Labour Migration and Gender Equality:

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1 Labour Migration and Gender Equality: Some Lessons from ECA and MENA Regions Prepared by M. Manke, Ph.D RO Vienna, IOM Istanbul, April 2012

2 Overview 1. Issues and trends: ECA and MENA 2. Challenges 3. Possible solutions: state and non-state actors

3 1.0. Issues and Trends in ECA and MENA Indicators Labour Market Migration Patterns

4 1.1. Key Indicators Indicator Value MENA ECA Population (millions, 2009) 330,9 404,0 Population growth (avg. Annual %, ) 1,9 0,1 Population density (people per km2, 2008) 37,6 19,1 Labour force (millions, 2008) 108,7 206,0 Unemployment rate (% of labour force, 2008) 9,5 6,9 Urban population (% of population, 2009) 57,6 64,0 GDP growth (avg. annual %, ) 4,8 4,0 Age dependency ratio (rate, 2009) 56,5 43,8 Emigrant stock (millions) 18,1 43,1 (% of total population) 5,3 10,7 Immigrant stock (millions) 12,0 27,3 Female immigrants Emigration of physicians (% of total population) 3,5 6,8 (% of total immigrant stock. World average - 48,4 %) 45,7 56,7 (% of physicians trained in the region, 2000) 8 1 Source: World Bank (the Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011)

5 1.2. Female Labour Force: Unemployment Source: World Bank, WDI and GDF Database, data retrieved on 16 April 2012

6 Female Labour Force: Characteristics 100% 34 ECA 48 MENA % ECA % Labor force with tertiary education, female (% of female labor force) Labor force with secondary education, female (% of female labor force) Employees, agriculture, female (% of female employment) Employees, industry, female (% of female employment) Employees, services, female (% of female employment) ECA Ratio of female to male wages in manufacturing (%) Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%) Ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment (%) Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%) Source: World Bank, WDI and GDF Database, data retrieved on 16 April MENA

7 1.4. Emigration and Development Remittances as a share of GDP, 2010 (%) MENA Top emigration countries (% of all emigration) Pakistan Georgia 4.8% 6.4% 32 1 Morocco Montenegro Armenia 6.8% 7.5% 8.8% Serbia Albania Jordan B&H 10.4% 10.9% 12.8% 12.9% ECA 40 high-income OECD countries high-income non-oecd countries intra-regional other developing countries Kosovo 17.5% Lebanon 19.6% 55 0 Kyrgyz Republic 20.8% Moldova Tajikistan 23.2% 31.0% % 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% Remittances as a share of GDP, 2010 (%) 7 31 Source: World Bank (Remittance data inflows, Dec. 11, the Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011)

8 1.5. Immigrant Stock Source: World Bank, WDI and GDF Database, data retrieved on 16 April 2012

9 2.0. Challenges Context of ECA and MENA

10 2.1. Challenge One: Insufficient Data and International Cooperation Internationally, data exists on change of residence ( international migration ) but not always by gender UN DESA OECD Eurostat World Bank Very little comparable data on migration for employment reason ( labour migration ) Eurostat data on work permits National data from household and other ad hoc surveys Migration Profiles for national data Regional data collection platforms e.g. CARIM - Soderköping -

11 2.2. Challenge Two: Skill Dimension of Female Migration Sector of economy domestic workers Underemployment and brain waste Skills assessment and recognition of qualifications Matching skills of potential migrants with those on demand EMN study Satisfying labour demand via migration : Distribution of domestic workers by sex and region, 2010 estimates Middle East, 4% Latin America and Caribbea n, 37% Male, 17% Advance d countries (selected), 7% Eastern Europe and CIS, 1% Female, 83% Africa, 10% Source: ILO, Domestic Work Policy Brief 4 Asia, 41%

12 2.3. Challenge Three: Risks of Irregular Migration and Rights Protection Female migrants particularly prone to risk of abuse and deception, leading to trafficking and forced labour (62 % of victims are female, IOM THB case processing database, 2011) Role of recruitment agencies, contracts, information and counseling Work conditions and enforcement of standards (codes of conduct)

13 2.4. Challenge Four: Household Members Left Behind Feminization of migration difficult to generalize as it varies: Around 50 % female long-term migrants Around % of migrant workers going to Russia for temporary work (construction sector) are male leaving wives back at home exclusion from migration A larger portion of Eastern European migrant workers (Moldova, Ukraine) are female who leave their families behind Tajikistan abandoned wives - df Moldova elderly and children left behind

14 2.5. Challenge Five: Integration and Perception Family unification for female migrants and spouses Government-sponsored or subsidized language and integration courses Awareness raising upon arrival on existing opportunities Information and resource centres for migrants one-stop-shop services Refresher and requalification courses Maximizing the skill potential of immigrants to avoid brain waste

15 3.0. Possible Solutions By State and Non-state Actors

16 3.1. Possible Actions by States Feminization of migration and gender mainstreaming into policies and practices of: Countries of destination Countries of origin Assessing demand for labour immigration Employment-based permanent immigration Employment-based temporary migration Women in irregular employment situations Gender-sensitive family migration and integration policies Workplace-related violence against female migrant workers Regulation of private recruitment agencies Pre-departure services Protective measures Limiting social costs situation of remaining family members Optimizing benefits from remittances Reintegration of female migrants

17 3.2. Areas of Private-Public Partnership Micro-finance as a tool for reintegration of female members left behind Entrepreneurship trainings and skill development programmes Analytical assessments specifically in the area of labour demand Development finance geared towards specific needs of beneficiaries and coordination

18 Further Read: OSCE s Guide on Gender-Sensitive Labour Migration Policies: Female Migrants: Bridging the Gaps Throughout the Life Cycle: hp?main_page=product_info&products_id=1 36 Gender and Labour Migration in Asia: hp?main_page=product_info&cpath=1&prod ucts_id=537

19 THANK YOU!

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