Contemporary Human Geography

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1 Chapter 9 Lecture Contemporary Human Geography rd 3 Edition Chapter 9: Development Marc Healy Elgin Community College

2 9.1 Development Regions A developed country, also known as a More Developed Country (MDC) has progressed further along the development continuum. A developing country, also frequently called a Less Developed Country (LDC), has made some progress toward development, though less than the developed countries.

3 9.1 Development Regions How do we measure development? 1. Standard of living 5. Level of Government a. structure of the workforce Corruption b. income of worker a. level of transparency c. disposable income b. citizens have role and 2. Long and healthy life freedom a. access to modern medicine b. calorie intake 3. Access to knowledge a. literacy rate b. universities c. women educated 4. Technology a. transportation b. communication

4 9.1 Development Regions Human Development Index In your notes right now, make two observations from this map.

5 9.1 Development Regions Regional Differences in Development Geographers divide the world into two developed and seven developing regions. In addition to the nine regions, three other distinctive areas can be identified: Japan The South Pacific (Australia and New Zealand) Russia

6 9.1 Development Regions Regional Differences in Development Write them down in order

7 9.2 A Decent Standard of Living Economic Structure - Level of Job Primary sector: Directly extracting materials from Earth through agriculture or through mining, fishing, and forestry Secondary sector: Manufacturing raw materials into products Tertiary sector: Providing goods and services to people in exchange for payment, such as retailing, banking, law, education, and government Quaternary sector: Provides information, consulting services, research and development like scientists, inventors and researchers

8 9.2 A Decent Standard of Living Economic Structure Write down observations

9 9.2 A Decent Standard of Living Income Gross national income (GNI) is the value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year, including money that leaves and enters the country. Purchasing power parity (PPP) is an adjustment made to the GNI to account for differences among countries in the cost of goods. The next slides each have information about standard of living. Look at them and make a minimum of 5 observations.

10 9.2 A Decent Standard of Living Income

11 9.2 A Decent Standard of Living Consumer Goods

12 9.3 Access to Knowledge & Health Education Years of schooling for today s adults The number of years that the average person aged 25 or older in a country has spent in school

13 9.3 Access to Knowledge & Health Education Expected years of schooling for today s youth The number of years that the UN forecasts an average 5-year-old will spend in school

14 9.3 Access to Knowledge & Health Education Pupil/teacher ratio The fewer pupils a teacher has, the more likely that each student will receive effective instruction.

15 9.3 Access to Knowledge & Health Education Literacy rate The literacy rate is the percentage of a country s people who can read and write.

16 Differences of Communication Connectivity

17 9.3 Access to Knowledge & Health Health From the many health and medical indicators, the UN has selected life expectancy at birth as the contributor to the HDI.

18 9.4 Unequal & Uneven Development Inequality within Countries Some countries have pockets of rich and poor areas (Brazil, Turkey, Mexico, China, etc)

19 9.4 Unequal & Uneven Development Widening Inequality within Developed Countries Developed countries have regional internal variations in GDP per capita that are less extreme than in developing countries. Through most of the twentieth century, the gap between rich and poor narrowed in developed countries. Since 1980, however, inequality has increased in most developed countries, including the United States and the United Kingdom.

20 9.4 Unequal & Uneven Development Widening Inequality within Developed Countries

21 9.4 Unequal & Uneven Development World Systems Theory (Immanuel Wallerstein) Promotes the Core-Periphery concept Core: nations with a high level of prosperity with dominant economies Semi-Periphery: in the middle Periphery: poor nations that are dependent on the core as markets for raw materials and sources of technology

22 9.5 Gender-Related Development Gender Inequality Index To measure the extent of each country s gender inequality, the UN has created the Gender Inequality Index (GII). As with the other indices, the GII combines multiple measures: Reproductive health, empowerment, education, and employment A higher GII, however, indicates more inequality between men and women.

23 9.5 Gender-Related Development Reproductive Health

24 9.5 Gender-Related Development Empowerment The UN includes in the GII the percentage of seats held by women in the national parliament or legislature. What is unusual about the US on this map?

25 9.6 Two Paths to Development To promote development, developing countries choose one of two models: Self-sufficiency Countries encourage domestic production of goods, discourage foreign ownership of businesses and resources, and protect their businesses from international competition. International trade Countries open themselves to foreign investment and international markets.

26 9.6 Two Paths to Development International Trade Path The international trade path derives from a five-step model proposed by W.W. Rostow in Each country is thought to be in one of these five stages: i. The traditional society ii. The preconditions for takeoff iii. The takeoff iv. The drive to maturity v. The age of mass consumption

27 9.7 World Trade International Trade Triumphs After converting to international trade, India s GDP per capita increased in most years much more rapidly than it had under self-sufficiency.

28 9.10 Progress in Development HDI All regions have increased their HDI scores.

29 9.10 Progress in Development Eight Developmental Goals Goal 1: End poverty & hunger Extreme poverty has been cut substantially in the world, but not in sub-saharan Africa. Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education The percentage of children not enrolled in school remains relatively high in South Asia and sub-saharan Africa.

30 9.10 Progress in Development Eight Developmental Goals Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Gender disparities remain in all regions. Goal 4: Reduce child mortality IMR has declined in most regions, except sub-saharan Africa.

31 9.10 Progress in Development Eight Developmental Goals Goal 5: Improve maternal health One-half million women die annually from complications during pregnancy; 99 percent of these women live in developing countries. Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases The number of people living with HIV remains high, especially in sub-saharan Africa.

32 9.10 Progress in Development Eight Developmental Goals Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Water scarcity and quality, deforestation, and overfishing are still especially critical environmental issues. Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development Rather than increasing, aid from developed to developing countries has instead been declining.

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