Chapter 8 Section Review Packet

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1 Name: Date: Section 8-1: The Articles of Confederation Chapter 8 Section Review Packet 1. Constitution 2. Republicanism 3. Limited government 4. Suffrage 5. Articles of Confederation 6. Ratification 7. Land Ordinance of Northwest Ordinance of Northwest Territory a. A government in which leaders must obey the law and no one has total power b. System of self-government in which people elect representatives to represent their interests c. Voting rights d. Set of basic principles and laws that state the powers and duties of the government. e. The first constitution of the United States of America f. Official approval g. Law that created the Northwest Territory; created a system for bringing new states into the Union h. Law that divided and organized unsettled public lands i. Territory that included what is today Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin 10. What were the main sources of inspiration in creating new government(s) in the United States? Include existing documents of law and government, existing forms of government, and philosophical movements. 11. What kinds of rights were protected by early state constitutions? Include examples of personal rights, and rights to certain forms of government/political participation. 12. The Articles of Confederation created a weak central government. Why would this appeal to some people, but not to others?

2 13. What kinds of powers did the Confederation Congress have? What powers did it not have? 14. Describe the system for land surveying and division created by the Land Ordinance of How were new territories organized geographically, and how would land be divided within townships? 15. What institution did the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 ban in the territories and why would this become an issue in the future?

3 Section 8-2: Problems in the New Nation 16. Tariffs 17. Interstate commerce 18. Inflation 19. Debtors 20. Creditors 21. Depression 22. Shay s Rebellion a. Rebellion of Massachusetts farmers in protest of high property taxes b. A period of low economic activity c. Increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money d. Those who owe others money e. Those to whom money is owed f. A tax on imports or exports g. Trade between two or more states within the United States 23. Describe how the Articles of Confederation left the United States weak militarily. How did other nations take advantage of this? 24. Describe how the Articles of Confederation left the United States weak economically. How did other nations take advantage of this fact? 25. & Describe two ways in which states would attempt to raise money to pay off debts, including both the method and its consequences. 26. How did Shay s Rebellion highlight the need for a new constitution?

4 Section 8-3: The Constitution 27. Constitutional Convention 28. James Madison 29. Virginia Plan 30. New Jersey Plan 31. William Paterson 32. Great Compromise 33. Three-Fifths Compromise 34. Popular Sovereignty 35. Federalism 36. Legislative branch 37. Executive branch 38. Judicial branch 39. Checks and balances a. System that prevents any branch of government from becoming too powerful b. Plan that proposed legislative representation be based on population alone c. Plan that proposed legislative representation be equal for each state d. Idea that political authority ultimately rests with the people e. Concept that means sharing of power between a central government and various states f. Branch of government that carries out and enforces laws g. Branch of government that interprets and applies laws h. Creator of the Virginia Plan i. Branch of government that creates and passes laws j. Meeting of delegates to revise the Articles of Confederation k. Creator of the New Jersey Plan 40. Describe the Virginia Plan in detail. Include: how many and which branches of government did it include, what type of legislature did it call for and how was representation to be determined, and did this plan favor larger or smaller states? 41. Describe the New Jersey Plan in detail. Include: how many and which branches of government did it include, what type of legislature did it call for and how was representation to be determined, and did this plan favor larger or smaller states? 42. Explain what was included from both plans in the Great Compromise. Include: how many and which branches of government did it include, and what type of legislature did it include and how was representation to be determined?

5 43. Explain the Three-Fifths Compromise, the Fugitive Slave Clause, and the Slave Importation Clause. d) How would arguments over slavery foreshadow future events? d) 44. Explain the concept of checks and balances, and b-d) include at least three examples. d) 45. Describe the legislative branch of the federal government and its primary responsibility. What are the two houses or chambers of the legislative branch, and whom do they represent? How is representation determined for these legislative bodies? 46. Describe the executive branch of the federal government and its primary responsibility. Who is the head of the executive branch? What organizations help the executive branch carry out its duties? 47. Describe the judicial branch of the federal government and its duties. What or who is the head of the judicial branch?

6 Section 8-4: Ratification of the Constitution 48. Antifederalists 49. Federalists 50. George Mason 51. The Federalist Papers 52. The Bill of Rights 53. Amendments a. A series of essays supporting the Constitution b. One of the most outspoken Antifederalists c. The first ten amendments to the Constitution d. Those in favor of a strong central government e. Changes or additions to the Constitution f. Those against a strong central government 54. What issues did the Antifederalists have with the Constitution? What, in particular, did they feel the Constitution lacked? Who were some of the most important Antifederalists? 55. Who were the Federalists and what was their view on the Constitution? Who were some of the most important Federalists? 56. What were the Federalist Papers and what was their purpose? Who wrote the Federalist Papers? 57. Describe the ratification process. How many states ratifications were necessary to adopt the Constitution? What promise was made in order to convince some states to ratify? 58. Describe the Bill of Rights. What documents were consulted in its creation?

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