1 The Civil War and Reconstruction PAULDING COUNTY: U.S. HISTORY
2 Standards SSUSH9 Evaluate key events, issues, and individuals relating to the Civil War. SSUSH10 Identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction.
3 Key Concepts Suspends Habeas Corpus Emancipation Proclamation Gettysburg Address Second Inaugural Address Ulysses S. Grant William T. Sherman Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Thomas Stonewall Jackson Fort Sumter Battle of Antietam Battle of Vicksburg Battle of Gettysburg Battle of Atlanta Reconstruction Presidential Reconstruction Congressional Reconstruction Andrew Johnson s Impeachment 13 th Amendment 14 th Amendment 15 th Amendment Black Codes Presidential Election of 1876 Compromise of 1877
4 Based on the graphs, what side should win the Civil War? (North or South)
5 Economic Disparity between the North and South (SSUSH9a) 1. From the start, the Confederacy was at a serious disadvantage. 2. The southern economies had less population, food production and weapon production the northern states 3. The northern economies had better railroads to transport resources and troops to the fronts lines of the war.
6 Primary Source Analysis My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. Source: Abraham Lincoln, 1862
7 How could this map be a problem for Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War?
9 Suspension of Habeas Corpus 1. President Lincoln knew he needed to protect the board states that supported the Confederates, in order to preserve the Union. 2. During the war, Lincoln suspended the constitutional right of habeas corpus the legal rule that anyone imprisoned must be taken before a judge to determine if the prisoner is being legally held in custody. 3. The Constitution allows a president to suspend habeas corpus during a national emergency (WAR) ,000 Northern Confederates were held without a trial and without a judge to agree that they were legally imprisoned.
10 Why did the artist draw the following image?
11 Issuing Emancipation Proclamation 1. Lincoln used his emergency powers again to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, which emancipated (freed) all slaves held in the Confederate states. 2. Lincoln did not expect Confederate slaveholders to free their slaves, but he thought news of the proclamation would reach southern slaves and encourage them to flee to the North. 3. African Americans understood the proclamation announced a new goal for the Union troops besides preserving the Union, the troops were fighting for the belief that the United States would abolish slavery throughout the nation.
12 Leaders of the Union (SSUSH9c) 1. President: Abraham Lincoln a. President of United States of America, b. Issued Emancipation Proclamation and Gettysburg Address 2. General: Ulysses S. Grant a. Appointed commanding general of Union armies by Lincoln b. Accepted surrender of Confederate Gen. Lee at Appomattox Courthouse to end Civil War
13 Leaders of the Union (SSUSH9c) 1. General: William Tecumseh Sherman a. Union general who took command of the western forces after Grant decided to remain with troops in the East. b. Destroyed Atlanta and led the March to the Sea.
14 Who are these guys?
15 Leaders of the Confederacy (SSUSH9c) 1. President: Jefferson Davis a. President of Confederate States of America, General: Robert E. Lee a. Appointed general in chief of Confederate armies by Davis b. Surrendered to U.S. Gen. Grant to end Civil War
16 Leaders of the Confederacy (SSUSH9c) 3. General: Thomas Stonewall Jackson a. Gen. Lee second hand man b. Noted for his ability to use geography to his advantage c. Died in battle
17 Review Questions 1. Which side (North or South) had the economic advantage during the Civil War? 2. Define: Habeas Corpus 3. Why did Lincoln suspend habeas corpus in the North? 4. Why did Lincoln issue the Emancipation Proclamation? 5. What were the roles of the following leaders during the Civil War? a. Ulysses S. Grant: b. William T. Sherman: c. Jefferson Davis: d. Robert E. Lee: e. Thomas Stonewall Jackson:
20 Fort Sumter (April 1861) 1. Confederate forces staged a 24-hour bombardment against a federal fort in South Carolina and, by attacking federal property, had committed an act of open rebellion. 2. President Lincoln believed he had no choice but to call for troops to respond against the Confederacy 3. Significance: The Battle of Fort Sumter was the beginning of the Civil War.
22 Antietam (September 1862) 1. First major battle on northern soil 2. Lincoln considered the battle a win for the North 3. Significance: Encouraged Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
24 Vicksburg (May-July 1863) 1. North lay siege to Vicksburg, Mississippi, in order to gained control of the Mississippi River. 2. Significance: Confederate troops and supplies in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas were cut off from the Confederacy and North gains control of Mississippi River.
26 Gettysburg (July 1863) 1. The South hoped that an invasion of Union territory would significantly weaken Northern support for the war effort. 2. A major Southern victory on northern soil might also convince Great Britain and France to aid Confederate forces. 3. Significance: South losses battle, South gives up attempts to invade the North, and Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address.
28 Gettysburg Addresses 1. Lincoln s Gettysburg Address helped shape popular opinion in favor of preserving the Union. 2. He spoke for just two minutes in what is now considered one of the greatest speeches in the English Language. Four score and seven years ago. 3. His speech addressed a. The soldiers who had fallen in battle (fight for fallen soldiers) b. That all men were not currently equal (slavery)
31 Atlanta (July-September 1864) 1. North tries to capture Atlanta for its manufacturing and railway traffic. 2. Significance: Union troops burned Atlanta to the ground, starts Sherman s March to the Sea, and Lincoln is reelected 3. Sherman s March destroys the railways, roads, and bridges along the path to the sea (Savannah). Now the South knows it would lose the Civil War.
32 Review Questions 1. What was the significance of the following battles during the Civil War? a. Fort Sumter: b. Antietam: c. Vicksburg: d. Gettysburg: e. Battle of Atlanta: f. Sherman s March to the Sea: 2. Why did Lincoln deliver the Gettysburg Address?
33 Primary Source Analysis... All knew that this interest (the institution of slavery) was somehow the cause of the war. To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend this interest was the object for which the insurgents would rend the Union even by war, while the Government claimed no right to do more than to restrict the territorial enlargement of it. With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations... Source: Excerpt from Lincoln s 2 nd Inaugural Address, March 4, 1865
34 Second Inaugural Addresses 1. When Lincoln delivered his second inaugural address, Union victory over the Confederacy was certain, and Americans foresaw an end to slavery. 2. Lincoln expressed both his conviction that slavery was evil and his hope of reuniting the nation once the war was over. 3. Lincoln also expressed his sorrow that so many on both sides had suffered and communicated a vision for rebuilding the South rather than punishing it.
35 Presidential Reconstruction 1. Now that the Union had been preserved, Lincoln introduced a plan for Reconstruction (rebuilding) of the South rather than punishing the South. 2. Under Presidential Reconstruction: a. Southerners who swore allegiance to the Union were pardoned (forgiven of any crimes against the US). b. Former Confederate states could hold constitutional conventions to set up state governments. c. States had to void (cancel) secession and ratify the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution. d. Once the Thirteenth Amendment was ratified, states could then hold elections and be part of the Union.
37 Lincoln s Assassination 1. On April 14, 1865, just five days after the surrender at Appomattox Courthouse, a Confederate sympathizer named John Wilkes Booth assassinated the president as he attended a play at Ford's Theater. 2. With Lincoln's death, the presidency now fell to Andrew Johnson.
38 Will the assassination of Abraham Lincoln change the Reconstruction Plan? For the Better or Worse
39 Congressional Reconstruction 1. Conflict quickly arose between Johnson and the Congressional Republicans. The Congressional Republicans were members of the Republican Party who favored a much tougher stance with the former Confederate states.
40 Congressional Reconstruction 1. Under Congressional Reconstruction: a. The southern states were put under military rule. b. Southern states had to hold new constitutional conventions. c. Southern states had to ratify the 13th Amendment, 14th Amendment, 15th Amendment
42 Impeachment of Andrew Johnson 1. Andrew Johnson tries to fire Secretary of War Edwin Stanton because he was closely tied to the Congressional Republicans. 2. However, such a move violated the Tenure in Office Act, which limited the president's power to hire and fire government officials. 3. Congress voted to impeach (charged with wrongdoing in order to remove from office) the president of the United States. 4. On May 16, 1868, the Senate voted to acquit (innocent or cleared) Johnson's presidency by just one vote.
44 The Significance of the Freedmen s Bureau (SSUSH10b) 1. In an effort to help freed slaves, poor whites and American Indians Congress created the Freedmen's Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (the Freedmen's Bureau). 2. the Freedmen's Bureau provided clothes, medical attention, food, education, and even land to African Americans coming out of slavery. 3. Lacking support, it eventually ended in However, during its brief time, it helped many slaves transition to freedom throughout the South.
45 Review Questions 1. Define: Reconstruction 2. What was the purpose of Lincoln s Second Inaugural Address? 3. What was the purpose of Lincoln s and Johnson s Presidential Reconstruction Plan? 4. What was the purpose of the Congressional Reconstruction Plan? 5. What was the significance of Lincoln s Assassination? 6. List the two reasons Andrew Johnson was impeached? (ANSWER A and B) a. What law did he break? b. What was the political reason? 7. Define Impeachment 8. Define Acquitted 9. What groups benefited from the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands?
46 Reconstruction Amendments (SSUSH10c) 1. The 13 th Amendment: Ended slavery throughout the United States 2. The 14 th Amendment: Guarantees that no one (regardless of race) would be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process. 3. The 15 th Amendment: All male citizens have the right to vote, 21 years of age 4. The 14 th and 15 th amendments had a greater impact by strengthening the power of the federal government over state government.
47 Resistance to Racial Equality (SSUSH10d) 1. Southern states also enacted black codes (laws that limited the rights of freed blacks so much that they basically kept them living like slaves). 2. Such restrictions allowed whites to continue to control and profit from the labor of African Americans even though slavery did not technically exist. 3. Some Confederate supporters, such as the Ku Klux Klan even advocated violence against freed blacks. 4. The Klan used violence, murder, and threats to intimidate blacks and those who favored giving African Americans equal rights.
48 According to the data, who will win the 1876 Presidential Election?
49 How did the 1876 Presidential Election impact Reconstruction?
50 The Presidential Election of 1876 (SSUSH10d) 1. The election is between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden. 2. Tilden wins popular vote and Hayes wins Electoral College, Hayes comes president 3. Southern States agree to give Hayes electoral votes if he removes federal troops from South. 4. North gets Hayes to be president 5. Unofficially Compromise of 1877 (or the Great Betrayal) ends Reconstruction and makes many people wonder why the Civil War was fought.
51 Review Questions 1. What was the significance of the 13 th Amendment? 2. What was the significance of the 14 th Amendment? 3. What was the significance of the 15 th Amendments? 4. How did the 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th Amendments impact the relationship between the state and federal government? 5. What was the significance of the Black Codes? 6. The Black Codes and the Ku Klux Klan were attempts by the South to 7. What did the North gain in the Presidential Election of 1876? 8. What did the South gain in the Presidential Election of 1876? 9. What unofficially ends the Reconstruction?
The Ordeal of Reconstruction 1865 1877 Lincoln s 2 nd Inaugural Address March 4, 1865 With malice towards none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us
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