Changing Attitudes towards Gender Equality: Update from the World Values Survey

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1 Changing Attitudes towards Gender Equality: Update from the World Values Survey The 6th Global Forum on Gender Statistics Helsinki, Finland, 24 to 26 October 216 Mengjia Liang and Rachel Snow United nations Population Fund Population and Development Branch, Technical Division, New York

2 INTRODUCTION - WORLD VALUES SURVEY Nationally representative surveys Stratified random sampling - with variations in the employed strata by country A minimum national sample of 1 Face- to- face interviews or phone interviews for remote areas All residents age 18 years and older Wave 6 (21-214), 58 countries 6 Caucasus & Central Asia 2 Eastern Asia 4 South- eastern Asia 2 South Asia 9 Western Asia 9 Latin America & the Caribbean 5 North Africa 5 Sub- Saharan Africa 16 Developed countries

3 SINCE WAVE 3 (1994-9) - QUESTIONS ON GENDER VALUES 3 or 5 point Likert scale On the whole, men make better political leaders than women. When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women. Proportion of respondents who disagree or strongly disagree with such statements Classified in this analysis as bearing attitudes that support women s empowerment & gender equality in each specific area. A university education is more important for a boy than for a girl. On the whole, men make better business executives than women do.

4 SUPPORT FOR GENDER EQUALITY BY COUNTRY Percentage Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Azerbaijan Armenia Kazakhstan Georgia Caucasus & Central Asia University education Business executives Political leaders Right to a job Pakistan Malaysia Philippines Thailand China South Asia, SE Asia, & East Asia Bahrain Yemen Kuwait Lebanon Iraq Jordan Qatar Palestine Western Asia Algeria Libya Tunisia North Africa Source: World Values Surveys data (downloaded and analyzed in August 216). Nigeria South Africa Rwanda Ghana Zimbabwe Sub- Saharan Africa Ecuador Chile Mexico Argentina Peru Colombia Uruguay Brazil Trinidad and Tobago Latin America & Caribbean Russia Romania Belarus Ukraine Estonia Germany Cyprus Poland Spain Slovenia United States New Zealand Netherlands Australia Sweden Developed regions

5 SUPPORT FOR GENDER EQUALITY BY COUNTRY Percentage Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Azerbaijan Armenia Kazakhstan Georgia Caucasus & Central Asia University education Business executives Political leaders Right to a job Pakistan Malaysia Philippines Thailand China South Asia, SE Asia, & East Asia Bahrain Yemen Kuwait Lebanon Iraq Jordan Qatar Palestine Western Asia Algeria Libya Tunisia North Africa Source: World Values Surveys data (downloaded and analyzed in August 216). Nigeria South Africa Rwanda Ghana Zimbabwe Sub- Saharan Africa Ecuador Chile Mexico Argentina Peru Colombia Uruguay Brazil Trinidad and Tobago Latin America & Caribbean Russia Romania Belarus Ukraine Estonia Germany Cyprus Poland Spain Slovenia United States New Zealand Netherlands Australia Sweden Developed regions

6 SUPPORT FOR GENDER EQUALITY BY COUNTRY Percentage Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Azerbaijan Armenia Kazakhstan Georgia Caucasus & Central Asia University education Business executives Political leaders Right to a job Pakistan Malaysia Philippines Thailand China South Asia, SE Asia, & East Asia Bahrain Yemen Kuwait Lebanon Iraq Jordan Qatar Palestine Western Asia Algeria Libya Tunisia North Africa Source: World Values Surveys data (downloaded and analyzed in August 216). Nigeria South Africa Rwanda Ghana Zimbabwe Sub- Saharan Africa Ecuador Chile Mexico Argentina Peru Colombia Uruguay Brazil Trinidad and Tobago Latin America & Caribbean Russia Romania Belarus Ukraine Estonia Germany Cyprus Poland Spain Slovenia United States New Zealand Netherlands Australia Sweden Developed regions

7 TRENDS: UNEVEN PROGRESS Greater upward trends in support for women s equal rights to university education. While many countries in Asia and Africa show declining support for women s equal right to employment when jobs are scarce. Average annual rate of change in support to gender equality Source: World Values Surveys data (downloaded and analyzed in August 216) Political leaders Right to a job University education Business executive Support for gender equality, percentage, latest data

8 TRENDS: UNEVEN PROGRESS Greater upward trends in support for women s equal rights to university education. While many countries in Asia and Africa show declining support for women s equal right to employment when jobs are scarce. Average annual rate of change in support to gender equality Source: World Values Surveys data (downloaded and analyzed in August 216) Political leaders Right to a job University education Business executive Support for gender equality, percentage, latest data

9 DIFFERENTIALS IN VALUES RIGHT TO A JOB 1 Men Women Age Age 5+ < Secondary edu University Percentage Azerbaijan Jordan Yemen Libya Iraq Tunisia Malaysia Kuwait Bahrain Nigeria Philippines Pakistan Algeria Palestine Qatar Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Kazakhstan Armenia Rwanda Romania Lebanon Thailand China Russia Ghana Georgia South Africa Ukraine Belarus Cyprus Zimbabwe Ecuador Poland Chile Estonia Germany T&T Colombia Peru Uruguay Argentina United States Mexico Brazil Australia Netherlands New Zealand Slovenia Spain Sweden Source: World Values Surveys data (downloaded and analyzed in August 216).

10 DIFFERENTIALS IN VALUES RIGHT TO A JOB 1 Men Women Age Age 5+ < Secondary edu University Percentage Azerbaijan Jordan Yemen Libya Iraq Tunisia Malaysia Kuwait Bahrain Nigeria Philippines Pakistan Algeria Palestine Qatar Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Kazakhstan Armenia Rwanda Romania Lebanon Thailand China Russia Ghana Georgia South Africa Ukraine Belarus Cyprus Zimbabwe Ecuador Poland Chile Estonia Germany T&T Colombia Peru Uruguay Argentina United States Mexico Brazil Australia Netherlands New Zealand Slovenia Spain Sweden Source: World Values Surveys data (downloaded and analyzed in August 216).

11 DIFFERENTIALS IN VALUES RIGHT TO A JOB 1 Men Women Age Age 5+ < Secondary edu University Percentage Azerbaijan Jordan Yemen Libya Iraq Tunisia Malaysia Kuwait Bahrain Nigeria Philippines Pakistan Algeria Palestine Qatar Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Kazakhstan Armenia Rwanda Romania Lebanon Thailand China Russia Ghana Georgia South Africa Ukraine Belarus Cyprus Zimbabwe Ecuador Poland Chile Estonia Germany T&T Colombia Peru Uruguay Argentina United States Mexico Brazil Australia Netherlands New Zealand Slovenia Spain Sweden Source: World Values Surveys data (downloaded and analyzed in August 216).

12 SUMMARY OF DIFFERENTIALS Greater support for gender equality among women than men Gaps People with university+ education have more positive attitudes to gender equality than those with < secondary education Younger people (age 15-29) are more positive to gender equality than people age 5+

13 GENDER VALUES & OUTCOMES SDG 5.5.1: Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments SDG 5.5.2: Proportion of women in managerial positions Significant positive relationship between proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (SDG 5.5.1) and WVS support to gender equality in political leadership (r =.6, p <.1). Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments, Support to gender equality in political leadership, percentage,

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15 GENDER VALUES & GENDER ROLES Percentage who disagree in statement "If a woman earns more money than her husband, it's almost certain to cause problems" Percentage who disagree or strongly disagree in statement "When a mother works for pay, the children suffer" Bahrain Nigeria Philippines Pakistan Algeria Palestine Qatar Malaysia Kuwait Tunisia Iraq Azerbaijan Jordan Yemen Libya Sweden Spain Slovenia New Zealand Netherlands Australia Brazil Mexico United States Uruguay Peru Colombia T&T Germany Estonia Chile Poland Ecuador Zimbabwe Support to gender equality in right to employment when jobs are scarce Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Kazakhstan Armenia Rwanda Romania Georgia Ghana Russia China Thailand Lebanon Ukraine South Africa Cyprus Belarus

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