The Learning Zoo 2010 The Road to War Cooperative Learning Lesson Plan By Breezie Bitter

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1 The Road to War Cooperative Learning Lesson Plan By Breezie Bitter Topic: The colonists begin to work together when Parliament passed more laws for the colonies. Standards: 5.SS Discuss significant individuals who have been responsible for bringing about political and social changes in the United States. 5.SS Identify influential political and cultural groups throughout American history. 5.SS Discuss the causes and effects of various conflicts in American history. 5.SS Discuss the economic policies of England that contributed to the revolt in the North American colonies. 5.SS Explain the concepts of tariffs and taxation. Objective: SWBAT explain the causes and effects of the Boston Tea Party and the Intolerable Acts. SWBAT explain the significance of The First Continental Congress. SWBAT explain the issues surrounding the battles at Lexington and Concord. Assessment: SWAT explain in their own words what they learned about the Boston Tea Party,, The First Continental Congress, the battles at Lexington and Concord, and the ride of Paul Revere. Materials Needed: KWL Charts (1 per student) Access to pictures listed in the gain attention section (Google pictures) Team tubs with the following o Glue Sticks o Scissors o Crayons o Colored Pencils o Pencils o 5 copies of one Trading Card handout (each group gets 1 type of card) Gain Attention: Have pictures (nice pieces of art) of the Boston Tea Party, Intolerable Acts, The First Continental Congress,, and Lexington and Concord displayed for the class to see. (Option: display pictures on a power point) Ask them what they think these pictures might be of. Recall Prior Knowledge: After discussing the possible meanings of the pictures displayed, recall what you have been studying about the American Colonists and their struggles with Britain. After recalling that information again discuss what the pictures may be about. Have students fill out the K and W sections of their KWL Charts.

2 Teacher Input: Go through the pictures chronologically, one by one and discuss the important details and significance of each even. Use the attached materials that will be distributed to each group as a resource. Do not tell every detail, but give an overview of each. Leave some room for your students to discover during their activity. Intolerable Acts The First Continental Congress Lexington and Concord Group Organization: Divide class into groups of 5. Distribute team tubs stocked with listed materials. Explain procedures and list them in a visible place. Positive Interdependence: Each student will cut out his or her sheet of trading cards. They will then glue the cards together picture on front, writing space on back. (Each student cuts and glues 5 of the same trading card, so in one group 25 trading cards, all the same, should be completed- adjust numbers as needed for class size) Individual Accountability: As a group the students will study the information given about the trading card they posses and prepare to present what they know to their classmates. Students are encouraged to discuss with their team and learn all they can about their topic. Equal Participation/Simultaneous Interaction: Number off students in each group 1-5. Split the groups into these numbers (now you should have one of each kind of trading card in each group). Students bring with them their created trading cards to share with their new group. In the order you discussed and with an allotted time given, have students present their trading cards to their groups and tell what they know about the event. After each person presents give students time to finish filling out the L section of their KWL chart. When the activity is finished each student should have 5 different trading cards. The students can then independently write on the trading cards what they know about that event. Depending on time students may color their cards. Closure: (Debriefing): Bring class together as one and review what they learned from studying the trading cards. Clarify any concepts that need it and make sure misconceptions were not formed.

3 LexingtonandConcord Cutintostripsandhaveeachteammemberreadonesection.Highlight wordsorpeopleyoudon tknowandthatwanttoknowmoreabout.usethe encyclopediasoryourtextbooktofindoutmoreaboutwhatyou ve highlighted.discusswhatyourfindingsasagroup. 1. FirstshotsfiredbetweenAmericanandBritishtroops,onApril19,1775.The BritishchosetomarchtoConcordbecauseitwasanarmsdepot.Thismeant thattheamericanshadstockpiledweaponsthere.britishtroopshad occupiedbostonandweremarchingonconcordastheypassedthrough Lexington.Nooneisstillsurewhofiredfirst,butitwasthe"ShotHeard 'RoundtheWorld."Bothsidesopenedfire,andtheAmericanswereforcedto withdraw.buttheyhadslowedthebritishadvance.bythetimetheredcoats gottoconcord,theamericanswerewaitingfortheminforce.theweapons depotwassaved,andthebritishwereforcedtoretreat,harassedby militiamenalongtheway.theskirmisheswereprecededbypaulrevere's famousride,warningthecountryside:"thebritisharecoming!" 2. Patriot'sDayiscelebratedonthethirdMondayinApril.Itcommemorates thebattleoflexingtonandconcordinmassachusetts.therevolutionary WarbeganthereonApril19,1775andendedinYorktownonOctober19, 1781whenCornwallissurrenderedtoGeorgeWashington.Aformaltreaty endingthewarwasnotsigneduntil OntheeveningofApril18,1775GeneralThomasGage,theBritish CommanderinChiefoftheMassachusettsBayColonywasorderedtobring thecoloniesundercontrol.heorderedlt.col.francissmithtodestroy Colonist'swarsuppliesheldinConcord.Smithwasalsoinstructedtotake SamuelAdamsandJohnHancockintoBritishcustody.Smith'sorderswereto becarriedoutinsecret.however,josephwarren,adoctor,learnedofthe plansandsentwilliamdawesandpaulreveretowarnthepatriots. 4. PaulRevererode16milesfromOldeNorthChurchinBostontoLexington. TheBritisharrivedinLexingtonintheearlydawnofApril19,1775.Itwas therethatthepatriotsor'minutemen'andbritishconfrontedeachotheron thegreenand"theshotheardroundtheworld"wasfired.itisnotknown whofiredthefirstshot. 5. LexingtonandConcordareoldcommunities,settledlongbeforethe AmericanRevolution,butherein1775,theMinuteMenstoodupagainstthe British,and firedtheshotheardroundtheworld. TheMinuteMan HistoricalParkmeandersthroughwoods,farmsandfields.Kidscanwalk overthenorthbridgeorstepintocolonialhousesforaglimpseintothe AmericanRevolution.Theareaisalsolushwithforestsandpondspreserved tothisday.

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7 PaulRevere Cutintostripsandhaveeachteammemberreadonesection.Highlight wordsorpeopleyoudon tknowandthatwanttoknowmoreabout.usethe encyclopediasoryourtextbooktofindoutmoreaboutwhatyou ve highlighted.discusswhatyourfindingsasagroup. 1. On the night of April 18, 1775, Paul Revere took one of the most famous rides in history. His mission was to get the word out about the movements of British troops near Boston. Setting out at around 11pm, Revere rode across the countryside through the night to let his fellow patriots know that the British were on the way. 2. Born in Boston on January 1, 1735, this hero was the son of a silversmith. Like his father, Revere learned how to make all kinds of things. He was able to supplement his income in the economic depression before the Revolution by creating tools, copper plates, and even fake teeth. Besides working as a silversmith, Revere was a soldier for a short time during the French and Indian War. 3. In the 1770s, Revere became a strong supporter of American independence. He was a member of the 'Sons of Liberty', a group of patriots in who took their name from a debate on the Stamp Act in Parliament in He joined with 50 other revolutionaries in the Boston Tea Party, an event in 1773 when American colonists destroyed many crates of tea on ships in Boston Harbor. This event was a protest against the English tax on tea in the colonies. The colonists didn't have any say about the new taxes. And they didn't have anyone in the English government to support their cause. This was called "taxation without representation." The incident has been seen as helping to spark the American Revolution. 4. Revere became a regular messenger to help the revolutionary cause. He rode to Concord, Massachusetts, on April 16, 1775, to tell patriots to move their weapons. Two days later he took that historic ride to Lexington to inform the people that British troops would soon be there. The next day the Revolutionary War began. And because of Revere, the patriots were ready. During the war, he made supplies to help in the fighting. Revere also served as a lieutenant colonel. He died on May 10, 1818, in Boston. An obituary in the Boston Intelligence commented, 'seldom has the tomb closed upon a life so honorable and useful'. 5. Paul Revere's most famous contribution to U.S. history has been passed down over the years in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's famous poem 'Paul Revere's Ride' which was published in He has since become a national folk hero. The first 5 lines of Longfellow s poem is below: LISTEN, my children, and you shall hear Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere, On the eighteenth of April, in Seventy-five; Hardly a man is now alive

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11 TheBostonTeaParty Cutintostripsandhaveeachteammemberreadonesection.Highlight wordsorpeopleyoudon tknowandthatwanttoknowmoreabout.usethe encyclopediasoryourtextbooktofindoutmoreaboutwhatyou ve highlighted.discusswhatyourfindingsasagroup. 1. The tax on tea that Parliament had passed greatly affected the tea business in the colonies. The price of tea in the Americas increased, making it more difficult for tea growers, producers, and shippers to survive. In order to insure that British companies would not be hurt by this new tax, Parliament passed a law that exempted British companies from having to pay the tax. This meant that these companies could sell their tea cheaper, almost guaranteeing that companies based in the Americas would go out of business. 2. In protest to new taxes from the king, a group of individuals called the Sons of Liberty dressed up as Native Americans boarded a cargo ship in Boston Harbor, and dumped its entire load of tea into the harbor waters. This event became known as the Boston tea party. 3. In response to the Boston tea party the Parliament in Great Britain passed a number of new laws, which completely closed down the Boston Harbor until colonists paid for the cost of the tea that had been dumped into the harbor. These new laws also greatly limited the freedoms of the colonists, requiring them to obtain permission from the governor prior to holding any public meetings, and greatly limiting the power of the legislature. These new laws became known by the colonies as the intolerable acts. 4. Angry and frustrated at a new tax on tea, American colonists calling themselves the Sons of Liberty and disguised as Mohawk Native Americans boarded three British ships (the Dartmouth, the Eleanor, and the Beaver) and dumped 342 whole crates of British tea into Boston harbor on December 16, Similar incidents occurred in Maryland, New York, and New Jersey in the next few months, and tea was eventually boycotted throughout the colonies. 5. On December 16, American colonists dressed as Mohawk Indians sneaked aboard three merchant ships and dumped 45 tons of tea into Boston Harbor. The Sons of Liberty were protesting British Parliament s Tea Act, which granted the British-owned East India Tea Company a monopoly on exporting tea into the colonies. Colonists would willingly pay taxes on British tea, the King reasoned, if it cost less than smuggled imports. Wrong! Led by Sam Adams, the colonists rebelled, starting down the long road that would lead to the American Revolution and independence.

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15 The First Continental Congress Cut into strips and have each team member read one section. Highlight words or people you don t know and that want to know more about. Use the encyclopedias or your textbook to find out more about what you ve highlighted. Discuss what your findings as a group. 1. As a result of the intolerable acts, which had been passed by the British Parliament, colonists in the Americas become increasingly convinced that they needed to take more aggressive steps in order to protect themselves, and their liberty. So, they decided to call a congress together to discuss these matters. 2. On September 5, delegates were sent from each of the 13 colonies to meet in Philadelphia as representatives of The First Continental Congress. These representatives debated the issues of the rights of colonists as a united group. For the first time in history, the 13 colonies were working as a group, and not as individual colonists. Patrick Henry, a delegate from Virginia stated I am not a Virginian, I am an American. 3. The First Continental Congress passed resolutions stating that the British Parliament did not have the right to pass laws in the colonies, and only had the right to regulate trade between the colonies and Great Britain. They further resolved that by December of the same year they would cease importing any goods from Great Britain, and that by September of the following year, they would cease exporting any goods to Great to Great Britain. 4. The First Continental Congress was a group of 56 delegates from 12 colonies (all except Georgia) who met in Philadelphia in September of They came together to act together in response to the Intolerable Acts. They met in secret because they didn't want Great Britain to know that they were united. 5. Fifty-six delegates met to consider the pressing matters before the First Continental Congress. Half were lawyers but the delegation also included planters and merchants. Despite their differences, they found a common ground in responding to their treatment by their mother country.

16 The First Continental Congress The First Continental Congress The First Continental Congress The First Continental Congress

17 The First Continental Congress The First Continental Congress The First Continental Congress The First Continental Congress

18 The First Continental Congress The First Continental Congress The First Continental Congress The First Continental Congress

19 Cut into strips and have each team member read one section. Highlight words or people you don t know and that want to know more about. Use the encyclopedias or your textbook to find out more about what you ve highlighted. Discuss what your findings as a group. 1. Series of laws sponsored by British Prime Minister Lord North and enacted in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party. The laws were these: Impartial Administration of Justice Act, which allowed the royal governor of a colony to move trials to other colonies or even to England if he feared that juries in those colonies wouldn't judge a case fairly Massachusetts Bay Regulating Act made all law officers subject to appointment by the royal governor and banned all town meetings that didn't have approval of the royal governor Boston Port Act, which closed the port of Boston until the price of the dumped tea was recovered, moved the capital of Massachusetts to Salem, and made Marblehead the official port of entry for the Massachusetts colony. Quartering Act, which allowed royal troops to stay in houses or empty buildings if barracks were not available Quebec Act, which granted civil government and religious freedom to Catholics living in Quebec. 2. These Acts were the harshest so far of all the Acts passed by Parliament. The closing of Boston's port alone would cost the colony (and the American colonies as a whole) a ton of money. The Regulating Act was aimed at curtailing revolutionary activities. The Quartering Act angered colonists who didn't want soldiers (especially Redcoats) in their houses. And the Quebec Act was a direct insult to Americans, who had been denied the same sorts of rights that the Quebec residents now got. 3. Intolerable Acts, name given by American patriots to five laws (including the Quebec Act) adopted by Parliament in 1774, which limited the political and geographical freedom of the colonists. Four of these laws were passed to punish the people of Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party. 4. These acts were intended to make an example of the people of Massachusetts for their disobedience. The acts were to discourage other colonies from opposing British rule. Instead, they had the opposite affect. united the colonies against Britain. Patriot leaders began to call for a meeting, or a colonial congress, to discuss the issues. Each of the colonies began to elect members to attend the congress. 5. The British parliament responded to the Boston Tea Party by passing four laws. The colonies called these laws the "Intolerable Acts." The British closed the Boston Harbor pending the people of Boston paying for the lost tea, and paying the required tax. They also eliminated the Massachusetts elected government council. They replaced it with council members appointed by the King. They gave the governor new powers, such as the ability to control public meetings. They also changed the Justice Act so that people charged with violent crimes would be tried in England. They expanded the Quartering Act requiring British troops to be housed in private homes. Lastly, to prevent the colonies from growing bigger and

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