Presidency Chart Andrew Jackson ( )

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1 Presidency Chart Andrew Jackson ( ) Election of 1824 Four Republicans ran for president. On election day Andrew Jackson of Tennessee led the popular vote and in the Electoral College but did not have enough electoral votes. In accordance with the Constitution the House of Representatives would select a president. Henry Clay who placed 4 th was the speaker of the House and threw his support behind John Quincy Adams. Clay despised Jackson as a military chieftain and unfit for office. Upon taking office Adams appointed Clay as his Secretary of State amid charges of a corrupt bargain. Major figures in his administration Internal rivalry developed between Secretary of State Martin Van Buren of New York and Vicepresident John C. Calhoun. When Jackson was asked if he had any regrets he replied. "After 8 years as president, I have only two regrets. That I have not shot Henry Clay or hanged John C. Calhoun." Andrew Jackson Election of 1828 Supporters of Adams were called the National Republicans and Jackson s followers were called the Democratic Republicans In a mudslinging campaign, Adams was portrayed as an aristocratic hypocrite and Jackson as an adulterer Jackson s victory brought to power what his critics called King Mob but the Jacksonian s considered to be the symbolic political triumph of the common man How politics changed in this period Jacksonian Democracy Jackson s election marked the beginning of a new era in American political history. As the hero of the common man, Jackson vowed to include the voice of the people in the election process. He dramatically expanded the suffrage to include virtually all white men. As the first president from the west, Jackson shared the frontier s distrust of the Eastern elite. Jackson s ideals were based on the common man principles. He favored limited government but strengthened the president. Indian Affairs Indian Removal Act Provided for the removal of tribes to the land West of the Mississippi River. This policy was implemented by President s Jackson and Van Buren Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) The Supreme Court ruled that the state could not seize lands without the consent of the domestic dependent nation, but Georgia and President Jackson both ignored this Worcester v. Georgia (1832) The Supreme Court ruled that Georgia did not have the right to seize Cherokee lands. Jackson stated that he would not enforce this. 1

2 Spoils System (rotation in office) The practice of appointing people to government jobs based on party loyalty and support. In Jackson s view this would get rid of a permanent office class and opening up the government to more ordinary citizens. Kitchen Cabinet Jackson came to rely upon the informal advice of personal friends and confidante (his Kitchen Cabinet) Use of Veto 1 st President to use the veto not as a statement on whether a bill was too radical in regards to Constitution but simply because he didn t like the legislation. Whig Party It attracted former Nat l Republicans such as Daniel Webster and Henry Clay. Whigs supported a more active Nat l government, economic development (Clay s American System) and humanitarian support. Black Hawk War (1832) In a brief war Native Americans under the leadership of Chief Black Hawk attempted to reoccupy the land they had previously been force to give up in an 1804 treaty. The American militia in Illinois, regular army, and allied tribes caught up with and destroyed the Native American army. The Second Seminole War In 1829, Andrew Jackson became President of the United States. He worked to have the Indian Removal Act passed by Congress. It became law in The purpose of this act was to move all the Indians to land west of the Mississippi River. The Seminole did not want to leave their Florida home, but agreed to send some chiefs to look at the new land where they would be relocated. While they were viewing the land, the chiefs were persuaded to sign a treaty agreeing to move. When they returned back to Florida, however, they claimed they had been tricked. They refused to leave. A warrior named Osceola led the Seminole in surprise attacks against the Americans. The first battle of the war was known as the Dade Massacre. It occurred when Major Dade was leading a combined Army from Fort Brooke (Tampa) and Fort King (Ocala). In an attack by Osceola and his men, over a hundred soldiers were killed near what is now Bushnell. The United States sent many troops into Florida to defeat the Seminole. They were successful in pushing the Seminole further and further south into the wilderness. Several agreements were made by Seminole chiefs to leave the area, but the agreements continually fell through. Finally, Osceola was captured and he died in prison in Following his death, the Seminole began to decline. Many were killed; others were captured and relocated out west. On August 14, 1842, The Second Seminole War officially ended. As a result, many Seminole were sent to reservations in the west. Not all Seminole go West, some remain in 2

3 Florida. No peace treaty was ever signed ending the war. They remain the only tribe to never sign a peace treaty and to successfully resist removal. Nullification Crisis Tariff of Abominations (1828 before A.J. s presidency) This was put in place to raise revenue and protect American industry from European competitors. This was the highest tariff imposed up to the time. Southern planters led by South Carolina argued that while the industrial Northeast flourished, the South was forced to sell its cotton in a world market unprotected by tariffs and buy manufactured goods at extremely high prices. This was favored by the North and opposed by the South. Calhoun s Exposition and Protest of South Carolina (1828 before AJ s presidency) Written by Vice-President John C. Calhoun. It argued that the Union was a compact formed by sovereign states. If the state believed that a federal law exceeded the delegated power of Congress, the state could declare the law null and void within its own boundaries Calhoun did not advocate secession. Instead, he saw nullification as a viable option that would prevent disunion. South Carolina s Nullification Ordinance This declared the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void in within the states boundaries and threatened secession form the Union. Jackson sent a flotilla of warships and threatened to send troops to enforce this. Jackson considered nullification treason. In 1842 this was repealed when congress passed a lower tariff. War on the Bank Clay s, Webster s, and Biddle s effort to recharter the Bank Henry Clay and President of the National bank Nickolas Biddle sought to make the Bank an issue in the presidential election by having Congress pass a rechartering bill in 1832, four years early of the need to do so Veto of the Second Bank of the U.S. (1832) The President challenged the Supreme courts earlier decision on the Bank s constitutionality Jackson s veto message denounced monopoly and privilege. Removal of deposits and distribution to pet banks (1833) Jackson had Secretary of the Treasury Taney remove federal funds and deposit them in state-chartered (pet) banks. These banks printed inflationary paper currency. Censure of Jackson In 1834, while under Whig control, the Senate censured Democratic President Andrew Jackson for withholding documents relating to his actions in defunding the Bank of the United States. As a partial result of public opposition to the censure itself, the Senate came under control of the Democratic Party in the next election cycle, and the censure was expunged in Distribution of the surplus (1836) A curious plan was now hit upon. It was to loan the surplus revenues to the states in proportion to their electoral votes. Three payments were made to the states. Then the Panic of 1837 came, and the government had to borrow money to pay its own 3

4 Webster-Hayne Debate (1830) This was a public debate between Senator Robert Hayne of South Carolina (a vigorous defender of states rights and Calhoun s doctrine of nullification) and Daniel Webster (who argued that the Constitution was created by the people not the states and that the Supreme Court, not the states, had the power to decide the constitutionality of a law) Compromise Tariffs of 1832 and 1833 This reduced the rate of the tariff by 10% but still provided protection for business. South Carolina rescinded its nullification ordinance, and the crisis subsided. The Force Bill (1833) Congress passed the Force Bill authorizing the President to use the Army to enforce federal laws in South Carolina necessary expenses. Before this occurred, however, Jackson was no longer President. In his place was Martin Van Buren, his Secretary of State, who had been chosen President in November, 1836 Specie Circular (1836) Jackson, fearing paper money inflation, had the Treasury order that only specie (gold of silver) would be accepted for the purchase of federal land Other Issues Election of 1932 Maysville Road veto (1830) For the first time, party conventions were used, Calling federal funding for local nominating Democratic Jackson and National improvements unconstitutional Republican Henry Clay. Jackson interpreted his Peggy Eaton Affair victory as a mandate to dismantle the Second A petty scandal involving a cabinet National Bank. Jackson had his Secretary of the members with wife (Peggy Eaton) Treasury Taney remove federal funds and deposits contributed to conflict within the them in state-chartered(pet) banks. administration. Charles River Bridge Co. v. Warren Bridge Co., (1837) The interests of the community are more important than corporate rights. This states-rights decision departed from the Marshall s court nationalism. Impact of Jackson Strengthening the Presidency He broadened the expectations of what a President owned the people and if he had not expanded the power of the veto, the American future would have been very different. Effect on the States States, though largely ineffective against Jackson saw increased political voting bases and strengthening of states rights theories. 4

5 Andrew Jackson s Presidency Quiz 1. threw his support behind John Quincy Adams in the election of 1824 costing Jackson the presidency. 2. Jackson s victory in the 1828 election brought to power what he critics called and is considered to be a triumph of the 3. Jackson favored but the presidency. 4. The provided for the removal of tribes of the Mississippi River. 5. In the Supreme Court cases of and the Cherokee won but were still removed to the west. 6. In the system people are appointed based on party loyalty and support. 7. The there was no peace treaty ever signed ending the war as a result the remain the only tribe to never sign a peace treaty and to successfully resist removal. 8. The doctrine of nullification written by stated that if states believed that a federal law exceeded the delegated power of Congress, the state could declare it and within its own boundaries. 9. In 1832 declared the Tariff of 1828 null and void within its state boundaries and threatened from the Union. 10. Jackson considered nullification and sent a and threatened to send troops to enforce the law. 11. Only with the passage of compromise tariffs in 1832 and 1833 which reduced the tariff by 10% did South Carolina rescind its and the crisis subside. 12. In 1833 Congress passed the authorizing the President to use the army to enforce federal law in South Carolina. 13. The ironic thing about Jackson being on the 20 dollar bill is that in 1832 he the bill re-chartering the Second National Bank and removed federal funds deposits to (pet) banks. 14. Jackson veto message of the Second National Rechartering Bill he denounced and 15. Jackson in 1836, fearing paper money inflation, ordered that only (gold and silver) would be accepted for purchase of federal lands.

6 Word Bank. *Note* These are only used once Second Seminole War Flotilla of warships Privilege Henry Clay Secession Common Man Limited Government Treason Void Indian Removal Act Cherokee Nation v. Georgia John C. Calhoun State-chartered King Mob Strengthened Null Specie South Carolina West Seminole Force Bill Worchester v. Georgia Vetoed Monopoly Spoil Nullification ordinance

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