 29 (kgoe/ 1) EU27 Bulgaria Estonia Romania Czech Republic Slovakia Lithuania Hungary Poland Latvia Slovenia Finland Cyprus Belgium Portugal Netherlands Malta Spain Greece France Luxembourg Germany Sweden Italy Austria United Kingdom Ireland Denmark Source: UNCTAD, World Investment Report, 212. Figure S15.1 FDI in Mexico and Turkey, annual inflows, ($m) 35, 3, 25, 2, Mexico Turkey 15, 1, 5,

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