Expanding Horizons: Imperialism

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1 Expanding Horizons: Imperialism

2 In August 1914, World War I broke out in Europe, which drowned out the Progressive Era. Leading up to this, U.S. foreign policy had been drastically changing.

3 IMPERIALISM Imperialism: stronger nations create empires by dominating weaker nations The mother country makes all the money/profit Before the 1890s, American foreign policy was focused on defending the country from invasions and enforcing the Monroe Doctrine

4 FACTORS LEADING TO U.S. IMPERIALISM 1. Economic The growth of industry in the US lead to a need for raw materials and new markets to sell goods 2. Nationalism Europeans were already competing to create large empires to gain power and prestige 3. Humanitarian Missionaries wanted to spread Christianity 4. Militarism The US had a growing navy and needed to set up bases around the world

5 In Washington s Farewell Address, he warned the U.S. to steer clear of foreign alliances; for the 19 th century, this advice was for the most part followed. Then, in 1853, an American fleet led by Commodore Matthew Perry sailed to Japan and convinced them to open the door to trade with the U.S. The U.S. also joined Europe and Japan in exerting spheres of influence in China. Now, in the late 19 th century, the U.S. wanted control of some Pacific islands primarily for military The U.S. simply could not consume all of its food and other goods; selling it to overseas colonies would make tons of money!

6 Spanish American War

7 FACTORS LEADING TO WAR Cuba rebelled against its mother country Spain in 1868; Spain put the revolution down violently. The U.S. refused to get involved AT FIRST But remember how newspaper publishers were using yellow journalism to compete for readers??? The stories and political cartoons printed strengthened American sympathy for the Cuban rebels! The intense burst of national pride, and the desire for an aggressive foreign policy came to be known as jingoism.

8 In January 1898 President McKinley stationed the U.S.S. Maine in Havana harbor. Then on February 15, the U.S.S. Maine exploded; more than 250 sailors died. Many Americans blamed the Spanish and called for war even though it was the work of a fire which reached ammunition stores!

9 Newspapers went crazy!

10 Then a letter was stolen from the Spanish ambassador to Washington (de Lome) in which he said that President McKinley was weak and published! Spain agreed to compensate America for the Maine a month following publication but it was too late On April 11th, 1898 the US declared war on Spain! The war was over by August and less than 2500 people died! The Treaty of Paris granted Cuba independence and Spain was paid $20 million for the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico. The Platt Amendment gave the US the right to establish naval bases on Cuba

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12 Presidential Expansion

13 President McKinley was assassinated on September 6, 1901 at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, NY. He died 12 days later. It was after his death that the secret service was established.

14 PANAMA CANAL Teddy Roosevelt became president and saw the need for a shorter route between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans The U.S. took over in the building of the Panama Canal in 1904 and finished by The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine was created; the U.S. would be the policeman of the Western Hemisphere. TR also preserved the open door policy of trading with China by keeping Japan and Russia in check Taft (who became president after TR) s main foreign policy was to preserve Latin American stability by increasing U.S. investment in their economies; this was known as dollar diplomacy.

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17 Expanding Horizons: World War I

18 Causes of World War I The direct cause of WWI was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo on June 18, However, historians feel that a number of factors contributed to the rivalry between the great powers that allowed war on such a wide-scale to break out.

19 M.A.I.N. Causes of WWI Militarism Britain had a large navy and Germany wanted a large navy also. It became an arms race. Germany competed with France to build a larger army as well. Imperialism European nations ruled colonies and competed with each other to amass more colonies. Alliances European nations had been making alliances that they thought would promote peace. Each country would be protected by others in case of war, making it foolish for one country to wage war against another. The danger would be that an argument between two countries could lead to all out war. Nationalism (Pride in one s own nation or culture) This belief led European nations to compete to build bigger nations and armies. It also gave some peoples the idea of forming independent nations of their own.

20 Wilson On August 4, 1914, President Woodrow Wilson declared the Us.S. to be neutral in WWI. At this time, neutrality protected U.S. trade interests. Neutrality NSL In December, the National Security League was created to prepare the U.S. for war juuuuuuust in case!

21 U.S. Enters the War Multiple factors lead the U.S. to join the Great War

22 U-Boats Germans began to practice unrestricted submarine warfare, torpedoing any ship the found in the Atlantic Warnings They placed ads in U.S. newspapers warning Americans 1. The Lusitania Attack In May of 1915, a German U-boat sank the British ocean liner, the Lusitania, and killed 1200 people INCLUDING 128 AMERICANS! Sussex Pledge 2 More Americans were killed in March 1916 after Germans torpedoed a French passenger ship, the Sussex. Wilson was pissed and the Germans issued the Sussex Pledge, promising that in the future U-boats would warn before attack

23 2. Zimmerman Telegram Telegram from German foreign minister Arthur Zimmerman It promised Mexico its lost land in the U.S. in return for Mexican support of Germany in the war British cryptographers intercepted and deciphered the telegram in 1917

24 3. Communism Russian Revolution The Russian Rev began in March of 1917 and Americans were afraid that Communism would spread to Europe and then the U.S. Just a month later Wilson would tell Congress that the world must be made safe for democracy. The U.S. joined World War I on April 6, 1917!

25 The European Front American troops helped the Allies (UK, France, Russia) defeat the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary)

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27 TURNING THE TIDE By the time the U.S. entered the war the Allies DESPERATELY needed replacement troops. The Selective Service Act was passed in May 1917 which authorized a draft of young men for the military After the Bolshevik Revolution, the Russians had to exit the war which initially helped Germany. When the Germans reached Paris they were stopped by French and U.S. troops The allies regrouped and counterattacked with a new weapon, the tank, and pushed back the Central Powers on land and by air. An armistice (cease-fire) began on November 11, 1918

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31 The Home Front World War I had important social, political, and economic effects on American society

32 ECONOMIC EFFECTS The United States gov t sold Liberty Bonds to raise money. They could be redeemed later for the original value plus interest. Daylight Savings Time was also put in place to increase the number of daylight hours available for work and lower fuel consumption Manufacturers also had restrictions on trade War Industries Board fixed prices and told manufacturers how much to make War Trade Board punished those we traded with the enemy Lever Food and Fuel Control Act imposed price controls on food and rationed goods

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35 SOCIAL EFFECTS The United States gov t imposed censorship on the pressed and even banned some publications! Anti-German settlement reached near hysteria! Espionage Act of 1917 made it illegal to interfere with the draft Sedition Act of 1918 made it illegal to say anything disloyal about the US and it s military

36 Eugene Debs A socialist, Debs was jailed for 10 years for criticizing the government and urging people to resist militarism!

37 Treaty of Versailles POLITICAL EFFECTS The Big Three England, France, and the US met in Versailles, Germany in 1918 to create a peace treaty Woodrow Wilson wanted to include his 14 Points which he believed would guarantee LASTING peace Another of Wilson s ideas, The League of Nations was also brought up during these talks (a group of other 40 countries who would settle problems through negotiations). Reservationists like Henry Cabot Lodge thought the LoN was a bad idea and threatened U.S. independence Congress eventually voted to disregard the treat BUT declare the war over!

38 65,038,810 Total mobilized forces from all countries 37,466,904 Total casualties (killed, wounded, missing) 57.5% Percent of forces which were casulaties!

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