HUMAN RESOURCES IN R&D

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1 HUMAN RESOURCES IN R&D This fact sheet presents the latest UIS S&T data available as of July Regional density of researchers and their field of employment UIS Fact Sheet, August 2011, No. 13 In the drive to strengthen knowledge-based societies, policymakers are looking to ensure that their countries have an adequate supply of researchers. The information below provides a global overview of countries with the highest concentration of researchers as well as a breakdown by region. Figure 1 presents the distribution of researchers in the world by main regions/countries in 2002 and Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems, as well as in the management of the projects concerned (Frascati Manual, 2002). Figure 1. Where are researchers located? Shares of world researchers by principal regions/countries, 2002 and 2007 (%) 45% 4 35% 25% 15% 5% Asia Europe Americas North America 35.5% 40.9% % % 25.1% 21.9% 20.6% 20.1% 23.1% % 19.7% 11.1% 9.8% % 8.5% 6.5% 5.1% % % 3.5% 2.9% 3.5% 3.2% % % 1.8% 1.2% 1.7% 1.6% 1.7% 1.4% 1.4% 0.6% 0.7% 0.6% 0.4% 0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% European Union United States China Japan United Kingdom France India Africa Oceania Other in Asia Brazil Arab States (Africa) Argentina Mexico Arab States (Asia) South Africa Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics estimates, August 2010.

2 Figures 2 and 3 illustrate the distribution of researchers per 1 million inhabitants. The data are expressed in full-time equivalents (FTE), which are a measure of the actual volume of human resources devoted to research and development (R&D). It is important to note when interpreting the data that headcounts (HC) were used for countries where FTE figures were not available. Figure 2. How many researchers are there? Researchers per million inhabitants, 2009 or latest available year per million per million per million per million 2001 per million and above Data not available Notes: The data presented in this map are based on FTE. However, headcounts (HC) are used for the following countries as FTE numbers were not available: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Cuba, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, El Salvador, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Guinea, Honduras, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Mauritius, Mongolia, Montenegro, Nauru, Nicaragua, Peru, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda and US Virgin Islands. This should be taken into consideration when interpreting the data. UIS/FS/2011/13 2

3 Figure 3. How many researchers are there? Researchers per million inhabitants by principal regions/countries, 2007 or latest year available 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 Japan United States -1 5,573 4,663 4,624 4,209 North America Oceania United Kingdom 4,181 France 3,532 3,496 3,305 2,936 2,735 2,639 2,010 European Union 1,126 Europe Americas 1,087 1,081 1, WORLD China Argentina Asia Brazil Egypt Arab States (Africa) South Africa Mexico Arab States (Asia) Other in Asia Africa India -2 Note: -1 = 2006, -2 = Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics estimates, August Figure 4 shows the world s leading countries (top 10) in terms of the number of researchers on their territory. Figure 4. Which countries host the greatest number of researchers? Number of researchers, 2009 or latest available year 243, , , ,130154, ,948 1,592, , ,676 1,412,639 China-1 United States-2 Japan-1 Russian Federation United Kingdom Republic of Korea-1 France-1 India-4 Canada-2 Notes: -1 = 2008, -2 = 2007, -4 = Data are based on FTE. UIS/FS/2011/13 3

4 Figures 5, 6 and 7 illustrate the percentage of researchers by sector of employment expressed in full-time equivalents (FTE) (or headcounts where FTE were unavailable). One full-time equivalent may be thought of as one personyear. Thus, a person who normally spends of their time on R&D and the rest on other activities (such as teaching, university administration and student counseling) would be denoted as a 0.3 FTE. Similarly, if a full-time R&D worker is employed at an R&D unit for only six months, this results in an FTE of 0.5. Figure 5. A breakdown of researchers in the Americas Percentage of researchers by sector of employment, 2009 or latest year available Business enterprise Government Higher education Private non-profit Unknown United States-2 Canada-2 Chile-5 Mexico-2 Brazil-1 Ecuador-1 Honduras*-6 Argentina-1 Bolivia-7 El Salvador* Uruguay-1 Panama-1 Colombia-1 Trinidad/Tobago*-1 Venezuela Guatemala-1 Paraguay-1 Costa Rica-1 Nicaragua*-5 Figure 6. A breakdown of researchers in Europe Percentage of researchers by sector of employment (FTE), 2009 or latest year available Business enterprise Government Higher education Private non-profit Unknown Austria Sweden Denmark Finland Luxembourg France-1 Belarus* Ireland Norway Malta Iceland-1 Belgium Hungary Slovenia Czech Rep. Netherlands Switzerland-1 Italy Ukraine Turkey Spain United Kingdom+1 Romania Estonia Greece-2 Cyprus Portugal Croatia Poland Bulgaria Lithuania Slovakia Rep. of Moldova Latvia TFYR Macedonia-1 Serbia Montenegro*-2 Albania-1 UIS/FS/2011/13 4

5 Figure 7. A breakdown of researchers in Africa, Asia and the Pacific Percentage of researchers by sector of employment (FTE), 2009 or latest year available Business enterprise Government Higher education Private non-profit Unknown Mali*-2 South Africa-2 Ghana-2 Botswana*-4 Uganda* Zambia-1 Lesotho Tunisia-1 C. African Rep.* Cameroon*-1 Kenya*-2 Sudan*-4 Malawi-2 Morocco-1 Senegal-1 Mozambique*-2 Burkina Faso*-2 Ethiopia-2 Gambia* Seychelles-4 Guinea*-9 Egypt Madagascar-2 Tanzania*-2 Nigeria-2 Algeria-4 Togo-2 DR Congo*-4 Côte d'ivoire-4 Rep. of Korea-1 Japan-1 China-1 Singapore-1 Philippines-2 China, Hong Kong India-4 Malaysia-3 Jordan*-6 Laos-7 Palestinian OT*-1 Thailand-2 Sri Lanka-1 Brunei-6 Cambodia-7 Iran-1 Azerbaijan Kyrgyzstan* Viet Nam-7 Kazakhstan* China, Macao Mongolia* Indonesia*-4 Tajikistan*-3 Armenia* Bangladesh*-12 Georgia*-4 Pakistan Australia-1 New Zealand-2 Note: +1 = 2010, -1 = 2008, -2 = 2007, -3 = 2006, -4 = 2005, -5 = 2004, -6 = 2003, -7 = 2002, -9 = 2000, -12 = * = based on HC data. Abbreviations: Other Asia FTE HC Commonwealth of Independent States in Europe Central, Eastern and Other in Europe Commonwealth of Independent States in Asia Newly Industrialized Economies in Asia including Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore This excludes Japan, China, India and Israel Other Sub-Saharan Africa; this excludes South Africa Latin America and the Caribbean Full-time equivalents Headcounts For more information, please consult the UIS website at to access the database and subscribe to an alert service about the Institute s latest publications and data releases. UIS/FS/2011/13 5

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