1 UNIT 5: ROAD TO CIVIL WAR, THE WAR, AND RECONSTRUCTION
2 I. A HOUSE DIVIDED ( )
3 A. Fruits of Manifest Destiny What were the major factors contributing to U.S. Territorial expansion in the 1840 s?
4 A. Fruits of Manifest Destiny 1. Continental Expansion 2. The Mexican Frontier: NM and CA 3. The Texas Revolt The Election of 1844
5 5. The Road to War 6. The War and Its Critics 7. Combat in Mexico Race and Manifest Destiny 9. Redefine Race
6 B. A Dose of Arsenic Why did the expansion of slavery become the most divisive political issue in the 1840 s and 1850 s?
7 B. A Dose of Arsenic 1. The Wilmot Proviso The Free Soil Appeal Crisis and Compromise 4. The Great Debate
8 5. The Fugitive Slave Issue Douglas and Popular Sovereignty a. Stephen A. Douglas The Little Giant, senator IL b. Election of Franklin Pierce Democrat (1852)
9 7. The Kansas- Nebraska Act a. Economic pressure- Rail Roads b. Split Nebraska Territory into Kansas and Nebraska c. Repeal Missouri Compromise
10 C. The Rise of the Republican Party What combination of issues and events fueled the creation of the Republican Party in the 1850 s?
11 C. The Rise of the Republican Party 1. The Northern Economy 2. The Rise and Fall of the Know Nothings 1854 a. Anti-immigrant, pro-temperance 3. The Free Labor Ideology
12 4. Republican Party a. Former Free-Soilers, Conscience Whig, Anti-Nebraska Democrats
13 5. Bleeding Kansas and the Election of 1856 a. Kansas votes to decide slavery b. Influx of outsiders violence between pro and anti slavery groups
14 D. The Emergence of Lincoln What enabled Lincoln to emerge as president from the divisive part politics of the 1850 s?
15 1. The Dred Scott Decision 1857 a. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney b. Blacks aren t citizens (Free or slaves) 2. The Decision s Aftermath a. The Lecompton Constitution
16 3. Lincoln and Slavery a. Not abolitionist but realist
17 4. The Lincoln- Douglas Campaign 1858
18 5. John Brown at Harpers Ferry, VA a. Failed attack participated in Bleeding Kansas b. Convicted and hung
19 6. The Rise of Southern Nationalism 7. The Democratic Split 8. The Nomination of Lincoln Brooks Sumner
20 9. The Election of 1860 a. Split in Democratic party North nominated Douglas, South John C. Breckinridge b. Republicans Abraham Lincoln c. Constitutional Union Party d. Lincoln wins but does not have the majority
21 E. The Impending Crisis What were the final steps on the road to secession?
22 E. The Impending Crisis 1. The Secession movement a. South Carolina first 2. The Secession Crisis a. Crittenden Compromise: as constitutional amendment 3. And the War Came
23 A NEW BIRTH OF FREEDOM: THE CIVIL WAR ( )
24 A. The First Modern War Why is the Civil War considered the first modern war?
25 A. The First Modern War 1. The Two combatants 2. The Technology of War 3. The Public and the War
26 4. Mobilizing Resources a. Leadership in the beginning North: General McClellan South: Robert E. Lee 5. Military Strategies
27 6. The War begins a. Fort Sumter b. Battle of Bull Run
28 7. The War in the east a. Battle of Seven Pines Stonewall Jackson b. Antietam
29 8. The War in the West a. Shiloh Ulysses S. Grant
30 B. The Coming of Emancipation How did a war to preserve the Union become a war to end slavery?
31 B. The Coming of Emancipation 1. Slavery and the War 2. The Unraveling of Slavery 3. Steps Toward Emancipation
32 4. Lincoln s Decision a. Making slavery the focus worked militarily and would get the support of Europe b. Goal to weaken the enemy REALLY?
33 5. The Emancipation Proclamation 1863 a. Did not free a single slave b. Slaves in areas in rebellion are free! c. Slaves would flee to the Union army whenever it was close The slaves who loved us best as we thought were the first to leave us! Plantation owner
34 6. Enlisting Black Troops a. Massachusetts 54th 7. The Black Soldier a. Segregated army, white officers
35 C. The Second American Revolution How did the Civil War transform the National economy and create a stronger nation state?
36 C. The Second American Revolution 1. Liberty and Union 2. Lincoln s Vision 3. From Union to Nation 4. The War and American Religion 5. Liberty in Wartime
37 6. The North s Transformation a. Draft Riots Government and the economy a. Government pass laws stopped by Democrats previously Homestead Act (1862), Morrill Land Grant Act, Pacific Railway Act, National Banking Act (1863) 8. The War and native Americans
38 9. A new financial system a. NBA uniform currency 10. Women and the war a. South: Women take larger and more aggressive role b. North: Women work in farms, shops and factories Medical Care United States Sanitary Commission, volunteer nurses
39 11. The Divided North a. Copperheads b. Thaddeus Stevens THE COPPER HEAD PARTY IN FAVOR OF A VIGOROUS PROSECUTION OF PEACE!
40 D. The Confederate Nation How did the war effort and leadership problems affect the society and economy of the Confederacy?
41 D. The Confederate Nation 1. Leadership and government a. Jefferson Davis 2. The inner civil war 3. Economic Problems a. Inflation b. No industry
42 4. Southern Unionists 5. Women and the Confederacy 6. Black soldiers for the confederacy
43 E. Turning points What were the military and political turning points of the war?
44 E. Turning points 1. Road to Gettysburg and Vicksburg 1863 a. Lincoln replaces McClellan with Burnside, then Hooker, then Meade b. Chancellorsville c. Gettysburg d. Vicksburg victory Lincoln names Grant supreme commander of the armies of the US
45 a. Grant and Sherman He stood by me when I was crazy. And I stood by him when he was drunk. Grant go after Richmond, Sherman go after Atlanta Battle in the Wilderness 60,000 Union soldiers die in a couple weeks under Grant Sherman s March War is hell. psychological assault Appropriate or destroy everything they came across
46 F. Rehearsals for Reconstruction What were the most important wartime Rehearsals for Reconstruction?
47 F. Rehearsals for Reconstruction 1. The Sea Islands Experiment 2. Wartime Reconstruction in the West 3. The Politics of Wartime Reconstruction
48 4. Victory at Last a. The Appomattox Court House 1865 Lee surrenders
49 5. The War and the World 6. The War in American History a. 600,000 dead
50 III. WHAT IS FREEDOM? : RECONSTRUCTION ( )
51 A. The Meaning of Freedom What visions of freedom did the former slaves and slaveholders pursue in the postwar South?
52 A. The Meaning of Freedom 1. Blacks and the Meaning of Freedom 2. Families in Freedom a. Church and School 3. Political Freedom 4. Land, Labor, and Freedom
53 4. Masters without slaves 5. Free Labor Vision 6. The Freedmen s Bureau 7. The Failure of Land Reform The Freedman s Bureau
54 9. Toward a New South 10. The White Famer 11. The Urban South 12. Aftermath of Slavery
55 B. The Making of Radical Reconstruction What were the sources, goals and competing visions for Reconstruction?
56 B. The Making of Radical Reconstruction 1. Presidential Reconstruction a. Assassination of Lincoln, Inauguration of Andrew Johnson 1865 b. Lincoln: 10 Percent Plan Loyalty Oath when a number equal to 10% of those voting in 1860 have sworn then set up a state gov.
57 2. The Failure of Presidential Reconstruction The Radical Republicans a. Wade-Davis Bill 1864 Readmission to union after a majority of voters swore the oath Pocket Veto until Johnson b. Perspective on blacks: land, political equality, access to education NOT social equality
58 4. The origins of Civil Rights a. Civil Rights Act vetoed by Johnson, passed by 2/3 rd majority 5. The Fourteenth Amendment 1886 a. Everyone born here is a citizen of the country and the state in which they reside b. No state can take away rights without due process
59 6. The Reconstruction Act 1867 a. Confederacy into five military districts 7. Impeachment of Johnson 1868 and the Election of Grant 1869 a. Tenure of Office Act of 1867 violation b. Impeached, but not removed from office
60 8. The Fifteenth Amendment 1870 a. You can t deny the right to vote to someone based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude 9. The Great Constitutional Revolution
61 10. Boundaries of Freedom 11. The Rights of Women 12. Feminists and Radicals
62 C. Radical Reconstruction in the South What were the social and political effects of Radical Reconstruction in the South?
63 C. Radical Reconstruction in the South The Tocsin of Freedom 2. The Black Officeholder 3. Carpetbaggers and Scalawags a. Scalawag: White southerner who helps the Republicans b. Carpetbagger: Northerners who came south to help the freedmen
65 4. Southern Republicans in Power a. Black Codes b. Sharecropping and Crop Lien System 5. The Quest for Prosperity a. Rebuilt and improved infrastructure b. Built schools, hospitals and asylums
66 D. The Overthrow of Reconstruction What were the main factors, in both the North and South, for the Abandonment of Reconstruction?
67 D. The Overthrow of Reconstruction 1. Reconstruction s Opponents 2. A Reign of Terror a. Ku Klux Klan
68 3. The Liberal Republicans a. Laissez-faire, weakened Republican party 4. The North s Retreat a. Grant s Presidency and Scandals b. Slaughterhouse Cases 5. The Triumph of the Redeemers
69 6. The Disputed Election and Bargain 1877 a. Republican nominee: Hayes, Democratic: Tilden b. Republicans sabotage Democratic votes in south, but Democrats stopped black from voting c. Hayes as president, withdraw troops from south 7. The End of Reconstruction A TRUCE NOT A COMPROMISE, BUT A CHANCE FOR HIGH-TONED GENTLEMEN TO RETIRE GRACEFULLY FROM THEIR VERY CIVIL DECLARATION OF WAR.
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