2 Missouri Compromise (8A) The Missouri Compromise (1820) was a slave settlement of a dispute between Northern legislators and free states. slavery had tried to prohibit in Missouri, which was then applying for statehood. free and 12 After 1820, there were 12 slave states. It guaranteed there would equal number of free and slave be an union states. The compromise kept the together for more than 30 years until westward expansion made further compromise another necessary. slave state Missouri was added as a Maine was added as a free state Louisiana divided the Territory into free and slave regions.
3 James K Polk and Manifest Destiny (8B) James K. Polk was 1844 elected as a Democrat. He campaigned on the slogan or fight in reference to Oregon s northern border. He called for the Texas annexation of both and Oregon. annexed Texas was in 1845 and he focused on acquiring Oregon. Destiny is the idea that the Manifest US should extend from the Atlantic to Pacific Ocean the. Supporters expansion believed that was both justifiable and inevitable.
4 Texas annexation and Oregon (8B) Texas to the Congress admitted slavestate in Union as a was angry with the Mexico US for annexing Texas. and Congress believed in Polk Destiny and supported Manifest annexation. Oregon boundary dispute In 1846, the Britain was settled with between the US and U.S. the signing of the Oregon Treaty. The south of gained sole possession of the land the 49th parallel.
5 Mexican War (8C) Texas won its independence from Mexico in The United States annexed Texas as the 25th state in border A dispute between U.S. Mexico the and led to the Mexican War. The United States easily defeated Mexico in this war, Treaty of which was resolved with the Guadalupe-Hidalgo. In it, the U.S.-Mexican border became the Rio Grande River. Further, the United States Mexican Cession bought the for $20 million. This helped fulfill the Manifest Destiny of the United States. However, it would intensify sectionalism between North and South over slavery in the Mexican Cession.
6 Compromise of 1850 (8D) It resolved the issue of slavery in the Mexican Cession. free California was added as a state. Mexico Utah & New The Territories were created. Slavery in the territories would be popular settled by sovereignty. Fugitive The Slave Act would be enforced. sold in Slaves could not be bought or D.C. Washington. Compromise of 1850 purple The color represents where popular sovereignty was the law. Slave states are colored yellow Green. represents free states.
7 Kansas-Nebraska Act (8E) Kansas-Nebraska Act In 1854, Congress passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise of popular sovereignty or This new law used, the right of the people to vote if their state would be slave or free line Missouri Compromise This replaced the, which established the of latitude as a deciding factor if a state would allow slavery or outlaw it. This made slavery to spread into areas where it had been banned, previously. it possible for slavery Because was such a controversial issue, this law led to groups of anti-slavery forces fighting a mini- pro-slavery and Civil War in Kansas.
9 Kansas-Nebraska Act and failure of Popular Sovereignty (8E) Popular Sovereignty fails Kansas-Nebraska The Act was proquickly viewed a failure when antiand slavery forces created two different governments in Kansas war and went to with one another over the territory. Thousands of slave people from the state of Missouri crossed into Kansas guns drawn and voted with their. illegally John Brown at Bleeding Kansas
10 Dred Scott Decision (8E) Scott v. Sanford This Supreme Court decision slave ruled that Scott was a, citizen he was not a and had no right to sue in the US Supreme Court. The decision went further and ban stated that all efforts to slavery in any territory is prohibited. The decision overturned the Missouri Compromise.
11 John Brown s raid on Harper s Ferry VA. (8E) A white abolitionist who became a powerful moral issue of slavery. symbol of the federal Brown led a on a raid arsenal in VA. arsenal arm the His aim was to seize the, slaves and start a slave uprising. Northerners saw Brown as a martyr Southerners rejoiced over for freedom, but execution his. The North and South were further sectionalized after this event.
12 Election of 1860 (8E) Abraham Lincoln emerged as the winner, receiving no electoral votes from the South. Southerners His victory convinced voice that they had lost their national voice in the government. secede SC was first to in Dec Ten others followed.. The Confederate capital was in Richmond VA. and Jefferson Davis was elected President.
13 Civil War (9) Civil War The was a massive conflict Confederate between the States of United States of America against the Confederate states America. The 11 seceded Lincoln s after election in Fort Sumter 1860 and the firing on in April of defeated the Confederate States due It lasted years. The United States railroads population to a number of factors, including,, & industrial Lincoln s output. President efforts to preserve the Civil War Union were instrumental, as well. The ended when Lee Grant Confederate General surrendered to Union General at 1865 Appomattox Courthouse on April 9,.
14 Civil War (9)
15 Economic disparity between North and South (9A) The North had many material advantages over the South during the Civil War. These included: 71 of the total population to the % 29 South s % railroad mileage % 71 of the total to the South s % of the total (approximately) % industrial output to the South s 10 %
17 Lincoln s use of emergency powers (9B) President Lincoln suspended habeas corpus during the Civil War. This is a right that guarantees arrested persons can be brought in front of a judge. It protects citizens from illegal imprisonment. President Lincoln suspended this right, which allowed him to jail any U.S. citizens he simply suspected might be aiding the Confederacy against the United States. This is an Lincoln s emergency example of use of powers during the Civil War. Somewhere between 10,000-15,000 were imprisoned without evidence under this policy.
18 Lincoln s use of emergency powers (9B) After the battle of, Antietam President Lincoln Emancipation issued the Proclamation. This is a famous document which the freed slaves in the Confederacy. Importantly, it did not free the slaves in the states. border Lincoln s fear was that doing so might push those states closer to and joining secession Confederacy the. Lincoln s goal with the Civil preserving War was no longer just the union. abolish He was working to slavery as well.
19 Lincoln s Gettysburg Address (9B)
20 Lincoln s Gettysburg Address (9B) speech in Lincoln gave this famous November 1863, a few months after the Gettysburg battle of. It was a short speech which has become very famous. Lincoln s purpose was to dedicate a military cemetery for those who died in the battle. Further, it North to was to rally support in the continue in the effort to win the Civil War preserve and the union.
21 Lincoln s Second Inaugural Address (9B) This speech was given after Lincoln re-elected was for his 2nd term as the United States President. In it, he war spoke of the horrors of and the slavery evil of. Lincoln recognized Civil War was almost over. that the He was laying out his vision for the re-unification of the United States forgiveness of America with a tone of, revenge not.
22 Lincoln delivering his Second Inaugural Address (9B)
23 Ulysses S. Grant/ William T. Sherman/ Union Generals (9C) Union General & Commander of the Army of the Potomac. From April, 1863 until July 1863, he Vicksburg on bombarded Mississippi the river. The city fell on July 4th, completing Anaconda a part of the Plan. Union forces at the Led Battle of. A Atlanta total believer in, the idea that to win it was essential to fight armies and population. civilian RR Captured the south s hub and Marched to the Sea.
24 Robert E. Lee & Thomas Stonewall Jackson (9C) Confederate General appointed to Northern lead the Army of VA. He believed slavery was, evil but refused to fight against his beloved Virginia He will home state of. surrender to at Grant Appomattox Courthouse, ending the war in April,1865. This talented general inspired his men and earned the nickname Stonewall during the Battle of Bull Run. He was accidentally shot at the Battle of Chancellorsville. His arm was amputated and he later died of pneumonia. Lee declared he lost his right hand man.
25 Jefferson Davis/Confederate President (9C) West Point graduate Served in army Senator US President of the Sworn in as Confederate states in Montgomery, AL However, the capital was soon moved to Richmond, VA. Had poor relations with many leaders. Confederate Confederacy Only President of the.
26 Key battle: Fort Sumter April 12, 1861 (9D) Fort Sumter Civil First shots of War. two federal forts in One of union the south still under control. Following the firing at Fort 4 Sumter, SC, additional Confederate states seceded bringing the total 11 to.
27 Key Battle: Battle of Antietam Sept, 17, 1862 (9D) Antietam (MD) First time General Lee north invades the. Maryland is a border state that did secede not. Neither side was able to win a decisive victory Antietam at. This battle proved Civil War was that the going to be long and destructive.
28 Key Battle: Siege at Vicksburg, April-July 1863 (9D) Vicksburg (MS) Located on the River. Mississippi Taking Vicksburg would Union mean the would control the Mississippi River, thus splitting the Confederacy into two parts. This was part of the Anaconda Plan, which General would Grant complete.
29 Key Battle: Gettysburg April 2-4, 1863 (9D) Most decisive battle of the Civil War. 3 PA A day battle in Gettysburg,. On the 3rd day Confederate General Lee ordered an artillery barrage on the Union lines. For two hours the two armies fired at each other. When the Union artillery fell silent, Lee ordered the men to march across high ground to attack. Lee s men were attacked from three angles. 28,000 Confederates were killed or wounded during this 3 day battle. Turning point from which the Confederacy would never recover.
30 Key Battle: Battle of Atlanta Sept.- Nov (9D) Union General William Sherman occupied Atlanta and burned much of the city, RR thus destroying the south s hub. Setting out toward the coast he created a destruction path of on his March to the Sea, reaching Savannahjust prior to Christmas. Southerners His goal was to make so sick of war.that they would never again appeal to it. Atlanta The Battle of helped ensure s reelection as President. Lincoln s
31 Presidential Reconstruction compared to Congressional Reconstruction (9A) Presidential Reconstruction rebuilding Lincoln s plan for rather than punishing the South once the war had ended. Southerners who swore an oath of allegiance to the Union were pardoned (forgiven). Former Confederate states could hold conventions to set up a new government state. 13th Amendment Must ratify the (abolished slavery) assassination by Lincoln s John W. Booth soon after the Civil War ended meant there would be a new. Lincoln s Vice-President, president Johnson Andrew, became the new president. Like Lincoln s plan for Reconstruction, Johnson s plan was also very lenient on the former Confederate states. Congressional Republicans, especially the Radicals (extremes), wanted much terms for Reconstruction harsher than did President Johnson.
32 Johnson s impeachment & Congressional Reconstruction (10A) Disagreements between President Johnson and Congress lead to his impeachment (charged with crimes) by the of House Representatives. After that, a trial Senate took place in the to decide if Johnson would be removed from office. Johnson escaped removal by 1 vote. From that point forward, Congressional were in charge of Republicans Reconstruction. Congressional Reconstruction/Radical Reconstruction Congress who favored Members of tougher terms for Reconstruction. Southern states were divided into 5 military districts under military rule. Southern states had to ratify the 14th Amendment, which made African Americans citizens. African-American men were granted suffrage (vote) (15th Amend.) Southern states had to guarantee rights to African Americans. equal
33 The Freedmen s Bureau The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, is usually referred to Freedmen s as simply the Bureau. One of its greatest successes is the education basic provided to 200,00 blacks. Congress did not grant or the land freed right to own land to all slaves. The Bureau lacked enforcement authority in granting land to blacks.
34 Significance of 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments Thirteenth Ratified 1865 Neither or slavery involuntary servitude shall exist within the. United States Slavery. abolished Fourteenth Ratified 1868 Makes all persons born or naturalized in the US citizens The Dred Scott decision had previously stated blacks were not. citizens Fifteenth Ratified 1870 States that no one can be kept from voting because of, color, or race previous condition of servitude. All men can. vote
35 Black Codes (10D) After the, Civil War the Black Southern Codes were laws passed by states in 1865 and 1866, during Reconstruction These laws had the. intent and the effect of restricting African-Americans freedom, and of forcing them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt They were designed to keep. African-Americans subservient to whites.
36 Ku Klux Klan (10D) Founded in 1866, the Ku Klux Klan ( ) KKK extended into almost every Southern state and became a vehicle for white southern Republican resistance to the Party s Reconstruction policies. These policies aimed at establishing political and economic for blacks. equality KKK members waged an underground campaign of intimidation and directed at white and black Republican leaders. The violence KKK saw its primary goal (the reestablishment of white supremacy) fulfilled through Democratic victories in state legislatures across the South in the 1870s.
37 Resistance to racial equality during Reconstruction (10D) Black Codes laws State level passed by Southern states after the Civil War. Blacks were denied many rights, including the rights to whites testify against, juries to serve on, or in state. militias
38 Presidential Election of 1876 For the first time in history, a candidate who had lost the election popular became president. Rutherford B. Hayes the Republican candidate ran against Samuel, the Tilden Democrat. Electoral Neither won in the College. The election was decided in the Hayes if he would House of Representatives and southerners agreed to support end in the South. This is called the Reconstruction Compromise of Jim Crow The end of Reconstruction meant the beginning of the era, which segregation was marked by, or the separation of the races.
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