2 Section One: Introduction and Lincoln s Viewpoints
3 Why Reconstruction? In 1865, what/where needed to reconstructed in the United States?
4 What Was Reconstruction? Program by the federal government to repair the damaged South and restore the southern states to the Union.
5 Major Issues During Reconstruction Freed slaves, or freedmen Control of reconstruction activity in the South Readmission of Southern states into the Union The plantation system Infrastructure destroyed Why might these factors cause problems?
6 Should the Government Utilize Punishment or Compassion? Answer the above question in your notebook. Length Requirement: 2 sentences
7 Wade-Davis Bill (1864) 50% of white males must pledge loyalty to be readmitted Constitution must: abolish slavery, refuse secession, and disqualify Confederate officials from voting or holding office States were required to give blacks the right to vote Lincoln would not pass it
8 13th Amendment December 6, 1865: Outlawed slavery
9 Drawbacks The 13th Amendment did not Grant African Americans citizenship or the right to vote
10 Abraham Lincoln President of the United States from What does the political cartoon indicate about President Lincoln?
11 Abraham Lincoln s Ten Percent Plan Forgive, don t punish Easy and peaceful Pardon Confederate officials Rejoin when 10% of voters declare Union loyalty
12 Freedmen s Bureau (1865-9) First major U.S. relief agency Set up to help freed slaves adjust to new life Distributed food, clothes, medical services, education, and land
13 What Does the Following Cartoon Insinuate About The Freedmen s Bureau?
14 Issues With the Freedmen s Bureau Slaves should be given more than forty acres and a mule to support themselves Federal government should seize Confederate land and give it to the freedmen Others argued that this went against individual property rights.
15 Section Two: Presidential Reconstruction
16 Andrew Johnson Lincoln s VP Became president in 1865, after Lincoln s assassination Congress on vacation when appointed
17 In Your Notebook... Based on the political cartoon, how do you think the public felt about Johnson? Answer the question by listing 3 adjectives in your skeletal notes, please.
18 Andrew Johnson s Plan Reconstruction is president s job, not Congress More generous than Lincoln Pardoned Confederate leaders and most white Southerners Kept Ten Percent Plan
19 Johnson s Process Each former Confederate state had to: Call constitutional convention Ratify 13th Amendment
20 Johnson s Goal Readmit Southern states to the Union as quickly as possible Not concerned with meeting the needs of formerly enslaved people Do you agree with Johnson s goal?
21 Congress Was Angry, Because Former Confederate officers and political leaders were elected to Congress Development of Black Codes
22 Black Codes Laws that restricted freedmen s rights Examples: curfews, vagrancy laws, labor contracts, and land restrictions, written proof of work, forbidden to meet in groups or carry guns Why do you think this was problematic?
23 Section Three: Congressional Reconstruction
24 Radical Republicans Lincoln is too generous Use federal gov t to promote full citizenship for freed African Americans
25 Radical Republicans Cont d Main Goals: Prevent Confederacy leaders from returning to power Federal gov t will help African Americans by ensuring them the right to vote Small farms, free schools, and equality for all citizens
26 Agree or Disagree? We have turned, or are about to turn, loose four million slaves without a hut to shelter them or a cent in their pockets...if we leave them to the legislation of their late masters, we had better have left them in bondage. -Thaddeus Stevens, the Congressional Globe, Dec. 18, 1865
27 Civil Rights Act (1866) Citizenship for everyone born in U.S., except Native Americans African Americans can Own property Be treated equally in court Feds can sue anyone who violates these conditions
28 Johnson s Veto Johnson vetoed the Civil Rights Act Angered Radical Republicans
29 14th Amendment (1866) Granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States, which included former slaves recently freed
30 Supporting the 14th Amendment Increased violence in the South caused increased support for both Radical Republicans and the 14th Amendment
31 Readmittance to the Union Design a constitution Suffrage* for all adult males, regardless of race Which group might this have angered? Ratify 14th Amendment *the right to vote
32 Johnson s Impeachment Charged with High crimes and misdemeanors Attempting to undermine Reconstruction Found innocent
33 Senators Thoughts It would set a dangerous precedent to impeach a president simply because he did not agree with congressional policies.
34 Think About a Time in Your Life When You Encountered Change What was it and how did you react to it?
35 Section Four: Reactions to Change
36 Carpetbaggers Scalawags Northerners who moved to the South White Southerners who worked with Republicans and supported Reconstruction
37 Carpetbaggers Scalawags
38 Social and Political Changes African Americans became legislators and administrators on nearly all levels of gov t Delegates Mayors Police chiefs School commissioners 14 House of Reps 2 Senate
39 Primary Source: African Americans in the U.S. Senate Pictured: Senator Hiram R. Revels and Representatives Benjamin S. Turner, Josiah T. Walls, Joseph H. Rainey, Robert Brown Elliott, Robert D. De Large, and Jefferson H. Long. (1872)
40 Black Communities Public schools 40% of African American children attended school Churches Social events, picnics, political gatherings, festivals, unofficial courts
41 Freedman School in North Carolina
42 Sharecropping Farm the land and receive ⅓ of the crops Tenant farmers- rent farmland from owners
43 Effects of Sharecropping Another slave system Created a cycle of debt
44 Why Do Hate Groups Form in Cities? Answer the above question in your notebook. Think about modern sources of hate and violence.
45 Describe the Photo in 3 words
46 Ku Klux Klan Terrorist group fueled by racism Goals Restore Democratic control of the South Keep former slaves powerless
47 Ku Klux Klan Burned schools, churches, and homes Beat and tortured both African Americans and white Republicans Kept Republicans from the polls
48 Section Five: The End of Reconstruction
49 Ulysses S. Grant Republican candidate and former Civil War hero Wins 1868 election Won because of the freedmen s votes
50 15th Amendment (1870) Gave black males suffrage
51 Anti-Klan Bill (1871) Grant passes a bill allowing the police to take action against Klansmen Attacks on African American voters declined
52 Civil Rights Reversals Federal gov t couldn t punish those who violated African Americans rights States could prevent African Americans from voting Literacy tests Poll taxes
Chapter 16 - Reconstruction Section Notes Rebuilding the South The Fight over Reconstruction Reconstruction in the South Quick Facts The Reconstruction Amendments Hopes Raised and Denied Chapter 16 Visual
Chapter 17 - Reconstruction Section Notes Rebuilding the South The Fight over Reconstruction Reconstruction in the South Quick Facts The Reconstruction Amendments Hopes Raised and Denied Chapter 17 Visual
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Essential Question: What were the various plans to bring Southern states back into the Union and to protect newly-emancipated slaves? Reconstruction is the era from 1865 to 1877 when the U.S. government
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RECONSTRUCTION 1865-1877 Learning Targets Why was it seen as necessary to reconstruct the South following the Civil War? In general terms, what did President Lincoln want to do with the Southern states?
APUSH CH 22: Lecture Name: Hour: Chapter 22: The Ordeal of Reconstruction, 1865-1877 I. The Ordeal of Reconstruction A. Reconstructing the Nation: Questions to be Answered 1. How would the South be rebuilt?
Reconstruction 1865-1876 WHAT IS RECONSTRUCTION? A rebuilding of the South after the Civil War between 1865-1877 Re = again, Construct = build to build again Post-war problems: NORTH 800,000 union soldiers
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Major Battles Battles include: Bull run Shiloh Antietam Fredericksburg On Jan. 1, 1863 Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation Freed slaves in rebel states Encouraged freedmen to join the Army Gettysburg-
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Chapter 16 and the New South (1863 1896) What You Will Learn As the Civil War ended, disagreements over led to conflict, and African Americans lost many of the rights they had gained. Key Events 1863 President
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