PERIOD 3 Review:

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1 PERIOD 3 Review: Long-Essay Questions Directions: Write an essay to respond to one of each pair of questions, Cite relevant historical evidence in support of your generalizations and present your arguments clearly and logically. Choose ONE of the following two long-essay questions. 1. It has been argued that the American Revolution came about primarily through an evolving series of meetings, conventions, and congresses. Support, modify, or refute this contention using specific evidence. 2. It has been argued that the United States Constitution came about primarily through an evolving series of meetings, conventions, and congresses. Support, modify, or refute this contention using specific evidence. Choose ONE of the following two long-essay questions. 3. For some historians, the leadership provided by the Founders during events leading up to the Revolutionary War was the key to the successful developments. Support, modify, or refute this contention using specific evidence. 4. For some historians, the leadership provided by the Founders during events leading up to the writing of the Constitution was the key to the successful developments. Support, modify, or refute this contention using specific evidence. Choose ONE of the following two long-essay questions. s. For some, the role of enslaved African Americans and American Indians before and during the Revolutionary War had a significant influence on events. Support, modify, or refute this contention using specific evidence. 6. For some, the role of enslaved African Americans and American Indians before and during the writing of the Constitution had a significant influence on events. Support, modify, or refute this contention using specific evidence. 126 u.s. HISTORY: PREPARING FOR THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT EXAM

2 SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS Briefly answer the questions in complete sentences. A thesis is not required. Question 1. Answer a, b, and c. a) Briefly explain the British view of how the Seven Years' War fundamentally changed the relationship between Britain and its American colonies. b) Briefly explain the colonial view as a result of the war. e) Briefly describe an initial reaction taken as a result of the changing views by either the British or colonists. Question 2 is based on the excerpts below. "If the towns of Manchester and Birmingham, sending no representatives to Parliament, are notwithstanding there represented, why are not the cities of Albany and Boston equally represented in that Assembly?... Are they not Englishmen? Or are they only Englishmen when they solicit for protection, but not Englishmen when taxes are required to enable this country to protect them?" -Soame Jenyns, member of the British Parliament, "The Objections to the Taxation of OUf American Colonies Considered," 1765 "That the petitioners have been long concerned in carrying on the trade between this country and the British colonies on the continent of North America;... From the nature of this trade, consisting of British manufactures exported and of the import of raw materials from America, many of them used in our manufactures and all of them tending to lessen our dependence on neighboring states, it must be deemed of the highest importance in the commercial system of this nation." 2. Using the excerpts, answer a, b, and c, a) Briefly explain the main point in excerpt 1. b) Briefly explain the main point in excerpt 2. - London Merchants Against the Stamp Act, 1766 c) Briefly explain an action, in response to ONE of the two views expressed, taken by the British government from the period between 1763 and u.s. HISTORY: PREPARING FOR THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT EXAM

3 Question 3 is based on the cartoon below. Source: Political Register; London, Library of Congress 3. Using the cartoon, answer a, b, and c. In the cartoon, the labels on the limbs are "Virg," "Pensyl," "New York," and "New Eng." a) Explain the point of view reflected in the cartoon regarding ONE of the following: British colonial policies efforts at colonial unity Seven Years' War b) Explain bow ONE element of the cartoon expresses the point of view you identified in Part A. c) Explain bow the point of view you identified in Part A belped to shape ONE particular colonial government action between 1607 and Question 4. Answer a, b, and c. a) Briefly explain the reasons why the British issued the Proclamation of b) Briefly explain why the colonists objected to the Proclamation. c) Briefly explain how effective the Proclamation was. IMPERIAL WARS AND COLONIAL PROTEST,

4 SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS Briefly answer the questions in complete sentences. A thesis is not required. Question 1. Answer a, b, and c. a) Briefly explain support for the argument that the Articles of Confederation succeeded in guiding the United States through its first decade using ONE of the choices below. victory in the Revolutionary War Land Ordinance of 1785 Northwest Ordinance b) Briefly explain a challenge to the statement during this period using ONE of the choices below. financial circumstances foreign affairs domestic concerns c) Briefly explain using either ONE of the choices above or your own hi storical knowledge whether you agree or disagree with the statement. Question 2. Answer a, b, and c. a) The Revolutionary War was in some respects a civil war in which anti British Patriots fought pro-british Loyalists. Briefly explain who the Patriots were. b) Briefly explain who the Loyalists were. c) Briefly explain the role played in the war by ONE of the following: African Americans American Indians France 100 u.s. HISTORY: PREPARING FOR THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT EXAM

5 Question 3 is based on the cartoon below. Source: James Gillray, London, Library of Congress 3. Using the cartoon, answer a and b. The title of the cartoon is ''The American Rattle Snake." The squares surrounded by the snake's coils represent British soldiers. a) Explain the point of view reflected in the cartoon above regarding TWO of the following: the British public the French government the American cartoon, "Join or Die" Yorktown b) Contrast the American Patriots' view of this cartoon with that of the American Loyalists' view. THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION AND CONFEDERATION,

6 Question 4 is based on the excerpt below. "I wish I knew what mighty things were fabricating. If a form of government is to be established here, what one will be assumed? Will it be left to our assemblies to choose one? And will not many men have many minds? And shall we not run into dissensions among ourselves? "I am more and more convinced that man is a dangerous creature; and that power, whether vested in many or a few, is ever grasping... "How shall we be governed so as to retain our liberties? Who shall frame these laws? Who will give them force and energy... "When 1 consider these things, and the prejudices of people in favor of ancient customs and regulations, 1 feel anxious for the fate of our monarchy or democracy, or whatever is to take place." 4. Using the excerpt, answer a, b, and c, - Abigail Adams, Letter to John Adams, November 27, 1775 a) Briefly explain the point of view expressed by Abigail Adams about ONE of the following: power liberties prejudices b) Briefly explain ONE development in the period leading up to independence that led to the point of view expressed here by Abigail Adams. c) Briefly explain ONE development in the period immediately after the Revolutionary War that challenges or supports the point of view expressed by Abigail Adams. THINK AS A HISTORIAN: QUESTIONS ABOUT CONTEXTUALIZATION Contextualization is explaining and evaluating how an event is shaped by broader trends or its historical setting. Which THREE of the items below would be best answered with an essay that emphasizes contextualization? 1. Explain how geography shaped the conflict between Great Britain and its American colonies. 2. How did the Enlightenment influence the American Revolution? 3. Explain why the ideas expressed in the Articles of Confederation would make conducting a war difficult. 4. What caused the American Revolution? 5. How did the American and French revolutions differ? 102 u.s. HISTORY: PREPARING FOR THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT EXAM

7 SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS Briefly answer the questions in complete sentences. A thesis is not required. Question 1 is based on the excerpt below. "Sir, suffer me to recall to your mind that time, in which the arms and tyranny of the British crown were exerted... ''This, Sir, was a time when you clearly saw into the injustice of a State of slavery... that you publicly held forth this true and invaluable doctrine... 'We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights....' "But, Sir, how pitiable is it to reflect, that although you were so fully convinced of the benevolence of the Father of Mankind, and of his equal and impartial distribution of these rights and privileges, which he hath conferred upon them, that you should at the same time counteract his mercies, in detaining by fraud and violence so numerous a part of my brethren, under groaning captivity, and cruel oppression." - Benjamin Banneker, African American scientist and surveror, letter to Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, Using the excerpt, answer a, b, and c. a) Briefly explain why Banneker questioned Jefferson's actions on slavery. b) Briefly explain why ONE of the following people would either support or question Banneker's view. Ben Franklin John Adams George Washington c) Briefly explain how Thomas Jefferson might have responded to Banneker's questions about slavery. Question 2. Answer a, b, and c. a) Briefly explain how ONE of the following best supports the statement that "the United States Constitution is a bundle of compromises." Provide at least ONE piece of evidence to support your explanation. the office of the presidency the system of representation the institution of slavery b) Briefly explain a criticism of ONE of the compromises cited above. c) Identify and briefly explain the role played by an individual at the Constitutional Convention in bringing about ONE of the compromises mentioned above or a compromise not mentioned. THE CONSTITUTION ANDTHE NEW REPUBLIC

8 Question 3 is based on the excerpts below. "The freedom of the press and opinions was never understood to give the right of publishing falsehoods and slanders, nor of exciting sedition, insurrection, and slaughter, with impunity. A man is always answerable for the malicious publication of falsehood; and what more does this bill require? "Such liberty of the press and of opinion is calculated to destroy all confidence between man and man; it leads to a dissolution of every bond of union; it cuts asunder every ligament that unites man to his family, man to his neighbor, man to society and to government. God deliver us from such liberty." -Congressional Representative John Allen, Speech for the Sedition Act, 1798 "Does the situation of the country, at this time require that any law of this kind should pass? Do there exist such new and alarming symptoms of sedition as render it necessary to adopt, in addition to the existing laws, any extraordinary measure for the purpose of suppressing unlawful combinations, and of restricting the freedom of speech and the press? For such were the objects of the bill, whatever modifications it might receive... "While, therefore, they support the bill in its present shape, do they not avow that the true object of the law is to enable one party to oppress the other.... Is it not their object to frighten and suppress all presses which they consider as contrary to their views; to prevent a free circulation of opinion;... to delude and deceive... and through those means, to perpetuate themselves in power?" -Congressional Representative Albert Gallatin, Speech Against the Sedition Act, Using the excerpts, answer a, b, and c. a) Briefly explain the main point of the first excerpt. b) Briefly explain the main point of the second excerpt. c) Provide ONE piece of evidence from the era before 1800 that is not included in the excerpt and explain how it supports the interpretation of either excerpt. 124 u.s. HISTORY: PREPARING FOR THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT EXAM

9 Question 4. Answer a, b, and c. a) Choose ONE of the choices below, and explain why it best supports this statement: "America's first foreign policy under Presidents Washington and Adams had the primary goal of avoiding war." Citizen Genet controversy Jay Treaty XYZAffair b) Contrast your choice against ONE of the other options, demonstrating why that option is not as good as your choice. c) Briefly explain an argument for war involving ONE of the choices provided OR another situation during this period of the first two presidents. THINK AS A HISTORIAN: QUESTIONS ABOUT ARGUMENTATION A historical argument is a carefully written chain of thoughts thai includes a clear thesis and anruysis supported with evidence. Which THREE of the following questions would be best answered with an essay that makes a historicru argument? 1. Summarize Lhe differenc~ between the Federalists and Lhe Anti-Federalists. 2. Using more than one type of evidence, support or oppose this statement: ''The Founders failed to see fundamental developments in American politics." 3. Explain whether you agree or disagree that differences in foreign policy in the 1700s were rooted in economic interests. 4. Explain whether you think the infonnation in this chapter supports or opposes the idea that compromise has been an essentiru part of American government since the founding of the country. 5. Explain the main points of Hamilton's financial plan. THE CONSTITUTION ANDTHE NEW REPUBLIC, BOO 125

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