1 08.01 A Nation Divided The causes of the Civil War Each region was distinctive with its own political, economic, and social interests. Issues that divided the Union North South Slavery Abolitionists (saw slaves Pro-slavery (saw slaves as as people) property) Economics Favored higher tariffs Favored lower tariffs Politics (state s rights) Believed more power should reside in the federal government. Believed more power should reside in the state governments.
2 In the North, the harsh winters and rocky land discouraged large scale planting. Men turned to the sea for their livelihoods. The North had more than 80 percent of the nation's factories and over 70 percent of its railroads. The industrial North wanted duties, or tariffs, placed on imported goods to give their own products a competitive advantage. The factories in the North were dependent on the raw materials grown on Southern plantations; however they disliked the institution of slavery. The North disagreed on the state s rights or how much power the state governments should have. The South s economy was based on agriculture. The South depended on foreign trade and were therefor against the tariffs which could only hurt the South because of the tariff's trade restrictions. South believed in more power to the state governments and less to the federal government.
3 The debate surrounding slavery The addition of new territories was also a source of tension during this period. The United States tried very hard to maintain a sense of political equality in Congress by maintaining an equal number of free and slave states in the Union.
4 Lincoln, slavery, and the Civil War The Republican Party nominated Abraham Lincoln as its candidate; this party had taken a stance against the expansion of slavery into the newly acquired territories. Lincoln disliked slavery and he was considered an anti-southern abolitionist candidate (they feared he would abolish slavery) Lincoln supported the Transcontinental Railroad. The people of the South saw Lincoln s election as the last straw in a long list of actions that they felt favored the North. Many slaveholders believed the U.S. government no longer equally represented their political views. This belief was the final straw that led South Carolina to secede from the Union.
5 Which statement best describes the impact of slavery on the admission of new territories and states to the U.S.? A. The Unites States government favored slavery as a way to boost population and make settling new land easier. B. Most new territories were opposed to slavery in the wake of violent events like Nat Turner's rebellion and the siege of Harper's Ferry. C. Both slave and free states felt that the other side would gain control of Congress if the balance of free states and slave states was changed. D. Unless a territory contained a lot of land that was good for farming, the question of whether or not a new state would allow slavery was not discussed.
6 IF YOU SAID C, YOU RE CORRECT. IF YOU DID NOT, PLEASE GO BACK AND REVIEW THE CONTENT. Both slave and free states felt that the other side would gain control of Congress if the balance of free states and slave states was changed.
7 08.02 Taking Sides December of 1860, South Carolina became the first state to secede. February 1861: Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas seceded. 1861: these 7 states formed the Confederate States of America
8 The Civil War Begins February 1861: South Carolina, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Jefferson Davis elected president national capitol in Montgomery, Alabama April 1861: Confederate troops to fire at the federal troops stationed at Fort Sumter, South Carolina. The Civil War begins. Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia secede from the Union and join the Confederate States of America. The New Mexico and Indian territories sided with the Confederacy.
9 Border States Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, West Virginia, and Missouri were called border states. These states were slave states that had not seceded from the United States. The nation is divided. Union forces are supported by 24 states and six territories. Confederate forces are supported by 11 states and two territories.
10 Advantages Larger Population 22 million citizens. More Industry factories and industries to produce materials needed during a war. More Resources people, railroads, manufacturing plants, and industrial workers. Better Banking System controlled at least 70% of the nation s wealth. More Railroad Mileage easier and faster to move supplies, men, and equipment. Abraham Lincoln a strong, decisive leader in the midst of the war. More ships easier to create blockades. Slaves as spies spies and guides in support of Northern soldiers. Union Disadvantages Faced hostile people Not every citizen in the North supported the war. At the start of the war, U.S. Grant led an unruly volunteer regiment. Southern territory unfamiliar Union troops not familiar with the land.
11 Confederate States of American Advantages Disadvantages Stronger Support by Citizens fighting to defend their own land. Familiar with Territory fighting on their own soil so they knew the geography of the area. Superior Military Leadership Robert E. Lee, Joseph Johnston and Stonewall Jackson. Strong Military Traditions men encouraged to serve in the armed forces or attend a military school. Smaller Population 9 million citizens. Fewer Factories Not enough factories to produce the needed materials to fight a war. Less Food Production Due to the blockade, Southerners could not export goods or earn a profit to buy food. Fewer railroad miles harder to move supplies, men and equipment. Fewer ships Smaller Navy a disadvantage due to Union blockade. Jefferson Davis Failed to raise sufficient money to fight the Civil War and could not gain support from foreign countries. Threat of Slave Rebellion slave population offered assistance to the North.
12 How many states continued to allow slavery but did not secede from the Union during the Civil War? A. 11 B. 5 C. 4 D. 7
13 IF YOU SAID B, YOU RE CORRECT. IF YOU DID NOT, PLEASE GO BACK AND REVIEW THE CONTENT. 5 - Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, West Virginia, and Missouri
14 08.03 Shots Fired! Fort Sumter, South Carolina April of Fort Sumter was located in South Carolina and occupied by Union troops. Union soldiers at Fort Sumter were running low on supplies, Lincoln sent provisions to the fort. Lincoln made it clear that he was not sending reinforcements as he did not want to provoke a war. The president of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis, felt this was an attack on the Confederacy. Davis ordered his troops to shell Fort Sumter. This marked the beginning of the American Civil War.
15 08.03 Shots Fired! The Battle of Bull Run, near Manassas, Virginia July of The Battle of Bull Run was the first major battle of the Civil War. Union troops retreat to Washington, D.C. Confederates win this battle due to the Union s retreat. The Rebel victory proved that this was not going to be a one-sided war as some had predicted.
16 08.03 Shots Fired! Fort Pickens, off the coast of Pensacola. There were Union soldiers stationed at Fort Pickens off the coast of Pensacola. Confederate soldiers demanded that the Union troops surrender their fort. The Union soldiers refused to leave the fort. The Union brought in more soldiers, and they held their ground. A battle began and a standoff lasted over a year. By May of 1862, the Confederates withdrew their troops. The Union was able to keep control of Fort Pickens and Pensacola for the rest of the war.
17 The Battle of Antietam September of General Robert E. Lee decided to invade Sharpsburg, Maryland, on September 17, This was the first time that the Confederates had fought on Northern soil. Lee invaded Sharpsburg, near Antietam Creek, because his troops were in desperate need of supplies. Twenty-three thousand men lost their lives in this battle. The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest day in U.S. military history. Bloody Lane
18 The Emancipation Proclamation January of President Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation freeing all slaves living in the Confederate states. Lincoln had no power to enforce the Emancipation Proclamation because he was not the president of the Confederate states. the proclamation had an effect on the South's war effort. The South's foreign allies Great Britain and France could no longer support a country that believed in enslaving people.
19 The Battle of Gettysburg July of General Robert E. Lee mounted a full-scale invasion of the North. This clash, in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, is often described as the battle that decided the war. Major General George Pickett arrived with fresh Confederate troops and led what became known as Pickett's Charge. At the Battle of Gettysburg, the Confederacy lost 28,000 men, one-third of its entire army. The Union troops declared victory.
20 The Siege of Vicksburg July of In the west, Union General Ulysses S. Grant had been trying to overtake the city of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Confederate General John C. Pemberton was in charge of the city's defense. He notified President Davis that he intended to hold his position. For six weeks General Grant attacked Vicksburg. On July 4, 1863, Pemberton surrendered. The siege of Vicksburg gave the Union full control of the Mississippi River and divided the Confederacy in two.
21 Lincoln wins re-election 1864 November of 1864 Abraham Lincoln was reelected President. Some Union/Northern citizens refuse to vote for Lincoln because they disagreed with many of his decisions during the Civil War. The South did not have a voice in this election because they did not participate (the perceived themselves as a separate countrythe Confederate States of America). Lincoln gets 212 electoral votes to win the election. Lincoln gets 55% of popular vote McClellan gets 45% of popular vote
22 War Ends In April 1865 The Confederates were forced to abandon both Petersburg, Virginia, and the Confederate capital, Richmond, Virginia. General Lee surrenders to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, By May 26, 1865, the war was declared over.
23 Key to North s Victory The North had a larger population. The South was not able to replace the soldiers they lost. The North controlled 70% of the country s wealth so they were able to spend more than the South. The North had a larger navy. It was able to prevent the South from trading with other countries for the things it could not make. Most of the factories were located in the North. The Emancipation Proclamation caused the French and British to back away from the South (they did not support slavery).
24 08.04 Consequences of the American Civil War The Civil War had raged for four years. (APR MAY 1865) Much of the South lay in ruins. Countless families lost their homes. More than 600,000 soldiers had died - more than the American losses in World War One and Two, Korea and Vietnam put together. The Union was preserved. The authority of the Federal government was solidified. And slavery was ended.
25 08.05 and 8.06 Reconstruction The period following the Civil War is known as Reconstruction a period of rebuilding. The country had three basic goals during this period; 1. Southern cities and infrastructure had to be rebuilt. 2. Politically, southern state governments needed to be created and participation in the national government reestablished. 3. Former slaves (now called freedman ) needed help adjusting to their new life.
26 Lincoln Assassinated April of President Abraham Lincoln wanted to speed up Reconstruction and reunite the nation painlessly and quickly. Lincoln was still extremely worried about the nation's future. The president and his wife went to Ford's Theatre to see a play. As the president sat in his box an actor named John Wilkes Booth entered and shot him in his head. He was mortally wounded.
27 13 th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution December of 1865 The 13 th Amendment is ratified, officially ended slavery in the United States. It established the foundation for a country where people of different races and ethnicities could live freely.
28 Andrew Johnson becomes the 17 th President Andrew Johnson, Lincoln s Vice President, became President when Lincoln died. President Andrew Johnson thought it best to make it easy for Southern states to rejoin the Union. A Democrat and former governor of Tennessee, he outraged Congressional leaders known as Radical Republicans with his pardons of Southern rebels and by returning land back to white owners.
29 Radical Republicans Thaddeus Stevens The Radical Republicans supported Lincoln s Reconstruction plan. Led by Stevens & Sumner They were Northern Congressman that believed Southern states should be forced to undergo great changes to prove their loyalty. Charles Sumner President Johnson and the Radical Republican had different ideas on what should take place during Reconstruction and how the goals of Reconstruction should be accomplished.
30 The Freedmen s Bureau The Freedmen s Bureau: 1 st established by Congress on March 3, The bureau was set up by RRs to provide relief for former slaves and poor white people in the South. It helped them find new jobs, created schools and hospitals, and helped with land disputes. In 1866, Congress passed a bill to extend the powers of the bureau. President Johnson vetoed the bill. He felt the bureau was too expensive and unconstitutional. Congress, under the control of the Radical Republicans, overrode the veto, and the Freedmen s Bureau continued.
31 Black Codes After the 13 th Amendment was ratified, many Southern states quickly passed laws called the Black Codes. The Black Codes prevented black people from gaining equal jobs and education. President Johnson supported the Southern states right to have the Black Codes. Black Codes limited the rights of Freedmen Could not vote Could not own a gun Could not serve on a jury Some states required Freedmen to sign work contracts which lasted one year. Freedmen without a contract could be arrested and sentenced to work on a plantation.
32 The Civil Rights Act of 1866 The Civil Rights Act of 1866 gave all people living in the United States the full rights of citizenship. President Johnson and many other Democrats fought against the bill. Johnson vetoed the bill. Republican-controlled Congress overrode the veto. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 gave all people living in the United States the full rights of citizenship
33 The 14 th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution Passed in 1866 Granted US citizenship to all people born in the United States It also stated that it was illegal for states to deny rights to any and all citizens President Johnson encouraged Southern states not to ratify the 14 th Amendment. Republican-controlled Congress overrode the veto.
34 The 14 th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution A person can become a U.S. citizen through a process called naturalization Once someone has been a permanent resident for at least 5 years they can fill out an application for citizenship Applicants must: Pay a fee for their application Be fingerprinted for a background check Complete an interview that includes tests in civics and English A person is not officially a U.S. citizen until they take an oath of allegiance to the United States, which is usually done in front of a judge
35 Reconstruction Acts Reconstruction Acts: The Reconstruction Acts passed in March 1867 forced the Southern states to ratify the 14th Amendment They were also required to follow the new laws granting African Americans citizenship and equal rights African Americans were allowed to vote in new elections After each state ratified the 14th Amendment, that state was allowed back into the United States
36 Reconstruction Acts cont. Reconstruction Acts: Congress passed several other Reconstruction Acts as well The South was divided into five military districts as a result of these laws Each district was run by a general, who was charged with protecting the rights and property of all citizens, including African Americans President Johnson vetoed these laws, but Congress overrode his veto
37 Reconstruction Acts cont. Republicans try to impeach Andrew Johnson
38 Johnson is impeached Impeachment is when an elected official is found guilty of breaking the law. The Republican-controlled Congress tried to impeach President Johnson. Johnson was found guilty of violating the Office of Tenure Act when he fired Secretary of War Stanton. The House of Representatives impeached Johnson. The Senate voted not to remove Johnson from office by one vote.
39 Ulysses S. Grant becomes the 18 th president In 1868, Ulysses S. Grant narrowly won the presidential election He had received a number of votes from former slaves in the South Laws giving African Americans the right to vote did not exist in most Northern states. As a result, Grant received fewer votes in the North
40 15 th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution To get rid of these sectional differences, Congress passed the 15th Amendment to ensure voting rights for all male citizens It was ratified by the states in 1870 African American men participated in the election process African American candidates elected to many state and national positions
41 Life for African Americans in the South Southern white men and women struggled to accept the changes that were happening. African Americans were not only voting, some like Hiram Revel of Mississippi were running for and being elected to national office (U.S. Senate). Ku Klux Klan Led by former Confederate soldiers. Did not recognize African Americans as their political or social equals. Used violence to prevent African Americans from exercising their new rights.
42 Sharecropping To support their families, the former slaves entered into contracts with land owners (former slave owners). Sharecropping became a common work arrangement in the South. The freedman would farm a portion of the landowners land in return for a percentage of the crop. The contracts usually favored the landowner and put former slaves in debt. However, returning the land to productive use helped the region begin to recover.
43 The End of Reconstruction The election of 1876 ended in controversy Tilden (Democrat) won the election. accusations sprang up that the South threw out African American votes The Republicans contest the election. There s a recount & they give it to Hayes. Democrats refuse to accept the results of the recount. The federal government established a commission to decide the issue
44 The Compromise of 1877 The Compromise of 1877 settled the election: The South accepted Hayes as President in return for ending Reconstruction (US military pulled out of their southern military districts) Former Confederate supporters were allowed back into positions of power Required troops to be removed from the South With power back in the hands of Southern governments, life changed again for African Americans
45 Segregation This led to a new era of segregation Southern states established Jim Crow laws that mandated the separation of black and white facilities, such as schools, public transportation, and public rest rooms Business owners made signs that said White Only or Colored Only. Jim Crow laws stayed in effect well into the 20th century Limitations like these helped inspire civil rights reform in the 1950s and 1960s.
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