Events that Led to the American Revolution. Gazette Lesson

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1 Jessica Ready EDUC 505 Dr. Ulubabova March 11, 2010 Mid Term Events that Led to the American Revolution Gazette Lesson

2 2 Events that led to the American Revolution Gazette Lesson Plan Topic: Events that led to the American Revolution Grade Level: 7-8 Target Population: Intermediate ESL learners of any background, or Phase III, Limited English Proficient Subjects: English as a Second Language, Social Studies Aim: To make students from non American heritages comprehend the places, people and events that led to the American Revolution so that they can apply their knowledge to create a comprehensive American history gazette and to incorporate their knowledge in further American history course work English as a Second Language Standards: Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak in English for information and understanding Standard 3: Students will read, write, listen, and speak in English for critical analysis and evaluation Standard 4: Students will read, write, listen, and speak in English for classroom and social interaction Social Studies Standards: Standard 1: History of the United States and New York Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of major ideas, eras, themes, developments, and turning points in the history of the United States and New York. Standard 5: Civics, Citizenship, and Government Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of the necessity for establishing governments; the

3 3 governmental system of the United States and other nations; the United States Constitution; the basic civic values of American constitutional democracy; and the roles, rights, and responsibilities of citizenship, including avenues of participation. Objectives: Students will be able to: Expand English vocabulary, reading, writing, listening, thinking and social interaction skills by working together in a cooperative group setting Analyze written, visual and audio data to summarize the events of the Boston Tea Party and the Boston Massacre Gather data by polling class members and interpreting data to create a graph Create a word match puzzle by examining word definitions and producing an ordered document for self evaluation purposes Illustrate the Boston Tea Party and the Boston Massacre by analyzing written, visual and audio data to compose political cartoons Describe and list the sequence of events that led to the American Revolution Interpret and evaluate data from a graphic organizer to form opinions Recognize bias and propaganda as well as incorporate it into their work Identify the important individuals associated with the Revolution Discover facts from aurally relayed data Discuss views of the events which started the Revolution Plan and construct a visually accurate gazette Define vocabulary words related to the Revolution Learning Styles Addressed: Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Linguistic, Interpersonal, Logical Duration: 2 weeks, (10) 45 minute class sessions

4 4 Teacher Preparation: For this lesson to be successful, the teacher must prepare many materials. First, the teacher must refresh their knowledge of the content material by reading the Teacher Background guide. Second, the teacher must obtain the AV equipment and video of Schoolhouse Rock to be watched on the first day of class. Third, the teacher must prepare tea and sugar to give the students motivation to start the lesson. Fourth, the teacher, by using previous student assessment materials must organize the class into 5 groups of 5 by mastery of English and learning style to create an array of English skills in each group, with students of similar learning styles in each group. After creating groups, the teacher will assign the projects which adhere to that groups learning style to them. Fifth, the teacher must record biographies of important people onto the computer and load them to two ipods to complete the listening assignment. Six, the teacher must create and make copies of all handouts. Introduction to lesson: The teacher will play the Schoolhouse Rock video of The Shot Heard Round the World. The teacher will ask opinion questions for example, why the students think the colonies, to which they should have already learned about in a previous lesson, began fighting. The names of the 13 colonies should be recited by the students to activate their prior knowledge and ensure that they can recall this information. Motivation: Students will be given a cup of tea and a lump of sugar. After they have put the sugar in their tea and started drinking, the students will be asked to pay their taxes. Upon hearing the student s reasons for why the teacher is being unfair, it will lead into the lesson. Materials: Social Studies textbook for American History

5 5 Teacher Background Guide Paper, pen, pencil, crayons, ruler Smart Board (if no smart board available, the same outcome can be achieved with scissors, tape and magnets) Computer equipment Television, vcr/dvd player ipods with recordings of biographies of 10 important people from the times (sample script and list of individuals on pages 19-20) Schoolhouse Rock video of The Shot Heard Round the World Colonial Acts of Resistance Graphic Organizer (handout 1) American Revolution Vocabulary List (handout 2) Directions for Creating a Vocabulary Matching Quiz (handout 3) Sample Political Cartoon from Revolutionary Times (handout 4) What to Include in Your Political Cartoon (handout 5) Important People of the Revolutionary Times Fact Sheet (handout 6) Data Gathering Sheet for Polling Class Members (handout 7) Outline for Writing Articles (handout 8) Timeline Homework Assignment (handout 9) Student Oral Language Observation Matrix Group Work Scoring Sheet Pair Work Scoring Sheet (article sample)

6 6 (provides information on people, places and events) (compares uniforms) (provides information on people, places and events as well as interactive materials for learning) Procedure: 1. Have the students take turns reading a paragraph of the textbook aloud to provide a basic understanding of what the lesson is going to cover 2. Split the groups up into 5 groups of 4 as previously determined 3. Explain to the students what a gazette is and that the goal of their work is to create one 4. Assign each group their part of the gazette and explain the instructions to each group individually for Part A of the assignment 5. All assignments with the exception of the Cartoon will be done initially by hand, but must be typed and submitted as a print out and electronically o Group 1 Create a newspaper article about the Boston Massacre o Give students Outline for Articles handout, read instructions to them, ask them to repeat what is required of them and answer any questions o Have the students write the categories that are bolded on the handout on a piece of paper and tell them to record their findings o Model how information can be obtained from the websites by finding the date of the Massacre on one of the websites and write it down in someone s notebook under the first sentence category

7 7 o Group 2 Create a newspaper article about the Boston Tea Party o Give students Outline for Articles handout, read instructions to them, ask them to repeat what is required of them and answer any questions o Have the students write the categories that are bolded on the handout on a piece of paper and tell them to record their findings o Model how information can be obtained from the websites by finding the date of the incident on one of the websites and write it down in someone s notebook under the first sentence category o Group 3 Create a political cartoon of the Boston Tea Party o Give students Sample Political Cartoon and What to Include in Your Political Cartoon handouts o Explain to the students what a political cartoon is by relating the Things to Include handout to the elements of the cartoon example o Read instructions of assignment to them, then ask the students to repeat what is required of them and answer any questions o Model how information can be obtained from the textbook and relayed into a drawing by using the example of the British as being called Redcoats, so therefore their coats should be red o Group 4 Conduct a poll, create a bar graph and write 2 sentences about the results o Explain to the students the definition of a poll o Give them the Data Gathering Sheet for Polling Class Members and the Graphic Organizer for Five Acts to distribute to their fellow students

8 8 o Read instructions of assignment to them, then ask the students to repeat what is required of them and answer any questions o Conduct a quick poll amongst the four students and the teacher to see who likes chocolate of vanilla ice cream better and record on a sheet for them as a modeling example o Students will hand out graphic organizer to fellow students after they have read it thoroughly so that they can help fellow class members who may be confused and read it aloud to those who need further assistance o After everyone understands the data from the Five Acts Graphic Organizer, the students from group 4 will fill out the Data Gathering Sheet, then create a bar graph o Group 5 Create a vocabulary matching quiz o Give students American Revolution Vocabulary List and Directions for Creating a Vocabulary Matching Quiz handouts o Read instructions of assignment to them, then ask the students to repeat what is required of them and answer any questions o Model what is required of them by answering the example on the Directions for Creating a Vocabulary Matching Quiz handout o Tell the students they are also responsible for distributing the vocabulary list and answering any questions from fellow students 6. During completion of the assignments, teacher will provide support to groups and individuals who are in need

9 9 7. The groups must be closely monitored and the Student Oral Language Observation Matrix will be filled out for each student 8. After each assignment is completed the teacher will review for accuracy and offer suggestions for corrections, or if assignments are completed satisfactorily, give students part B of the assignment 9. Timeline homework assignment is given to the students o Part B Completing the Important People in Revolutionary Times Fact Sheet o Students will work in pairs with a student of their choosing o Read instructions of assignment to them, then ask the students to repeat what is required of them and answer any questions o The students will be given an ipod with a teacher recording of the biography of an important person o The students will fill in the answers to the fact sheet 10. Timeline homework assignment should be collected and the answers reviewed with the class after they have been graded 11. Once all of the components are complete, the class will reconvene as a whole to organize the Gazette 12. Using the smart board, or paper and magnets, the students will direct the teacher as to how they want their Gazette organized 13. After a consensus of the organization is complete, the teacher will add headings to the Gazette and print it out in a newspaper fashion to distribute to the class the following day

10 10 Extensions: Timeline homework assignment will fill in the gaps of events that were not as emphasized during completion of the lesson components. Modifications: Instruction can be modified a few ways to aid students who are more advanced, less advanced, or who have disabilities. For more advanced students, they can create the headings of the gazette. They can also add other sections such as additional articles on the Continental Congress or Committees of Correspondence, ads to make the magazine look realistic, additional puzzles or write letters as concerned colonists. For students not as advanced in their command of English, the handouts and information can be read to them by the teacher and by fellow students who can give verbal and visual clues as well as translate a word here or there for the student to ensure understanding is achieved. For students having trouble with ipod listening assignment, they can use Kurzweil to highlight the words as they are read so they can recognize the words while they are being read. Students who understand better through listening than reading can also use Kurzweil to copy and paste information into the program and have it read back to them. The websites also provide a great deal of visuals for visual learners. If students do not have the internet at home, flash cards with pictures of the vocabulary words can be created by the more advanced students and given to other students to take home and practice with. Assessment and Evaluation: Students will be assessed with the following: To Assess English as a Second Language Growth: Student Oral Language Observation Matrix To Assess Content Knowledge:

11 11 Group work scoring sheet Pair work scoring sheet Accuracy of timeline After evaluating the results of the group work, pair work and timeline homework, which tests content knowledge, the teacher will decide if the outcomes of the lesson were achieved and if not, will reexamine the material with the students. Follow-up activities: Each student will read the final gazette in its entirety and perform the vocabulary quiz. The students who created the quiz will grade it. The students will also take a short internet quiz, The Road to Revolution at this PBS website, after they have gone through the next lesson which will reinforce the knowledge learned in this lesson. Summary: If the students score well on the group work, pair work, and timeline and the overall product of the Gazette is accurate and organized nicely, the lesson has been successful. If students seem to have retained the knowledge when moving on to the events of the Revolutionary War, and are able to complete similar assignments with less guidance, then the lesson objectives have been met. If students have not stored the information for further use, or they are unable to complete similar tasks, then the lesson objectives must be met via a different lesson delivery system. Through cooperative group work, the students should have spoken in intelligible English to one another and helped on another learn and meet the lesson objectives. Overall, it seems like a demanding lesson plan, but the fun of working together, the aim of the gazette project, and tailoring assignments to different learning styles should culminate is a positive and highly successful learning opportunity.

12 Name of the Act: Sugar Act Currency Act Quartering Act Stamp Act Tea Act What was it? The British placed a tax on sugar, wine, and other important things. The act would not allow the issue of any new paper bills or the reissue of existing currency by the colonies. The British required the colonies to provide shelter, food, supplies and transportation to the British troops in exchange for protecting them from the French. Anything printed on paper needed a stamp that was bought from the English. The stamps cost money and it was England who got the money. American colonists could buy no tea unless it came from the East India Trading Company that the British owned. Why was it imposed? It was an attempt to force the American colonists to buy the more expensive sugar from the British West Indies and make more money for the British to pay to run the colonies. Because the colonies were printing their own money, without any gold or silver to act as back up for the money, the British had to stop people using money that had little value and that devalued their own British money. To keep a British military presence in the towns to prevent gatherings and uprising against the British. The Act was created to help cover the cost of maintaining troops in the colonies. The East India Company wasn t doing so well, and the British wanted to give it some more business. How did the colonies react? The colonists were upset. If they only traded with Britain, they would not be able to sell their goods for as much. Some people boycotted and did not buy the items. The colonists were very unhappy. With very little money, they could not buy goods The colonists did not consider the French a threat and did not like the idea of paying for the British protection. The American colonists opposed the Act because they could not pay the tax, and because it violated the new principle of No taxation without representation. They also started a mob to complain about the act to the British authorities, and refused to buy stamps. American colonists saw this law as yet another means of taxation without representation because it meant that they couldn t buy tea from anyone else (including other colonists) without spending a lot more money. Their response was to refuse to unload the tea from the ships. 12 Handout 1 Colonial Acts of Resistance

13 Handout 2 13 American Revolution Vocabulary List An Act A law imposed by the British Parliament Authority To have power over Blockade Block hostile ships or troops from coming in or going out of the harbor Boycott To stop buying or using something for political reasons Bias To present information from a favored point of view Colonist Someone who lived in the colonies Delegate A member of an elected assembly Import To use ships to bring goods Inalienable Something that cannot be denied Liberty Freedom from the British Loyalist People who supported the British government during the American Revolution Massacre The killing of a large number of people Militia A group of volunteers who fought in times of emergency during the colonial period and the American Revolution. Minutemen Well-trained volunteer soldiers who defended the American colonies against the British at a minute s notice. Parliament Group of people that make the laws in Great Britain Patriot Person who lived in the colonies and fought against British rule Propaganda Information, ideas, or rumors spread to do harm Protest Objected or fought against something Rebel To oppose those in charge, even to the point of fighting them with weapons, because of different ideas about what is right.

14 14 Redcoat British soldier (because he wore a red uniform) Repeal To withdraw or cancel. Resistance To be against something Sons of liberty A group of men who came together because they did not agree with how England was treating the colonists. Strategy Plan Taxation without representation A popular saying by the colonists that meant they did not think they should have to pay taxes unless they had the chance to be represented in Tyranny An evil ruling power

15 Handout 3 Directions for Creating a Vocabulary Matching Quiz 15 Use the American Revolution vocabulary list to create a vocabulary matching quiz. Put the vocabulary word in vocabulary word column and the definition in the definition column. Mix up the vocabulary words and the definition so that they are not across from one another. Give each word a number, and each definition a letter. Create an answer key by answering the quiz. Example: Vocabulary Word Definition 1) Strategy A) Freedom from the British 2) Liberty B) Law imposed by the British Government 3) An Act C) Plan

16 Handout 4 16 Stamp Act Political Cartoon Example

17 17 Handout 5 What to Include in Your Political Cartoon Directions: Draw a cartoon, like the one above, about the Boston Tea Party, which includes the information below. Use the following websites and your textbook to find information for the cartoon ) Who was present at the event and what did they look like? 2) What happened at the event? 3) Where did the event take place? 4) When did the event take place? 5) How did the event take place? 6) Label important items. 7) Tell the readers why the event is happening from the point of view of the Colonists by adding captions. Captions are circles with thoughts written in them. 8) Who is the strongest group? How can you draw something to make it look stronger

18 Handout 6 Name: Important People of the Revolutionary Times Fact Sheet Directions: Listen to the recording and answer the following 18 Date of birth: Place of birth: Who they married: Event in America s Revolution that they are most famous for: Famous Quote: Date of death: Place of death:

19 19 Sample Script Biography of Important People of the Revolutionary Times: Paul Revere Born in Boston on January 1, 1735, this hero was the son of a silversmith. Like his father, Revere learned how to make all kinds of things. Besides working as a silversmith, Revere was a soldier for a short time during the French and Indian War. In August 1757 he married Sarah Orne with whom he had eight children. Shortly after her death in 1773 he married Rachel Walker, and together they had another eight children. In the 1770s, Revere became a strong supporter of American independence. He was a member of the Sons of Liberty, a group of patriots in who took their name from a debate on the Stamp Act in Parliament in He joined with 50 other revolutionaries in the Boston Tea Party, an event in 1773 when American colonists destroyed many crates of tea on ships in Boston Harbor. This event was a protest against the English tax on tea in the colonies. The colonists didn t have any say about the new taxes. And they didn t have anyone in the English government to support their cause. This was called taxation without representation. The incident has been seen as helping to spark the American Revolution. On the night of April 18, 1775, Paul Revere took one of the most famous rides in history. His mission was to get the word out about the movements of British troops near Boston. When he got the sign from the Old North Church which was two lanterns lit in the steeple, he took action. Setting out at around 11pm, Revere rode across the countryside through the night to let his fellow patriots know that the British were on the way by screaming this famous quote, The British are coming! Revere became a regular messenger to help the revolutionary cause. He rode to Concord, Massachusetts, on April 16, 1775, to tell patriots to move their weapons. Two days later he took that historic ride to Lexington to inform the people that British troops would soon be there. The next day the Revolutionary War began. And because of Revere, the patriots were ready. During the war, he made supplies to help in the fighting. Revere also served as a lieutenant colonel. He died on May 10, 1818, in Boston. He has since become a national folk hero.

20 20 List of Important People of the Revolutionary Times for Creating Recorded Biographies Abigail Adams John Adams Samuel Adams Benjamin Franklin John Hancock Thomas Jefferson King George III Paul Revere Benjamin Rush George Washington

21 Handout 7 21 Data Gathering Sheet for Polling Class Members Poll each member of the class to get their opinion of whether or not they think the Acts imposed from the British government on the colonies were fair or unfair. Circle a check mark for every answer you get. Then count the circled checkmarks to get the totals. You will use these totals to create a bar graph. You are also required to write a short paragraph about the results of the graph. Name of the Act Fair Unfair Sugar Act Currency Act Quartering Act Stamp Act Tea Act Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total

22 Handout 8 22 Outline for Writing Articles Directions: You are two create a newspaper article about the Boston Massacre or the Boston Tea Party. The article should include all of the points listed below. Remember to include who, what, where, when, why and how. Information for the article should come from the textbook and from the videos, articles and samples on the following websites: Headline (title): It should be exciting and grab the attention of the reader Example: Colonists Boycott British Stamps, The Stamp Act is Repealed Authors: By John Smith, Julio Sosa, Takasha Soto, Pierre Vaughn Opening Sentence: Should include When, Where, Who, What. Example: On March 11, 2010, in room 127, the students of Mrs. Ready s class When Where Who began their Gazette project. What First Paragraph: How Example: By reading books, examining information from the internet, watching videos and listening to information the students learned the events of the American Revolution Second Paragraph: Why Conclusion: Example: They worked for two weeks, learning as much as they could to create a Gazette for fellow students to read Example: The project was a success as everyone loved the assignment, got A s in the class and learned all the material for their test.

23 Handout 9 23 Timeline Homework Assignment Directions: Create a timeline using the following events. A timeline is a straight line that has vertical lines coming from it with the events in the order that they happened. Example: April 30, 1789 November 4, 2009 George Washington is elected as president Barack Obama is elected as president November 6, 1860 Abraham Lincoln is elected as president Sugar Act This act raised revenue by increasing duties on sugar imported from the West Indies. Currency Act Parliament argued that colonial currency had caused a devaluation harmful to British trade. They banned American assemblies from issuing paper bills or bills of credit. Committees of Correspondence Organized by Samuel Adams, these helped spread propaganda and information through letters. Quartering Act Britain ordered that colonists were to house and feed British soldiers if necessary. Stamp Act This required tax stamps on many items and documents including playing cards, newspapers, and marriage licenses. Prime Minister George Grenville stated that this direct tax was intended for the colonies to pay for defense. Previous taxes imposed by Britain had been indirect, or hidden. Sons of Liberty Colonists tried to fight back by imposing non-importation agreements. The Sons of Liberty often took the law into their own hands enforcing these 'agreements' by methods such as tar and feathering. Boston Massacre The colonists and British soldiers openly clashed in Boston. This event was used as an example of British cruelty despite questions about how it actually occurred.

24 24 Tea Act To assist the failing British East India Company, the Company was given a monopoly to trade tea in America. Boston Tea Party A group of colonists disguised as Indians dumped tea overboard from three ships in Boston Harbor. First Continental Congress In response to the Intolerable Acts, 12 of the 13 colonies met in Philadelphia from September-October, One of the main results of this was the creation of The Association calling for a boycott of British goods. Lexington and Concord In April, British troops were ordered to Lexington and Concord to seize stores of colonial gunpowder and to capture Samuel Adams and John Hancock. At Lexington, open conflict occurred and eight Americans were killed. At Concord, the British troops were forced to retreat with the loss of 70 men. This was the first instance of open warfare. Second Continental Congress All 13 colonies were represented at this meeting in Philadelphia beginning May. The colonists still hoped that their grievances would be met by King George III. George Washington was named head of the Continental Army.

25 25 TEACHER BACKGROUND GUIDE COLONIAL AMERICA AND THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION They who can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety, deserve neither liberty nor safety. -Benjamin Franklin The Dutch of New Netherland, the Swedes and Finns of New Sweden, the Quakers of Pennsylvania, the Puritans of New England, the English settlers of Jamestown, and others came to the New World for different reasons and created colonies with distinct social, religious, political and economic structures. Initially, the Thirteen Colonies had a peaceful, if distant, relationship with England. Differing viewpoints about colonial rights versus Great Britain s rights caused little trouble before the 1750s. England grew rich from colonial trade, while the colonists followed their own interests and developed new ways of life. However, the French and Indian War changed that. The French wanted complete control of the frontier lands west of the Appalachian Mountains. By 1754, the British and French became engaged in what was known in America as the French and Indian War and in Europe as the Seven Years War. When France and Britain signed the Treaty of Paris in 1763, France lost most of its land to Great Britain. Great Britain began to take firmer control of its colonies since British leaders needed to settle war debts and wanted to protect newly won lands. Though few members of Parliament understood colonial issues and ideas, amassing an empire left Great Britain with huge debts and many in England thought the colonists should help pay those debts. This led Parliament to impose the Sugar, Stamp and Quartering Acts on the colonists. Great Britain s actions stunned many colonists. They could not believe that Parliament wanted to govern them without their consent. Colonists began to speak about British tyranny and to question the authority of Parliament in colonial affairs. The Sons of Liberty insisted Parliament repeal the Stamp Act. Merchants signed non-importation agreements. Threats of being tarred and feathered by the Sons of Liberty convinced colonial merchants to cooperate in the boycotts. Even colonial women stopped buying British cloth, and wove their own. Violence soon erupted. When news of the protests in the colonies reached Parliament the Stamp Act was repealed. Shortly after Parliament rethought their actions and passed the Declaratory Act, which stated that Parliament had the power to make laws to control the colonists. The Townshend Acts, passed in 1767, imposed duties on certain goods the colonies imported from Great Britain. Knowing that the duties would have to be enforced, Parliament made an example of New York, the headquarters for British troops. Because New York refused to obey the Quartering Act, their assembly was not allowed to pass any more laws until the colony complied with the act. The colonists were shocked by Great Britain s open challenge to their right to self-govern. Sons of Liberty in New York

26 26 and New England vowed to protect this right and once again colonists raised the cry of no taxation without representation. Colonial boycott of British goods caused Britain s colonial trade to drop and hurt them financially. By imposing taxes on British imports such as glass and paint, Parliament inadvertently encouraged the colonists to develop their own industries. Because the taxes backfired, British merchants urged Parliament to repeal the Townshend Acts and Britain agreed, dropping all the Townshend duties except the tax on tea. For a time, the colonists and the British seemed willing to put aside disagreements and British goods flowed once more into colonial ports. Parliament passed the Tea Act in May 1773, which allowed the East India Company to sell tea directly to the colonists instead of going through the colonial merchants, but the import tax on tea still had to be paid. Even with the import tax, the East India Company could lower their tea prices below what was charged by colonial merchants and smugglers. Britain thought they were helping both the company and the colonies. However, the colonists felt that the unfair price advantage given to the company would drive colonial tea merchants out of business. Their resentment of the Tea Act astonished Parliament. Soon the colonists refused to buy tea and sometimes shipped it back to Britain. On the evening of December 16, 1773 a group of colonists calling themselves Sons of Liberty disguised themselves as Native Americans and threw 342 chests of tea into Boston harbor! This event became known as the Boston Tea Party. The colonists did not have to wait long for British reaction to the Boston Tea Party. British leaders felt it was time to bring the American colonies under control. In March 1774, Parliament passed a series of laws, called the Coercive Acts. The colonists thought these acts were unbearable. They called them the Intolerable Acts. That same year, delegates from 12 colonies met in Philadelphia at the First Continental Congress. Some delegates wanted to move cautiously, while others expressed a desire for bold actions. Some delegates were also still loyal to the British Empire and respected the British government. The congress urged people to arm themselves and ready their militia. They sent a letter to King George III asking him to stop punishing Boston and restore peace between the colonies and Britain. The delegates also agreed to stop colonial trade with Great Britain until Parliament repealed the Intolerable Acts. By the time the delegates returned home, most of them not only questioned Parliament s right to tax them, but also its right to rule them. This was a revolutionary point of view. While the delegates avoided declaring independence, they hoped the king would listen. Tensions mounted when Parliament refused to repeal the Intolerable Acts. In the colonies, minutemen organized in towns and villages, women continued to boycott British goods and the Second Continental Congress formed the Continental Army, with George Washington as commander. The delegates encouraged the colonial governments to draw up new constitutions so that if war came, the colonies would have governments in place. They wrote the Olive

27 27 Branch petition asking King George III to repeal the Intolerable Acts. King George refused and declared the colonies in rebellion. Parliament ordered a blockade of all colonial ports and sent 30,000. German mercenaries (Hessians) to help control the colonists. These actions only strengthened the colonial will to fight for their freedom. While the Second Continental Congress met and debated issues in Philadelphia, American soldiers streamed into Boston. They wanted to strike back at the British for the attacks at Lexington and Concord. Though battles had taken place, the colonists still had not committed themselves to a war in the early months of Thomas Paine published Common Sense, which sold more than 120,000 copies in two months. The pamphlet said that the time had come for the colonies to part with the British king, persuading many to give up their loyalty to the king in favor of American independence. By early July 1776, after delegates to the Second Continental Congress endured long disagreements and debates, they voted for independence. The Declaration of Independence was drafted thereby completely severing ties of the American colonies to Great Britain. Americans were fighting for a different form of government, a republic, in which citizens elect representatives to manage the government on their behalf. However, the Continental Army had too few soldiers, low morale, a lack of money, gunpowder and supplies. It was General Washington who held them together by insisting upon organization and discipline. The war for independence lasted more than five years with Americans enduring great hardships. The American victory at the Battle of Saratoga was a turning point of the war. France began to openly send desperately needed money and supplies to the colonies. Spain and the Netherlands allied with France against the British and they too sent aid. On September 28, 1781 the French and American troops surrounded Yorktown. The British could not retreat by sea and they surrendered on October 19th. While the British still controlled New York City and did not leave Charles Town until 1782, except for a few minor skirmishes, the Revolutionary War was over. Americans had won the right to form their own government.

28 28 Student Oral Language Observation Matrix: SOLOM Student Name: Rater Name: Language of Student: Grade: School: Date: Total Score: Score Comprehension Cannot understand even simple conversation. Understands most of what is said at slower than normal speed with some repetitions. Fluency Vocabulary Pronunciation Grammar Speech is so halting and fragmentary that conversation is virtually impossible. Vocabulary limitations so severe that conversation is virtually impossible. Pronunciation problems so severe that speech is virtually unintelligible. Errors in grammar and word order so severe that speech is virtually unintelligible. Has great difficulty following everyday social conversation, even when words are spoken slowly and repeated frequently. Usually hesitant, often forced into silence because of language limitations. Difficult to understand because of misuse of words and very limited vocabulary. Difficult to understand because of pronunciation problems; must frequently repeat in order to be understood. Difficult to understand because of errors in grammar and word order; must often rephrase or restrict speech to basic patterns. Everyday conversation and classroom discussion frequently disrupted by student s search for correct manner of expression. Frequent use of wrong words; conversation somewhat limited because of inadequate vocabulary. Concentration required of listener; occasional misunderstanding s caused by pronunciation problems. Frequent errors in grammar and word order; meaning occasionally obscured. Understands nearly everything at normal speed, although occasional repetition may be necessary. Everyday conversation and classroom discussion generally fluent, with occasional lapses while student searches for the correct manner of expression. Occasional use of inappropriate terms and/or rephrasing of the ideas because of limited vocabulary. Always intelligible, although listener conscious of a definite accent and occasional inappropriate intonation pattern. Occasional errors in grammar or word order; meaning not obscured. Understands everyday conversation and normal classroom discussion without difficulty. Everyday conversation and classroom discussion fluent and effortless; approximately those of a native speaker. Vocabulary and idioms approximately those of a native speaker. Pronunciation and intonation approximately those of a native speaker. Grammar and word order approximately those of a native speaker.

29 29 Group Work Scoring Sheet Name: Date: Group #: Assignment Name: Accuracy of Facts Organization Grammar & Spelling Presentation Elements of Assignment Addressed Sum of 5 components x 4 = Overall Score Key 1 = poor 2 = fair 3 = average 4 = good 5 = excellent

30 30 Pair Work Scoring Sheet Name: Date: Historical Figure: If the following are factually correct, score 1 pt. Name: Date of birth: Place of birth: Who they married: Date of death: Place of death: If the following are factually correct, score 2 pts. Event in America s Revolution that they are most famous for: Famous Quote: Notes for future use: How well did the student interpret the listening selection

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