JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY. Ch. 7 Section 4 & 5

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1 JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY Ch. 7 Section 4 & 5

2 ELECTION OF 1824 The Candidates in the Election of 1824 John Quincy Adams Andrew Jackson Henry Clay Jackson wins plurality of electoral votes (99), but no one wins a majority (131) The House to decide

3 THE HOUSE DECIDES The Corrupt Bargain Henry Clay supports JQA in exchange for the Sec of State position. Jackson infuriated, vows to win in 1828.

4 THE CAMPAIGN OF 1828 The beginnings of dirty campaign politics John Q. Adams (National Republicans) vs. Andrew Jackson (Democratic-Republicans)

5 DIFFERENCES IN PARTIES Friends of Jackson Reform government Remove incompetent office holders No federally sponsored internal improvements Non-committal on the protective tariff No National Bank Friends of Adams or Coalitionists Supported the National Bank Supported a Protective tariff Federal funds for internal improvements and education

6 Jackson s Faith in the Common Man 3 His heart & soul was with the plain folk. 3 Belief that the common man was capable of uncommon achievements.

7 MUDSLINGING Anti-Adams Corrupt Bargain Reckless Spendthrift Pool table and Chess in the White House King Like Un-democratic Supports the rule by the few over the many Hypocrite Travels on the Sundays Anti-Jackson Uneducated Discredit the Hero of New Orleans Mother a Prostitute Adultery Wife Rachel married before she was divorced Cockfighting Drunk Murderer Coffin Handbill

8 HISTORICAL DEBATE Pro-Jackson Promote Equality of Opportunity More Democratic Government Ensure the influence of the West and South in government Anti-Jackson Extremely harsh Indian Policy Acceptance of Slavery in the South

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11 THE KITCHEN CABINET Jackson begins ignoring his regular cabinet and seeks advice from a group of close friends These friends become known as the kitchen cabinet

12 MARTIN VAN BUREN Jackson s Secretary of State, a New York politician Wanted to gain the support of Jackson, firm believer in the spoils system Convinces most of the cabinet to resign Eliminating the cabinet, meant eliminating the Eaton problem Jackson was indebted to Van Buren

13 INDIAN POLICY Jackson wanted to remove all of the Indians in the territories East of the Mississippi 94 Indian treaties were negotiated Some went West peacefully, some with resistance. Relocated Indians included: Sauk, Seminole, Cherokees

14 BATTLE OF BAD AXE Sauk Indians fight against relocation 1832 Led by Chief Black Hawk Defeated by US Army on August 2, 1832

15 THE SEMINOLES Led by Chief Osceola Mostly located in Florida Most successful opposition against US troops Osceola captured by US forces in 1838, resistence continues for many years

16 THE CHEROKEE Mostly located in Georgia Chief Sequoia credited with creation of the Cherokee alphabet, published Cherokee newspapers Challenged relocation in court, Worcester vs. Georgia Marshall rules in favor of the Cherokee Cherokee led on a trail of tears in 1838 by General Winfield Scott to relocate in Oklahoma (1500 died on the way)

17 MORE NULLIFICATION DEBATES New protective tariff passed in 1832 Huge support in Congress Nat turner leads a slave revolt in Virginia in 1831 Would abolition of slavery be considered? South Carolina holds a convention to nullify the protective tariffs Take effect on Feb 1, 1833

18 NULLIFICATION CRISIS 1832 State convention held in South Carolina to nullify the protective tariffs (Robert Hayne governor) Jackson deems nullification treason, ready to use military force to enforce federal laws force bill Henry Clay Gradually reduce the tariff until 1842 SC convention reconvenes to repeal nullification of the tariffs

19 JACKSON RESPONDS TO SOUTH CAROLINA Jackson re-elected in 1832 Strongly opposes South Carolina s stance on nullification pledges to send 50,000 to South Carolina to support the collection of the tariff Clay and Calhoun propose a new tariff that would gradually be reduced over a nine year period Jackson accepts

20 THE WEBSTER-HAYNES DEBATES The debate over state s rights and nullification in the US Senate, spurred by CT Senator Samuel Foote s proposal to suspend land surveying in the West January 1830 Haynes, supported by Calhoun (SC) vs. Webster (MA) Webster, two days of lecture on the Senate floor Liberty and Union, now and forever! Jackson supports Webster, speech at the Jefferson Day Dinner confirms his views Calhoun loses his influence

21 JACKSON AND THE NATIONAL BANK President, Nicholas Biddle Soft money vs. hard money Jackson favors non-renewal of the bank s charter Biddle supported by D. Webster and H. Clay in his bid to renew the bank Renewal becomes the issue of debate in the election of 1832

22 THE BANK WAR Biddle s Reaction Tighten Credit Raise Interest Rates Cause financial panic Jackson s Plan Relocate government funds in the bank to local pet banks Non-renewal in 1836

23 THE WHIGS Expand the power of the national government Encourage industrialization and commercialism Hamiltonian themes (banks, tariffs, credit) Strong support with the Northeast business/merchant class and wealthy southern and western planters interested in commercial expansion

24 THE ELECTION OF 1836 Dems Martin Van Buren Whigs Three candidates (get the election into the House)

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26 THE PANIC OF US Government has no national debt Surplus in the Treasury grows Money returned to the states Spent on state improvements Strain on pet banks Specie Circular Money backed by gold and silver Depression Reaction Independent Treasury System

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