Unit 6 Review Sheets Foreign Policies: Imperialism Isolationism (Spanish-American War Great Depression)

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1 Speak softly & carry a big stick; you will go far -Theodore Roosevelt Work or fight -National War Labor Board Unit 6 Review Sheets Foreign Policies: Imperialism Isolationism (Spanish-American War Great Depression) In the late 1800 s, the United States changed from a policy of isolationism to one of expansion. During this period, the United States purchased Alaska from Russia, annexed Hawaii, and opened up Japan to foreign trade. In 1898, the Spanish-American War made the United States a world power. It gained lands in the Caribbean and the Pacific. Some Americans opposed expansion. Many supported. After the Spanish-American War, the United States built the Panama Canal. To protect the canal, the United States became involved in the affairs of Latin American nations. President Wilson tried to keep the United States neutral. But the United States was drawn into the war. When the United States entered the war, the Allies were in a desperate position. American troops helped stop the final German offensive and turn the tide in favor of the Allies. In 1919, President Wilson attended the Paris Peace Conference. Wilson wanted a peace treaty based on his Fourteen Points. But other Allies had their own goals. In the end, the Senate rejected the Versailles Treaty. 1

2 1. How did U.S. economic prosperity lead it to pursue a policy of imperialism? 2. Explain the arguments against imperialism. Summing Up: Early American Foreign Policy For most of their first century as a nation, Americans followed the advice of George Washington to avoid involvement in European alliances and wars. The Spanish- American War marked an important change in U.S. foreign policy. In just over 100 years, the United States was transformed from being a colony itself into a nation with its own overseas empire 2

3 1. How did yellow journalism affect American attitudes toward the Cuban revolt? 2. What event increased the conflict between the United States and Spain? 3. How prepared were U.S. troops? 3

4 4.What were the justifications used by the Americans to annex the Philippines? 5. How did the United States maintain political control over Cuba? 6. Why did John Hay propose an Open Door policy in China? 7. Why did the United States want a canal through the Isthmus of Panama? 8. How were big stick policy diplomacy and dollar diplomacy alike? Summing Up: America Builds a Colonial Empire By the early 1900 s, the United States had interests and possessions in the Caribbean, Asia and the Pacific. American oversea expansion led to some hostility against the U.S., especially in the Philippines, China and Latin America. Eventually, the U.S. changed its policies to help bring about better relations, particularly with its Latin American neighbors. 4

5 1. Why did the United States tend to favor Britain and France? 2. How did the German U-boat campaign affect U.S. public opinion and actions? 3. What event finally prompted Wilson to ask for a declaration of war? 4. How did the United States raise an army for the war? 5. What four steps did the U.S. government take to build a naval fleet quickly? 6.What effects did the War Industries Board (WIB) have on the economy? 7.What was the original purpose of the Espionage and Sedition Acts? 5

6 8. Summarize Wilson s Fourteen Points 9. Why did many senators oppose the Treaty of Versailles? Summing Up: United State Returns to Isolation/Normalcy The refusal of the United States to join the League of Nations marked the return of the American policy of isolationism (refusing to become involved in the affairs of other countries). Many Americans favored this policy because they were unhappy with the huge costs of the war and the small benefits that the United States had obtained from its involvement. They felt protected by the oceans and did not want to get involved in European conflicts again. 6

7 So first of all let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself. -Roosevelt in his 1 st Inaugural Address Unit 6: Part II On May 20, 1927, Captain Charles A. Lindbergh set out on a bold adventure. He planned to fly his single engine airplane, The Spirit of St. Louis, alone from New York to Paris, France. Lindbergh piloted the tiny plane through the fog, rain and sleet over the stormy Atlantic. Finally, he reached the coast of France and landed outside Paris. I circled around into the winder and landed, he wrote later. Thousands of people raced toward the plane. When parts of the ship began to crack form the pressure of the [crowd]. I decided to come out the cockpit in order to draw the crowd away. The cheering French pulled Lindbergh from the plane and carried him like hero across the field. Back home in America, headlines announced LINDY DOES IT-TO PARIS IN 33 ½ HOURS. Overnight, Lindbergh won the hearts of Americans. Huge crowds welcomed him when he returned home. A popular song Lucky Lindy, celebrated his flight. The Lindy hope became a new dance. Why did Lindbergh become such a hero? In the 1920s, people needed a hero. World War 1 and the years after the war brought great changes to America. Many people welcomed the changes. To them, Lindbergh s flight pointed to a new age. Many others looked back to the past with longings. To them, Lindbergh was a confident, courageous hero like those of the past. 7

8 A RETURN TO ISOLATIONISM In World War I, ten million people had been killed and twenty million wounded. Some of these casualties were Americans. By 1920, Americans felt let down by the results of the war. Although the United States had been on the winning side, the world was not "safe for democracy," as President Wilson had promised. In the 1920s, the United States returned to its traditional policy of isolationism - keeping away from involvement in Europe's troubles. Americans focused more on events at home, feeling safe behind the oceans that separated them from Europe and Asia. This was one major reason why the United States never joined the League of Nations. There were some exceptions to this trend towards isolationism. In 1921, the United States hosted the Washington Naval Conference, in which European and Asian powers agreed to limit the number of naval weapons and the size of their navies. In 1928, the United States also promoted the Kellogg-Briand Pact, in which 62 countries said they would give up war and settle their disputes by peaceful means only. But Americans were reluctant to become any more involved than this, and were especially opposed to being caught up in any future wars in Europe. REASONS FOR THE PROSPERITY OF THE 1920 s For many Americans, the 1920s were good times. Wages rose and job opportunities increased, while business profits and production soared. There were many factors underlying this prosperity. THE RISE OF THE AUTOMOBILE Probably the single most important factor in creating prosperity was that the automobile came into widespread use. In the 1920s, ownership of cars jumped from 7 million to 23 million. This enormous growth in automobile ownership greatly affected many aspects of American life. Automobile production helped stimulate other industries, since cars required vast amounts of steel, glass, and rubber. By 1929, one out of every nine workers in America was employed in an auto-related industry. THE DEVELOPMENT OF OTHER NEW INDUSTRIES Besides automobiles, other new industries emerged, largely based on new uses of electricity. Household appliances, like the vacuum cleaner, refrigerator, and toaster, were introduced. Radio and motion pictures became widespread. These new industries created new jobs and changed the ways Americans lived. MORE EFFICIENT PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES The assembly line, the use of standardized parts, and other labor-saving devices made American industry more efficient and productive. Some of these improved production techniques were developed for wartime production during World War I. 8

9 THE AGE OF MASS CONSUMPTION The 1920s witnessed new patterns of consumption, creating larger mass markets for goods. Advertising stimulated demand, while workers with higher wages and more leisure time had greater purchasing power. Retailers developed programs for installment purchases and buying on credit. SPECULATION BOOM The emergence of new industries, improved production techniques, and mass markets helped fuel a speculative boom on the stock market, where millions of people invested in the hope of striking it rich. POLICIES FAVORING BUSINESS In general, Presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover followed policies favorable to American business. They supported laissez-faire policies, with minimal interference in business activities. THE NEW YORK STOCK MARKET CRASH In 1929, the prices of stocks on the New York Stock Exchange turned sharply downward. On October 29th, the market "crashed" as prices went into free fall. Everyone wanted to sell stocks but nobody wanted to buy them. Within a few days the total market value of stocks fell by more than 30 billion dollars. The New York Stock Market Crash marked the beginning of the Great Depression. Corporations found it hard to raise money, and many went out of business. As a result, people lost their jobs. Unemployed people had very little money to spend, so more companies went out of business. People went hungry. Millions depended on soup kitchens and bread CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION The crash of the stock market in 1929 set off a chain reaction that toppled the American economy and became a national nightmare. Soon the Great Depression spread to Europe, showing that conditions in one part of the world are affected by conditions in another part. This connection is known as global interdependence. 9

10 FACTORS LEADING TO THE GREAT DEPRESSION In addition to the New York Stock Market Crash, many underlying factors helped cause the Great Depression: FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT AND THE NEW DEAL During the Great Depression of the 1930s, the greatest challenge facing Americans was widespread unemployment. The Governor of New York, Franklin D. Roosevelt, was nominated as the Democratic candidate in the Presidential election of Roosevelt promised Americans a "New Deal" to put them back to work. Roosevelt easily defeated Hoover in a landslide election. ROOSEVELT INTRODUCES THE NEW DEAL The New Deal was a major turning point in American history. It established that the federal government bears the chief responsibility for ensuring the smooth running of the American economy. ROOSEVELT'S NEW DEAL PHILOSOPHY President Roosevelt saw the depression as a national emergency. He believed the President's task was to find a way back to prosperity. The New Deal marked an end to the view that government and the economy should be separated. Under Roosevelt, the New Deal permanently increased the size and power of the federal government, making it primarily responsible for managing the national economy. ROOSEVELT'S STYLE Roosevelt brought a new style to the Presidency. He assembled a group of very talented people, known as the "Brain Trust," to serve under him. Roosevelt was an excellent communicator. In radio addresses to millions of listeners, known as "fireside chats," he explained his policies in simple conversational terms. His cheerful optimism helped to restore public confidence. 10

11 NEW DEAL LEGISLATION: RELIEF, RECOVERY, AND REFORM As soon as President Roosevelt took office, he called Congress into special session. Roosevelt then pushed through legislation that would have been difficult to pass in less critical times. Roosevelt explained the New Deal measures in terms of three R's Relief, Recovery, and Reform. *To limit judicial opposition to the New Deal programs, President Franklin attempted to add more justices (Court Packing Plan) to the Supreme Court. 11

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