1 Reconstruction: A Presentation based on the Georgia Standards of Excellence (GSE) Objectives for High School History Students
2 Reconstruction After the war, the South needed to be rebuilt physically, economically, and politically. Reconstruction was the rebuilding of these systems after the war.
5 Objectives (GPS) SSUSH10 Identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction. a. Compare and contrast Presidential Reconstruction with Congressional Reconstruction, including the significance of Lincoln's assassination and Johnson's impeachment. b. Investigate the efforts of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (the Freedmen's Bureau) to support poor whites, former slaves, and American Indians. c. Describe the significance of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments. d. Explain the Black Codes, the Ku Klux Klan, and other forms of resistance to racial equality during Reconstruction. e. Analyze how the Presidential Election of 1876 marked the end of Reconstruction.
6 Lincoln s Plan for Reconstruction Lincoln began planning for Reconstruction during the war. His plan: -would offer a general amnesty (pardons) to all Southerners who took an oath of loyalty and accepted the end of slavery -When 10 percent of the state s voters took the oath, the state could organize a new state government -Lincoln s plan was very lenient and was intended to make it easy for the South to rejoin the Union
7 The Radical Republicans Republican party members in Congress offered their own plan for Reconstruction. The Republicans wanted to achieve three goals by using this plan: 1. prevent Confederate leaders from regaining power after the war 2. Make the Republican Party strong in the South 3. use the Federal government to help African Americans by giving them the right to vote The Radical Republican plan was much harsher on the South than those proposed by Lincoln and Johnson. rev. jsc
8 SSUSH10: The student will identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction. b. Investigate the efforts of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (the Freedmen's Bureau) to support poor whites, former slaves, and American Indians.
9 Sherman's Field Order No. 15 In an effort to help former slaves, or freedmen, after his March to the Sea, General William T. Sherman set aside abandoned land along the coast for use by former slaves by issuing Field Order No. 15 in January This confiscated as Union property a strip of coastline stretching from Charleston, South Carolina to the St. John's River in Florida, The order redistributed the roughly 400,000 acres of land to newly freed black families in forty-acre segments from Charleston to near Jacksonville. President Johnson revoked the order later that year Most, if not all of this land was later returned to its former owners or sold by ex-slaves who received it. Rev. JSC
10 The Freedmen's Bureau Created in 1865, the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (aka the Freedmen's Bureau) was a temporary government agency formed to support poor whites, former slaves, and American Indians by providing: Land Food Clothing Jobs Education
11 Freedmen s Bureau Results Food: Sept issued nearly 30,000 rations per day and prevented mass starvation, but recall that the slave population was ~3M people Work: labor contracts (pay, work hours), special courts for disputes; criticism re: who got best deal Education: worked with Northern charities to provide education to former slaves and provided school houses, paid teachers. Also helped develop (but not establish) colleges for training African American teachers. Land: none Clothing and shelter: some Healthcare: some, esp. for smallpox & cholera patients
12 The End of the Bureau Underfunded and often embroiled in political battles, the Freedmen s Bureau fell short of achieving all of it s goals. It did provide some relief in the form of food and clothing for mostly blacks but in some measure also to poor whites and American Indians. It also provided segregated schools for black children as well as very limited help in establishing black colleges. It also acted as a labor negotiator for landowners and former slaves. This agency ceased operations in 1872.
13 Morehouse College Founded in Augusta, GA in1867 by a pastor and a former slave as a grammar school with the purpose of training freed slaves to read and write Later moved to Atlanta, GA and eventually became a college-level institution.
14 SSUSH10: The student will identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction. c.describe the significance of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments. 13 th Amendment (1865): banned Slavery in the U.S. 14 th Amendment (1866): granted citizenship to all people born in the U.S. or naturalized, including former slaves, and guaranteed due process and equal protection rights 15 th Amendment (1870): granted voting rights to all male freedmen
15 The Civil War Amendments 13 th Amendment: Passed by Congress in 1865, it banned slavery in the United States. As part of Reconstruction, Southern states had to ratify the 13 th Amendment to rejoin the Union
16 14 th Amendment passed by Congress in 1866 granted citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the U.S., including former slaves gave all people the right to due process and equal protection Southern states had to ratify the 14 th Amendment in order to rejoin the Union
17 15 th Amendment ratified in 1870 stated that the right to vote can not be denied on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude In essence, the 15 th Amendment granted suffrage to the former slaves (This Amendment however did not include women or Native Americans)
18 SSUSH10: The student will identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction. d. Explain the Black Codes, the Ku Klux Klan, and other forms of resistance to racial equality during Reconstruction.
19 Andrew Johnson s Reconstruction Plan Vice President Johnson became President after Lincoln s assassination in 1865 Johnson, a Southern Democrat from Tennessee, remained loyal to the Union during the war Johnson had his own plan for Reconstruction
20 Johnson s Reconstruction Plan While Congress was in recess (vacation), Johnson offered a pardon to all former citizens of the South if they took an oath of loyalty to the Union Johnson did not include the former elite planter class in the amnesty because he blamed them for causing the war. This group would have to appeal directly to Johnson for a pardon
21 Johnson s Reconstruction Plan Johnson began to allow Southern states back into the Union after they ratified the 13 th Amendment Johnson also began to pardon former Southern political and military leaders, many of whom were then elected to the U.S. Congress When Congress reconvened six months later, many Radical Republicans were outraged with Johnson s plan
22 Johnson s Reconstruction Plan The new Southern governments began to pass black codes, which were a series of laws designed to keep African Americans in a state similar to slavery. The 14 th Amendment was passed in response to the black codes (even though Johnson opposed it). Republicans won the vast majority of seats in Congress in the 1866 election and began to reverse many of Johnson s plans.
23 Johnson s Impeachment In 1867 Congress divided the South into military districts: Southern states had to redesign their state constitutions to the approval of Congress
24 Johnson s Impeachment Congress tried to increase its power at the expense of the President by passing the following two bills: 1. The Command of the Army Act required the President to pass all orders for the military through the General of the Army. 2. The Tenure of Office Act required the President to get Congressional approval to fire any civil officials. jsc
25 Johnson s Impeachment In defiance of Congress, Johnson fired Secretary of War Edwin Stanton Congress then impeached Johnson, charging him with refusing to uphold the law Congress came up one vote short of finding Johnson guilty Johnson remained President, but he did not run for re-election in 1868 Johnson was the 1 st President to be impeached. Who was the only other President to be impeached? Rev. jsc
26 The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) Formed in 1866 in an effort to: -rid the South of Union troops stationed in the military districts -drive out Northern carpetbaggers -help the Democratic Party regain power in the South -prevent freedmen from voting The KKK used terroristic tactics, intimidation and violence The federal government passed the Enforcement Acts, including the Ku Klux Klan act to outlaw their activities
28 Interpreting a Political Cartoon
29 Reconstruction Ends f. Analyze how the presidential election of 1876 and the subsequent compromise of 1877 marked the end of Reconstruction.
30 Controversy in the Election of 1876 Rutherford B. Hayes (R) ran against Samuel Tilden (D). A dispute over election returns (vote counts) in FL, LA and SC led congress to create a special commission to review election results. A majority of the commission were Republicans, who decided in favor of their candidate, Hayes. To appease the angry Democrats, the Compromise of 1877 was created.
31 Compromise of Hayes becomes President 2. The army would be removed from the South 3. The new government would give more aid to Southern states. 4. The Democrats in the South agreed to protect African Americans rights.
SSUSH10 THE STUDENT WILL IDENTIFY LEGAL, POLITICAL, AND SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF RECONSTRUCTION. SSUSH10: The student will identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction. a. Compare and
Reconstruction Reconstruction After the war, the South needed to be rebuilt physically, economically, and politically. Reconstruction was the rebuilding of these systems after the war. Presidential Plan
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Government agency to help former slaves and poor whites. Many former northern abolitionists risked their lives to help southern freedmen. Called carpetbaggers by white southern Democrats. Freedman s Bureau
Key Questions 1. How should the seceded states be allowed to re-enter the Union? Should they? 4. What branch of government should direct the process of Reconstruction? 2. How do we rebuild the South after
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The Civil War and Reconstruction PAULDING COUNTY: U.S. HISTORY Standards SSUSH9 Evaluate key events, issues, and individuals relating to the Civil War. SSUSH10 Identify legal, political, and social dimensions
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Chapter 18 Reconstruction 1865 1877 pg. 530 551 18 1 Rebuilding the Union pg. 533 537 One American s Story What Pennsylvania congressman became a leader of the Radical Republicans? Reconstruction Begins
Radicals in Control Main Idea Radical Republicans were able to put their version of Reconstruction into action. Key Terms black codes, override, impeach 1865 First black codes passed Guide to Reading Reading
The Era of Reconstruction 1 www.heartpunchstudio.com/.../reconstruction.jpg 2 Learning Objectives 3 Define the major problems facing the South and the nation after the Civil War. Analyze the differences
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Sherman s March Feel the hard hand of war Burned houses, farms, pillaged food and resources Attacked hostile civilians as well Human Impact Economic Impact Key Questions 1. How do we bring the South back
Major Battles Battles include: Bull run Shiloh Antietam Fredericksburg On Jan. 1, 1863 Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation Freed slaves in rebel states Encouraged freedmen to join the Army Gettysburg-
Bellwork 12/10 1. Slavery was abolished in the United States by A. the Emancipation Proclamation B. act of Congress C. the 13th Amendment to the Constitution D. the end of the Civil War 2. The Freedman
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Reconstruction Lincoln s Assassination John Wilkes Booth shot Lincoln at Ford s Theatre in Washington, D.C. Lincoln died the next morning less than one week after Lee s surrender Lincoln s death was actually
Unit 5 Study Guide 1. What did the Northwest Ordinance establish? Process for a territory to become a state 2. Why was the Whig Party primarily created? Oppose Andrew Jackson s policies 3. What was the
America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 12 Reconstruction (1865 1877) Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved. America:
THREE ISSUES Why was the war fought? The Emancipation Proclamation Total War and the devastation of the South THREE ISSUES Why was the war fought? To Preserve the Union THREE ISSUES Why was the war fought?
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Name Date The period after the Civil War was called Reconstruction. It changes our government and the Constitution. Three amendments, or changes to the Constitution, gave some Americans new civil rights.
Name Per Unit II: Civil War and Reconstruction Notes PART I: REVIEW OF THE CIVIL WAR What you should have learned in 8 th grade) 1a)CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR #1: By the eve of the American Civil War, the
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Chapter 15 Reconstruction, 1863-1877 THREE PLANS FOR RECONSTRUCTION LINCOLN PROPOSED HIS PLAN IN 1863: HE OFFERED A PARDON TO ALL SUPPORTERS OF THE CONFEDERACY IF THEY SWORE ALLEGIANCE TO THE UNION AND
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In your notes... What does Reconstruction mean in the context of the Civil War? Official Reconstruction HW read pages 184-189 Quiz on Friday Handwritten notes Research Paper Outline DUE Next Friday, November
The Politics of Reconstruction Reconstruction was done to rebuild after the Civil War, and lasted from 1865 to 1877. It also a way the federal government readmitted the Confederate states. LINCOLN S 10%
Station 1 Constitutional Amendments during Reconstruction The group that experienced the most change, both short and long term, as a result of the Civil War were those African Americans who had been born
Today, you will be able to: Compare the Congress Plans for Reconstruction and explain the Reconstruction Amendments (13 th, 14 th, & 15 th ) Directions: 1. Write vocabulary words on page 127 2. Compare
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5.3.2 Reconstruction By: Caleb and Harli Overall Theme: Civil War and reconstruction caused slavery to end, it changed the relastionship between states and federal government. It caused debates over citizenship
12 Reconstruction and Its Effects QUIT CHAPTER OBJECTIVE INTERACT WITH HISTORY TIME LINE SECTION 1 The Politics of Reconstruction MAP SECTION 2 Reconstructing Society SECTION 3 The Collapse of Reconstruction
SECTION2 The Fight over Reconstruction What You Will Learn Main Ideas 1. Black Codes led to opposition to President Johnson s plan for Reconstruction. 2. The Fourteenth Amendment ensured citizenship for
Key Questions 1. How should the South be Readmitted and Who should control The process? 2. How do we rebuild the South economically after its destruction during the war? 3. How do we integrate and protect
SSUSH10: IDENTIFY LEGAL, POLITICAL, AND SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF RECONSTRUCTION. ELEMENT E: Analyze how the Presidential Election of 1876 marked the end of Reconstruction. Overview q The period of Reconstruction
Chapter 16 Reconstruction 1. Which of the following statements is true of Lincoln s Ten Percent Plan? A. It stipulated that at least ten percent of former slaves must be accorded the right to vote within