1 Global Marketing Contemporary theory, practice and cases By Ilan Alon, Eugene Jaffe, Christiane Prange & Donata Vianelli
2 Chapter 3 Regional Trade and Emerging Markets
3 Learning objectives After reading this chapter you should be able to: Be aware of the difference between regional and global trade agreements Understand the difference between various types of regional economic blocs. Understand the key issues and concepts associated with emerging markets, especially the BRIC countries. Discuss why there is more regional than global trade. Make an argument for fair trade. Determine which emerging markets have the most potential and why.
4 Regionalism or globalism? A global trade agreement would allow many countries to enjoy trade with each other free from most restrictions. A regional trade agreement lowers trade barriers among members without having to lower barriers for non-members. Regional trading blocs have resulted in a concentration of trade within regions rather than globally. The formation of regional blocs also influences market entry: Preferential trading terms reduce the cost of exporting to member country markets. The costs of serving multiple countries within a trading bloc may differ depending on the base of operations. Strategically locating in one country can lead to greater efficiencies than investing in another country outside of the bloc. It may be easier to harmonize marketing standards on a regional level than globally.
5 Regional trade Foreign trade flows are concentrated in developed countries, especially by the Triad Nations: China, The United States, and Germany. Much of world trade increasingly occurs within regions and between three major economic areas: North America and Mexico, Asia, and Europe. Triad and regional trade are dominant, e.g. 60 percent of EU member s exports and imports (intra-trade) are to other EU countries. Most multinational corporations pursue regional, not global strategies, e.g. approximately 90 percent of all cars manufactured in Europe are sold in Europe, while 75 percent of all cars manufactured in North America are sold in North America.
6 Merchandise trade in the Triad ($ Billion, 2013) CHINA GERMANY USA
7 The world s largest merchandise exporters and importers (US$ Trillions 2011) 1. European Union (27) China United States Germany 3.87 Source: World Trade Organization
8 TNC s Top Prospective Host Economies, RANK COUNTRY PERCENT RESPONDING* 1 CHINA 45 2 UNITED STATES 43 3 INDIA 30 4 INDONESIA 24 5 BRAZIL 19 6 GERMANY 19 7 MEXICO 18 8 THAILAND 15 9 UNITED KINGDOM JAPAN 12 *Percentage of respondents` selecting economy as a top destination. Source: UNCTAD survey. blications/world-investmentprospects- survey.aspx.
9 Regional economic blocs The economic and political forces of globalization have led to the regionalization of societies thorough the establishment of integrated economies such as the European Union, NAFTA and Mercosur, so-called "single markets". These "single markets" have provided the framework through which firms, including manufacturers, distributors and service providers act under a new set of rules: those of the economic region in addition to those of the nation state. Regional trading blocs such as the EU, NAFTA and Mercosur were established to liberalize trade between countries and facilitate the flows of goods, services, investment and communication.
10 Forms of cooperative agreements A single market is the free movement from one member country to another of people, merchandise, services and capital. However, the extent to which these movements are implemented differs from one regional trading bloc to another. There are three main forms of cooperative agreements: Free-Trade areas (between two or more countries) Customs Unions Common Markets
11 Free-trade areas (FTA) Free Trade Areas (FTAs) are arrangements done to reduce or eliminate tariffs and non-tariff barriers on goods among member countries. However, each country continues its normal trade policies with other countries, determining the extent of its external tariffs with non-member countries outside of the FTA agreement There are many bi-lateral (two countries) and multi-lateral (more than two countries) FTAs agreements: Examples of bilateral agreements: between the USA and Israel and the USA and South Korea. Examples of multi-lateral agreements: the European Free Trade Area EFTA (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) includes those countries that did not opt to join the EU since its inception; the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), signed between the US, Canada and Mexico in 1994.
12 Example of the Mechanisms of a Free-trade areas (FTA) Today, most countries have domestic content legislation, which requires that products must contain a minimum value added in the country of origin in order to be free of customs duties.
13 Countries with which EFTA has concluded an FTA agreement In 1994 the EU and EFTA established the European Economic Area (EEA) thereby creating a European Single Market. While not members of the EU, EFTA countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) have free movement of goods, capital, services and people, BUT WITHOUT a common monetary and agricultural policy or the same social welfare policies as the EU. Each country is free to negotiate free trade agreements with other countries. All EFTA countries have a vast network of free trade and bilateral agreements. The table shows those countries with which EFTA has concluded an FTA agreement. Eastern Europe Balkans Middle East & Africa Americas & Asia Bulgaria Croatia Romania Macedonia Israel Morocco Jordan Lebanon Tunisia Turkey Palestinian Authority Southern African Customs Union (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland) Chile Mexico South Korea Singapore
14 Customs Unions Customs union = FTA + A common external tariff There are a number of customs union trade blocs; examples include the Eurasian Customs Union (Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan); the East African Community (Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, and Rwanda) and the Southern African Customs Union (South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland).
15 Common Markets Common market = FTA + Customs union + free movement of people and capital. The largest of the common markets is the European Union (28 members), established as the European Economic Community in 1958 with six member countries. The EU has two additional goals: the establishment of a monetary and political union.
16 Monetary Union in the EU A monetary union requires at least a common currency and a central bank. Eleven countries of the EU Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain initially qualified to participate in the monetary union. This required them to adhere to criteria established by the Maastricht Treaty regarding price stability, public finance (government deficits), interest and exchange rates. Following this initial agreement, a European Central Bank began functioning in 1998 and a Euro area in Euro notes and coins were introduced in 2002, replacing national ones. Of the EU 28 members, 18 adopted the Euro in addition to six non-eu members, Andorra, Kosovo, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino and the Vatican City.
17 Political Union in the EU A final stage in the integration of countries belonging to a trade bloc is political union. While this stage is included in the Maastricht Treaty, it is far from fruition. Political union means relinquishing some if not all national sovereignty to the union, which many countries are unwilling to do, especially Great Britain, Germany and France. Some forms of political cooperation are possible, such as a common defense (NATO) and foreign policy. However, formal political union remains a distant goal to be achieved. Ireland and the United Kingdom do not participate in the Schengen Agreement, which eliminates internal EU border checks.
18 EU and NAFTA ($ Millions) INTRA-TRADE VOLUME INTRA-TRADE SHARE (%) REGIONAL GDP REGIONAL GDP SHARE (%) EU 3,886, ,586, NAFTA 1,101, ,992, Intra-Trade Volume=Trade volume between member countries. Intra-Trade Share=Trade within the bloc/total trade volume of member countries. Regional GDP=Sum of the GDP of members. Regional GDP Share=GDP of member countries/world GDP. Source: UN Commodity Trade Data Base (2011)
19 Trade Agreement examples ORGANIZATION MEMBERS Association of Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN) Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam East African Community (EAC) Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay
20 MERCOSUR South America's largest trading bloc with a combined GDP of $1.1 trillion Combined market encompasses more than 250 million people and accounts for more than threequarters of the economic activity on the continent MERCOSUR tariff policies regulate imports and exports and the bloc can arbitrate trade disputes among its members. EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY (EAC) Combined population of 120 million people, land area of 1.85 million sq kilometers and a combined gross domestic product of $ 41 billion Working to form a common market and a monetary union; and ultimately a Political Federation of the East African States
21 ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH-EAST ASIAN NATIONS (ASEANS) Population of about 560 million, and a combined gross domestic product of US$ 1,100 billion Objective is to create a stable, prosperous and highly competitive economic region with a free flow of goods, services, skilled labor, investment and capital GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL (GCC) Both a customs union and a common market, allowing for the free movement of goods, capital and people among member countries Members have some of the fastest growing economies in the world Economic and technical cooperation agreement with the EU, in the fields of energy, industry, agriculture, fisheries, and science
22 Free versus Fair Trade Fair trade is an approach to international commerce that aims to ensure that producers in developing countries receive: a fair price for goods and services, decent working conditions, a commitment from buyers; security for sellers There are a number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that aim to promote fair trade, including The Fairtrade Foundation ( Oxfam International ( Traidcraft ( and the International Fair Trade Association, (IFAT, These organizations have defined fair trade as an alternative approach to conventional international trade. It is a trading partnership which aims at sustainable development for excluded and disadvantaged producers. It seeks to do this by providing better trading conditions, by awareness raising and by campaigning. Global marketers should be aware of the growing importance of these organizations. Their market share has become significant in some countries. For example, 47% of all bananas, 28% of the flowers and 9% of the sugar sold in Switzerland are Fair Trade labeled.
23 Emerging Markets Term includes all developing countries A measure of national income is the most used indicator of a country's development Measures of national income in emerging markets are lower than developed countries But market potential for many products is substantial An emerging market country can be defined as a society transitioning from a dictatorship to a free market-oriented economy, with increasing economic freedom, gradual integration within the global marketplace, an expanding middle class, improving standards of living and social stability and tolerance, as well as an increase in cooperation with multilateral institutions. One determinant of an emerging market is economic reforms that result in Stronger, more responsible performance Transparency Efficiency in capital markets. If reforms are successfully implemented, emerging countries are more likely to receive aid from developed countries and from organizations such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund
24 BRIC Countries Brazil, Russia, India, China Offer high consumer potential and that could overtake the economies of the developed world by 2050 The combined GDP of the BRIC countries could exceed that of the G6 (US, EU, Australia, Japan, India and China) countries combined. China, especially, is at the forefront of world economic development. All BRIC countries had experienced real GDP growth until the financial crisis of BRIC countries are not only a major source for manufacturing, but also consumers of basic products like food and clothing, and high technology products as well. Consumer products have to be adapted to local requirements and be priced to make them accessible to a large number of people. BRIC countries has key strengths and weaknesses.
25 Strength and weaknesses of BRIC Countries COUNTRY KEY STRENGTHS KEY WEAKNESSES Brazil South America s leading economic power. Brazil is increasing investment in higher education. Abundant natural resources and a diversified economy. GDP growth and consumer spending power is declining. More investment needed in the infrastructure. Russia Abundant natural resources and a skilled labor force. The only BRIC country undergoing a population decline reducing the labor market and increasing the number of pensioners. India 27% of the population will be younger than 15 in 2020, an important future consumer market. Economic growth averaged about 8% since Large population of world-class competitive industries, IT competent workforce. Stable financial institutions and strong legal system. China Strong economic growth averaging 10 percent per year. Large population of 1.3 billion can provide growing domestic consumption. Market-oriented reforms continuing (e.g. accession to the WTO). Limited foreign investment, inadequate infrastructure. Inadequate domestic savings that could fuel investment. Weak financial system, growing income gap could lead to social instability. There is a shortage of skilled management. Weak intellectual property laws.
26 Discussion questions 1. Look up export statistics for your State. Are there exports to emerging markets? If so, what is the proportion of exports compared to developed countries? 2. Do you agree that there is little difference between emerging markets and developing countries? Why or why not? 3. You are asked by the owner of a medium sized firm manufacturing digital alarm clocks. He thinks there is a market for his product in the BRIC countries. How would you advise him on what to look for first?
1 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 1,280,827,870 2 EUROPEAN UNION 271,511,802 3 UNITED KINGDOM 4 JAPAN 5 GERMANY 6 SWEDEN 7 KUWAIT 8 SAUDI ARABIA *** 203,507,919 181,612,466 139,497,612 134,235,153 104,356,762
Chapter 9 Regional Economic Integration Global Talent Crunch The Global Talent Crunch Over the next decade, it is estimated that the growth in demand for collegeeducated talent will exceed the growth in
GLOBAL RISKS OF CONCERN TO BUSINESS WEF EXECUTIVE OPINION SURVEY RESULTS SEPTEMBER 2017 GLOBAL RISKS OF CONCERN TO BUSINESS Results from the World Economic Forum Executive Opinion Survey 2017 Survey and
Commonwealth of Australia Migration Regulations 1994 CLASSES OF PERSONS (Subparagraphs 1236(1)(a)(ii), 1236(1)(b)(ii) and 1236(1)(c)(ii)) I, SOPHIE MONTGOMERY, Delegate of the Minister for Immigration,
VISA POLICY OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN Country Diplomatic Service National Term of visafree stay CIS countries 1 Azerbaijan visa-free visa-free visa-free 30 days 2 Kyrgyzstan visa-free visa-free visa-free
ICSID/3 LIST OF CONTRACTING STATES AND OTHER SIGNATORIES OF THE CONVENTION (as of January 11, 2018) The 162 States listed below have signed the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between
Albania EASTERN EUROPE Angola SOUTH AFRICA Argelia (***) Argentina SOUTH AMERICA Australia OCEANIA Austria Azerbaijan(**) EURASIA Bahrain MIDDLE EAST Bangladesh SOUTH ASIA Barbados CARIBBEAN AMERICA Belgium
Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention 14/12/2016 Number of Contracting Parties: 169 Country Entry into force Notes Albania 29.02.1996 Algeria 04.03.1984 Andorra 23.11.2012 Antigua and Barbuda 02.10.2005
GENTING DREAM IMMIGRATION & VISA REQUIREMENTS FOR THAILAND, MYANMAR & INDONESIA Thailand Visa on Arrival (VOA) Nationals of the following 18 countries may apply for a Thailand VOA. The applicable handling
A Partial Solution To the Fundamental Problem of Causal Inference Some of our most important questions are causal questions. 1,000 5,000 10,000 50,000 100,000 10 5 0 5 10 Level of Democracy ( 10 = Least
Trends in international higher education 1 Schedule Student decision-making Drivers of international higher education mobility Demographics Economics Domestic tertiary enrolments International postgraduate
Monthly statistics December : Forced returns from Norway The National Police Immigration Service (NPIS) forcibly returned 869 persons in December, and 173 of these were convicted offenders. The NPIS forcibly
2016 Report Tracking Financial Inclusion The Multidimensional Financial Inclusion MIFI 1 Financial Inclusion Financial inclusion is an essential ingredient of economic development and poverty reduction
Americas (31) Argentina Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda Bolivia Brazil Cayman Islands Chile Colombia Costa Rica Curaçao Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Jamaica Nicaragua Panama
SKILLS, MOBILITY, AND GROWTH Eric Hanushek Ludger Woessmann Ninth Biennial Federal Reserve System Community Development Research Conference April 2-3, 2015 Washington, DC Commitment to Achievement Growth
The Conference Board Total Economy Database Summary Tables November 2016 About This document contains a number of tables and charts outlining the most important trends from the latest update of the Total
Share of Countries over 1/3 Urbanized, by GDP per Capita (2012 $) 1960 and 2010 Share Urbanized 0.2.4.6.8 1 $0-1000 $1000-2000 $2000-3000 $3000-4000 $4000-5000 1960 2010 Source: World Bank Welfare Economics
1 Afghanistan In progress Established 2 Albania 3 Algeria In progress 4 Andorra 5 Angola Draft received Established 6 Antigua and Barbuda 7 Argentina In progress 8 Armenia Draft in progress Established
2017 Social Progress Index Central Europe Scorecard 2017. For information, contact Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited In this pack: 2017 Social Progress Index rankings Country scorecard(s) Spotlight on indicator
I was to find throughout my years as Secretary that travel was an efficient use of time because face-to-face meetings were action-forcing and the best possible way to size up others whether friend, foe,
UNIDEM CAMPUS FOR THE SOUTHERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES Venice Commission of Council of Europe STRENGTHENING THE LEGAL CAPACITIES OF THE CIVIL SERVICE IN THE SOUTHERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES Administrations
HUMAN RESOURCES IN R&D This fact sheet presents the latest UIS S&T data available as of July 2011. Regional density of researchers and their field of employment UIS Fact Sheet, August 2011, No. 13 In the
The Impact of DNA Technologies On the Future of Criminal Offender DNA Databases Presented by Tim Schellberg Gordon Thomas Honeywell Governmental Affairs Human Identification Solutions Conference Madrid,
TAKING HAPPINESS SERIOUSLY FLACSO-INEGI seminar Mexico City, April 18, 2013 John Helliwell Canadian Institute for Advanced Research and Vancouver School of Economics, UBC In collaboration with Shun Wang,
Nontechnological trends Social Progress Index (SPI) Measuring more than just GDP Georges Kioes Partner Public Sector Leader Deloitte Tom Pfeiffer Partner Audit Deloitte To measure a country s development,
PASSPORT HOLDERS WHO ARE EXEMPT FROM VISAS FOR SOUTH AFRICA SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE The citizen who is a holder of a national passport (diplomatic, official and ordinary) of the foreign countries
Montessori Model United Nations - NYC Conference March 018 Middle School Level COMMITTEES COUNTRIES Maximum Number of Delegates per Committee DISEC 1 DISEC LEGAL SPECPOL SOCHUM ECOFIN 1 ECOFIN UNSC UNGA
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Form A Annex to the Common Application Form for Registration of Third-Country Audit Entities under a European Commission Decision 2008/627/EC of 29 July 2008 on transitional
Lists of third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and of those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement A) List of third countries whose
INTERNATIONAL AIR SERVICES TRANSIT AGREEMENT SIGNED AT CHICAGO ON 7 DECEMBER 1944 State Entry into force: The Agreement entered into force on 30 January 1945. Status: 131 Parties. This list is based on
= ratification, accession or enactment Echange and International Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia s Australia s 3 Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh
China s Aid Approaches in the Changing International Aid Architecture Mao Xiaojing Deputy Director, Associate Research Fellow Chinese Academy of International Trade and Economic Cooperation (CAITEC) MOFCOM,
1 APPENDIX 1: MEASURES OF CAPITALISM AND POLITICAL FREEDOM All indicators shown below were transformed into series with a zero mean and a standard deviation of one before they were combined. The summary
25 October 2017 (17-5787) Page: 1/12 Committee on Customs Valuation STATUS OF NOTIFICATIONS OF NATIONAL LEGISLATION ON CUSTOMS VALUATION AND RESPONSES TO THE CHECKLIST OF ISSUES NOTE BY THE SECRETARIAT
Visa requirements Participants who require a visa to enter the Bahamas should apply for a visa at the nearest consulate or embassy of the Bahamas in their country. There are several Bahamas embassies and
Chapter Nine Regional Economic Integration Introduction 9-3 One notable trend in the global economy in recent years has been the accelerated movement toward regional economic integration - Regional economic
ANNEX IV: RATES APPLICABLE FOR UNIT CONTRIBUTIONS KEY ACTION 2 STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIPS 1. Project management and implementation Contribution to the activities of the coordinating organisation: 500 EUR per
States Parties to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol Date of entry into force: 22 April 1954 (Convention) 4 October 1967 (Protocol) As of 1 February 2004 Total
On aid orphans and darlings (Aid Effectiveness in aid allocation by respective donor type) Sven Tengstam, March 3, 2017 Extended Abstract Introduction The Paris agenda assumes that the effectiveness of
PROTOCOL FOR THE PROHIBITION OF THE USE IN WAR OF ASPHYXIATING, POISONOUS OR OTHER GASES, AND OF BACTERIOLOGICAL METHODS OF WARFARE Signed at Geneva June 17, 1925 Entered into force February 8, 1928 Ratification
OECD Strategic Education Governance A perspective for Scotland Claire Shewbridge 25 October 2017 Edinburgh CERI overview What CERI does Generate forward-looking research analyses and syntheses Identify
Proforma Cost for national UN Volunteers for UN Partner Agencies - 2017 Country of Assignment National UN Volunteers (12 months) In US$ National UN Youth Volunteers (12 months) In US$ National University
The (rank ordered) Andreas Scho-er (Ph.D.) & Paul W. Beamish (Ph.D.) 1 About the Research The predominant assumption in business research and practice is that Multinational Corporations choose their foreign
Statistics to the end of September 2017 16000 Cumulative no. of ANZCTR registered trials 14000 12000 No. of trials 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 // No. of ANZCTR Registered Trials in past 12 Months 200 180
International Import and Export Authorization System (I2ES) Ha Fung NG, Cilla Psychotropic Control Section, INCB NDS and I2ES User Group Meeting 3-5 October 2017 What is I2ES? Expedite import and export
Proforma Cost for National UN Volunteers for UN Partner Agencies for 2018 Country of Assignment National UN Volunteers (12 months) National UN Youth Volunteers (12 months) National University Volunteers
HPC Global Support Contact Information This document provides important warranty and service information. For HPC products 2006 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein
SECTION THREE BENEFITS OF THE JSEPA 1. Section Two described the possible scope of the JSEPA and elaborated on the benefits that could be derived from the proposed initiatives under the JSEPA. This section
The Anti-Counterfeiting Network Ronald Brohm Managing Director brief history More than 25 years experience in fighting counterfeiting Headquarters are based in Amsterdam, The Netherlands + 85 offices and
The Global Gender Gap Index 2015 The Global Gender Gap Index was first introduced by the World Economic Forum in 2006 as a framework for capturing the magnitude of gender-based disparities and tracking
THE TRUTH ABOUT TRADE BEYOND THE EU Why exiting the EU takes the UK into a world of new opportunity. THE TRUTH ABOUT TRADE BEYOND THE EU The Truth About Trade Beyond the EU booklet outlines the reasons
H E A LT H W E A LT H CAREER 2017 INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SALARY DIFFERENTIALS INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SALARY DIFFERENTIALS AT A GLANCE ORDER ONLINE GEOGRAPHY 86 COUNTRIES COVERED 175 6 REGIONS MARKETS
VIETNAM'S FTA AND IMPLICATION OF PARTICIPATING IN THE TPP Nguyen Huy Hoang, PhD Institute for Southeast Asian Studies Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences Taipei, October 31 st, 2013 AGENDA VIETNAM INTEGRATION
The Economics of European Integration Chapter 12 Trade Policy EU25 67% EFTA 4% CIS 2% EU25 exports, 2003 EFTA 4% EU25 67% CIS 3% Pattern of Trade: Facts Turkey 1% Other 24% Turkey 1% Other 25% Other Europe
The Three Elephants in the Room: Coal, Oil and Gas in the Primary Energy Consumption (PEC) and their CO2 Emissions up to 2013 Bernard CHABOT Renewable Energy Consultant and Trainer BCCONSULT, Garbejaire
1 of 5 10/2/2008 10:16 AM UN Home Department of Economic and Social Affairs Economic and Social Development Home UN logo Statistical Division Search Site map About us Contact us Millennium Profiles Demographic
ANNUAL IMPORT PAYMENTS 2014-2015 STATISTICS DEPARTMENT BANGLADESH BANK EDITORIAL COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN Md. Rizwanul Hoque Executive Director (Specialized) MEMBERS A.K.M. Fazlul Haque Mia General Manager Md.
WKO 2005_engl->Gerin 01.12.2005 14:12 Uhr Seite 1 Dear Teachers and Pupils! The Austrian export industry has been incredibly successful in recent years. In 2004 our country even captured the title of European
VOLUNTARY FUND FOR PARTICIPATION IN THE UNIVERSAL PERIODIC REVIEW MECHANISM Field-based briefings to Member States in the preparation of their national report - 2011- Briefing for Somalia 15 17 February
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE GB.297/LILS/3 297th Session Governing Body Geneva, November 2006 Committee on Legal Issues and International Labour Standards LILS FOR INFORMATION THIRD ITEM ON THE AGENDA The
Global Economy and Social Impacts Tai-Ran Hsu, Ph.D., ASME Fellow Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering San Jose State University San Jose, California E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.engr.sjsu.edu/trhsu
INF Tffêft- INFClRC/449/Add. 1 /, August iyy4 ~~" International Atomic Energy Agency INFORMATION CIRCULAR GENERAL Dislr. Original: ARABIC, CHINESE, ENGLISH, FRENCH, RUSSIAN, SPANISH CONVENTION ON NUCLEAR
corruption perceptions index 2017 Transparency International is a global movement with one vision: a world in which government, business, civil society and the daily lives of people are free of corruption.
PRESS RELEASE This is Passau University s press release on the Corruption Perceptions Index 2004. Please also obtain the official press release by Transparency International at: transparency.org/surveys/index.html#cpi
IV. URBANIZATION PATTERNS AND RURAL POPULATION GROWTH AT THE COUNTRY LEVEL Urbanization patterns at the country level are much more varied than at the regional level. Furthermore, for most countries, the
IBM 25 Years Power i Anniversary: Software Maintenance After Licence Fee Discount Program The offer Eligible products Start and/or end dates Where is it available? Marketing information Ordering/fulfillment
CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL INTERESTS IN MOBILE EQUIPMENT SIGNED AT CAPE TOWN ON 16 NOVEMBER 2001 State Entry into force: 1 March 2006 as applied to aircraft equipment, in accordance with Article 49 which
- 10 - Status October 13, 2017 Albania... March 6, 1994 Paris: March 6, 1994 Algeria... April 19, 1998 Paris: April 19, 1998 2,3 Andorra... June 2, 2004 Paris: June 2, 2004 Antigua and Barbuda... March
Education Quality and Economic Development Eric A. Hanushek Stanford University Bank of Israel Jerusalem, June 2017 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Development = Growth Growth = Skills Conclusions
2016 Europe Travel Trends Report One-third of worldwide travellers report1 they ll spend more on travel in 2016 than the year previous. Of those big spenders, Europeans dominate the list, with Switzerland,
List of Agreements on Mutual Visa Exemption Between the People s Republic of China and Foreign Countries ( In alphabetical order of foreign countries ) Up to now, the People s Republic of China and the
UNHCR Global Resettlement Statistical Report 2014 Introduction This report summarizes the resettlement activities of UNHCR Offices worldwide in 2014. The information for this report is drawn from the UNHCR
Preparatory Committee for the 2015 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Distr.: General 14 May 2014 Original: English NPT/CONF.2015/1 Contents Annexes Final report of the Preparatory Committee
Information note by the Secretariat Additional co-sponsors of draft resolutions/decisions Draft resolution or decision L.1  Establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East
A Gateway to a Better Life Education Aspirations Around the World September 2013 Education Is an Investment in the Future RESOLUTE AGREEMENT AROUND THE WORLD ON THE VALUE OF HIGHER EDUCATION HALF OF ALL