Unit 1 Introduction to Comparative Politics Test Multiple Choice 2 pts each

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1 Unit 1 Introduction to Comparative Politics Test Multiple Choice 2 pts each 1. Which of the following is NOT considered to be an aspect of globalization? A. Increased speed and magnitude of cross-border trade B. The spread of democracy C. Increased cultural diffusion D. Increased migration of peoples E. Increased speed and magnitude of cross-border communication 2. In comparative politics, the term state refers to A. the government in power in a country B. a group of people with a common identity. C. the total area of a country D. the key political institutions in a country. E. subnational units of government like Missouri 3. Democratic transitions describe a process in which A. two countries resolve a conflict through peaceful means rather than military force. B. authoritarian governments develop into more participatory and democratic regimes. C. there are elections that involve the peaceful transfer of power between administrations. D. the president of a country resigns and is replaced by the vice president. E. a democratic country becomes a dictatorship. 4. For about 500 years, have been the primary actions on the world stage. A. political parties B. states C. transnational corporations D. social movements E. international organizations 5. The term political economy refers to A. the global economic system. B. how states and political processes affect the economy and how the economy in turn affects a country s political processes. C. whether a country practices command economy or a free-market system. D. how much a country spends on elections. E. the ratio of GDP compared to percentage of voting citizens. 6. Classifying countries according to their level of democracy is an example of a A. typology B. hypothesis C. model D. causal model E. variable

2 7. As compared to consolidated democracies and authoritarian regimes, transitional democracies are characterized by A. fewer legal protections that in either consolidated democracies or authoritarian regimes. B. fewer legal protections for citizen rights and liberties than consolidated democracies but more than authoritarian regimes. C. more legal protection for civil liberties than either consolidated democracies or authoritarian regimes. D. more legal protection than consolidated democracies but less than in authoritarian regimes. E. more legal protection for economic and social rights but less for political rights. 8. The Human development Index, the Global Gender Gap, the Environmental Performance Index, and the Corruption Perceptions Index are all examples of A. comparative measures developed by the United States B. comparative measures developed by International non-state organizations like Freedom House and Greenpeace. C. rankings and ratings of data for comparative analysis that are widely used. D. rankings and ratings that may be used to study the level of democracy in various countries. E. measures for the economic performance of states. 9. The term critical juncture refers to A. when the leadership of a country changes. B. the border between two historically hostile countries C. an important historical moment that shapes institutions and future outcomes. D. a period of economic instability. E. an event that triggers a war on international crisis. 10. When state boundaries and national identity coincide, the resulting formation is called a A. country. B. confederation. C. nation-state. D. nation. E. state. 11. Which of the following statements about collective identity is TRUE? A. Non-class identities have assumed growing significance even in long-established democracies. B. All of these are true statements. C. Collective identities involving ethnicity and religion have been important factors that have led to conflict. D. Political leaders often manipulate or appeal to collective identities. E. Although less so than in the past, class based collective identities remain important in many long-established democracies.

3 12. Which of the following BEST illustrates the difference between the field of comparative politics and the field of international relations? A. The field of comparative politics involves comparing nations whereas the field of international relations involves examining international organizations. B. The field of comparative politics involves comparing different political institutions, processes, and politics in different countries whereas the field of international relations involves studying the foreign policy of and interactions among different countries. C. There is no difference between the two fields. D. The field of comparative politics involves only domestic politics whereas the field of international relations refers only to globalization. E. The field of comparative politics involves comparing why and how different states act in the international arena whereas the field of international politics is more concerned with the impact of nonstate actors in the international arena. 13. Which of the following is a normative statement? A. The presidents of Mexico and Russia are both directly elected by the people. B. The head of government in Iran is the president. C. The Chinese judicial system would serve the country better if it were more independent. D. The European Union expanded rapidly during the first few years of the 21 st century. E. Britian s upper house of the legislature consists of non-elected officials. Nigeria s policy of revenue sharing has not functioned well primarily because the government lacks legitimacy. 14. In the statement above, Nigeria s policy of revenue sharing may be identified as a(n) A. independent variable B. correlation C. causation D. dependent variable E. hypothesis 15. Which of the following is the most accurate definition of a state? A. the ability to carry out actions or policies within borders independently from interference B. an organization that includes institutions and maintains a monopoly of violence over a territory C. a group of people that are bound together by a common political identity D. the rules that are set and followed in exerting power E. a government with three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial 16. Which of the following is most likely to be a centrifugal force that negatively affects a nation-state? A. use of symbols to create cohesiveness B. strong religious values C. extensive transportation systems D. strong separatist movements E. schools that instill the society s beliefs

4 17. Integration is a process that allows state to gain political, economic, and social clout by pooling their A. territory B. sovereignty C. frontiers D. core areas E. colonies 18. What is a mixed economy? A. One that is healthy in some areas but not in others B. One that is individualistic and antigovernment C. One that is based primarily on state ownership of the means of production D. One that depends both on domestic production and import of goods from other countries E. One that mixes characteristics of a command economy with those of a market economy. 19. A type of state that spreads power among many sub-units and has a weak central government is called a A. confederal system B. unitary system C. federal system D. devolutionary system E. separatist system 20. Which of the following can be considered a fundamental feature of authoritarian government? A. The head of government is also the head of state. B. Decisions are made by political elites without much input from citizens. C. The regime type is based on communism. D. The legitimacy of the head of state is based on heredity. E. Authoritarian governments always use violence as a technique for destroying obstacles to their governance. 21. Which of the following is an accurate description of democratic corporatism? A. Responsibilities and obligations are based on a hierarchy between elites and citizens. B. The formation of interest groups within the system is spontaneous. C. Interest groups interact with the state and remain autonomous. D. Interest representation is institutionalized through recognition by the state. E. The military joins forces with the state bureaucracy to form an authoritarian regime. 22. In 2012, the International Monetary Fund estimated China s GDP per capita to be $6,076, and in 2013, the CIA World Fact Book estimated China s PPP to be $9,100. Which of the following is the best explanation for the difference between the two estimates? A. China s economy grew rapidly between 2012 and B. The IMF did not include income from Chinese citizens living abroad; the CIA World Fact Book did. C. The IMF did not take into consideration adult literacy and income levels; the CIA World Fact Book did. D. The IMF did not factor in income from illegal sources; the CIA World Fact Book did. E. GDP per capita merely makes the total value of a country s GDP and divides it by the country s population; PPP per capita attempts to estimate the buying power of income in each country.

5 23. If a country has a low Gini coefficient, it means that the country has A. a low standard of living B. serious restrictions on individual liberties C. more equal income or wealth distribution D. a government that operates with little or no transparency E. little or no political efficacy 24. A national ballot, called by the government on a policy issue is called a(n) A. initiative B. reform C. sovereign act D. referendum E. decree 25. In contrast to a plurality electoral system, an electoral system based on proportional representation is more likely to result in A. an ineffective legislature B. more run-off elections C. a weakened party system D. lower rates of voter participation E. a multi-party system 26. Which of the following is a linkage institution? A. the military B. the legislature C. the bureaucracy D. the judiciary E. a political party 27. The mechanism that allows courts to decide the constitutionality of a law or executive action is called A. judicial review B. code law C. civil law D. parliamentary sovereignty E. judicial activism 28. In most countries with bicameral legislature, seats in the upper house usually A. are determined by population B. represent regional governments and local interests C. are hereditary or appointed D. are more sought after than seats in the lower house E. are more numerous than those in the lower house

6 29. In contrast to bureaucrats in an authoritarian regime, bureaucrats in a democratic regime usually A. are elected B. resign their jobs when their chief executive leaves C. are part of a patronage system D. have more discretionary power E. are appointed by the chief executive 30. A cabinet coalition is more likely to form in countries that have A. little cultural heterogeneity B. a president C. a multi-party system D. strong bureaucracies E. both a head of state and a head of government 31. Which of the following is NOT a common type of political institution? A. legislature B. judiciary C. bureaucracy D. cross-cutting cleavage E. political party 32. According to social capital theory, societies with high amounts of social capitals are more likely to be A. democratic B. stable C. authoritarian D. consensual E. conflictual 33. Which of the following is the best description of socialism as a political ideology? A. Socialism rejects the value of equality, and accepts the idea that people and groups exist in degrees of inferiority and superiority. B. Socialism rejects the principle of separation of church and state. C. Socialism accepts private ownerships and free market principles, but believes that the state has a strong role to play in regulating the economy and ensuring some measure of equality. D. Socialism seeks to maximize freedom for all people, including free speech, freedom of religion, and freedom of association. E. Socialism rejects the idea that personal freedom will ensure prosperity for all and holds that an inevitable result of competition for scarce resources is that a small group will gain control. 34. Which of the following is an attitude toward change that is most supportive of reform and gradual change? A. radicalism B. liberalism C. communism D. conservatism E. reactionary beliefs

7 35. Competitive elections, civil liberties, rule of law, neutrality of the judiciary, and open civil society are all characteristics of A. procedural democracies B. free-market economies C. presidential systems D. authoritarian systems E. liberal democracies 36. The process that creates a political system that is supported by all parts of the society is called A. transparency B. integration C. democratic consolidation D. privatization E. democratic corporatism 37. Economic liberalization leads a country toward A. a free-market economy B. a command economy C. democratization D. federalism E. authoritarian rule 38. Which of the following most directly discourages the modern trend toward globalization? A. integration B. democratization C. nationalism D. conservatism E. communism 39. In contrast to coinciding cleavages, cross-cutting cleavages are more likely to A. tear a society apart B. emphasize ethnic differences C. emphasize regional differences D. emphasize religious differences E. keep social conflict to more moderate levels 40. Voluntary organizations outside of the state that help people define and advance their own interests compose A. the civil society B. social capital C. social boundaries D. subject activities E. a procedural democracy

8 Conceptual Analysis Questions: 5pts for each part - Bureaucracies are important institutions in both authoritarian and democratic regimes. (a) Describe two characteristics of bureaucracies that are common in both authoritarian and democratic regimes. (b) Describe one reason why bureaucracies are often an important source of strength in a democracy. (c) Explain two differences between the way that bureaucracies function in a democracy and an authoritarian regime.

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