CHAPTER 2: MAJORITARIAN OR PLURALIST DEMOCRACY

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1 CHAPTER 2: MAJORITARIAN OR PLURALIST DEMOCRACY SHORT ANSWER Please define the following term. 1. autocracy PTS: 1 REF: oligarchy PTS: 1 REF: democracy PTS: 1 REF: procedural democratic theory PTS: 1 REF: universal participation PTS: 1 REF: political equality PTS: 1 REF: majority rule

2 PTS: 1 REF: participatory democracy PTS: 1 REF: representative democracy PTS: 1 REF: responsiveness PTS: 1 REF: substantive democratic theory PTS: 1 REF: minority rights PTS: 1 REF: majoritarian model of democracy PTS: 1 REF: interest group PTS: 1 REF: pluralist model of democracy

3 PTS: 1 REF: elite theory PTS: 1 REF: democratization PTS: 1 REF: 52 MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. When the House Of Representatives voted on President Obama s stimulus plan, a $787 billion package of targeted tax cuts and government spending on public works projects to fight the recession, the following occurred: a. no House Republicans voted for the plan b. no House Democrats voted for the plan c. the plan was supported by all House members d. Rush Limbaugh encouraged the House to approve the plan e. all House Democrats voted for the plan A PTS: 1 REF: 33 NOT: F 2. The ancient Greeks classified governments as autocracies, oligarchies, or democracies based on a. the fundamental purposes for which the government was instituted. b. the extent of government power. c. the types of elected officeholders. d. the kinds of decisions the government was responsible for. e. the number of citizens involved in governing. E PTS: 1 REF: 34 NOT: C 3. An autocracy is a political system ruled by a. a few. b. one individual. c. the military. d. a majority. e. a few powerful, wealthy individuals. B PTS: 1 REF: 34 NOT: C 4. The best contemporary example of an oligarchy would be a(n) a. multiparty democracy. b. personal dictatorship. c. military dictatorship.

4 d. hereditary monarchy. e. elite interest society. C PTS: 1 REF: 34 NOT: C 5. Although many countries openly advocate rule by the people, much disagreement remains over a. whether such a system could ever exist in the real world. b. how the people is defined, and how those individuals should rule. c. whether the people are actually better decision makers than the elite. d. whether such systems are outdated and becoming less common. e. whether non-participatory citizens are included in the definition. B PTS: 1 REF: 34 NOT: C 6. The Greek word demos, which is the root of the term democracy, means a. common people. b. power. c. participation. d. foundation or base. e. order. A PTS: 1 REF: 34 NOT: F 7. The Greek word kratos, one of the roots of the word democracy, means a. power. b. authority. c. common man. d. rule. e. form. A PTS: 1 REF: 34 NOT: F 8. A politician who appeals to and often deceives the masses by manipulating their emotions and prejudices is a(n) a. politico. b. delegate. c. oligarch. d. legacy. e. demagogue. E PTS: 1 REF: 35 NOT: C 9. The names of more than 20 percent of the world's political parties contain some variation of the word a. conservative. b. republican. c. socialist. d. democracy. e. freedom. D PTS: 1 REF: 35 NOT: F 10. In a typical survey, one would expect Americans to support the notion that the United States should promote democracy to other countries as a foreign policy goal. a. almost all b. a very large majority of c. a slim majority of

5 d. about half of e. well less than half of E PTS: 1 REF: 35 NOT: F 11. Which president(s) promoted democracy abroad as a major foreign policy objective of his/their administration? a. Woodrow Wilson b. Thomas Jefferson c. George W. Bush d. William Howard Taft e. A and C. E PTS: 1 REF: 37 NOT: F 12. The procedural view of democracy is most concerned with a. the level of popular participation in decision making. b. the equality of government decisions. c. minority protections. d. the impact of government decisions. e. how government decisions are made. E PTS: 1 REF: 36 NOT: F 13. The principle of universal participation may still be met even if some adults (such as recent immigrants) are excluded from participation if this exclusion is based on a. the principle of political equality. b. practical or political reasons in a particular country. c. failure to understand the political system. d. lack of knowledge of the nation's dominant language. e. conflicts of law. B PTS: 1 REF: 36 NOT: C 14. The idea that all adults within the boundaries of a political community should be allowed to vote is known as a. universal participation. b. political equality. c. majority rule. d. plurality rule. e. suffrage. A PTS: 1 REF: 36 NOT: C 15. A country abiding by the principle one man, one vote is practicing a. representative democracy. b. political equality. c. equal suffrage. d. substantive democracy. e. a free and fair election system. B PTS: 1 REF: 36 NOT: C 16. Whereas majority rule is defined as decision making by 50 percent plus one person, is defined as decision making by most participants. a. rule by the people

6 b. assention c. political equality d. universal participation e. plurality rule E PTS: 1 REF: 37 NOT: C 17. All of the following are principles of procedural democracy except a. government responsiveness to public opinion. b. minority rights. c. universal participation. d. majority rule. e. political equality. B PTS: 1 REF: 41 NOT: C 18. In Athens, were excluded from participation in assemblies. a. women b. slaves c. those who were new to the area d. males above the age of 40 e. A, B and C E PTS: 1 REF: 37 NOT: F 19. New England town meetings are an example of a. substantive democracy. b. oligarchies. c. representative democracy. d. civil democracy. e. participatory democracy. E PTS: 1 REF: 38 NOT: C 20. The following allows a person to acquire information and documents online, and also provides a medium to register opinions and complaints to government officials a. E-government. b. the Federal Communications Commission. c. the Telecommunications Act. d. the Secretary of State. e. Fox News. A PTS: 1 REF: 38 NOT: F 21. Why do most democracies give power to representatives rather than directly to citizens? a. Bringing large numbers of citizens together for discussions and votes is difficult. b. Decisions may require specialized knowledge not possessed by the average citizen. c. Discussion of political issues takes more time than most people are willing to spend. d. All of these e. None of these D PTS: 1 REF: 38 NOT: F 22. Which of the following represents a principle of procedural theory? a. Social equality b. Representative democracy

7 c. Guaranteed civil liberties d. Discrimination protection e. Responsiveness E PTS: 1 REF: 39 NOT: C 23. The principle of responsiveness requires that legislators a. follow the general contours of public opinion. b. cast their ballots on the basis of what the people think back home. c. pay especial attention to groups that are highly organized. d. support public opinion in all matters related to electoral politics. e. consider the views of their fellow legislators more than the views of constituents. A PTS: 1 REF: 39 NOT: C 24. After following democratic procedures, a majority votes to impose its beliefs on a minority. This action a. violates the standards of procedural democracy. b. is consistent with all theories of democracy. c. violates all theories of democracy. d. violates the standards of substantive democracy. e. is unconstitutional. D PTS: 1 REF: 39 NOT: C 25. For the United States, the core substantive principles of democracy are embedded in a. the Bill of Rights and other amendments to the Constitution. b. the traditions and conscience of the people. c. colonial charters. d. Article I of the Constitution. e. legislative resolutions from state legislatures. A PTS: 1 REF: 40 NOT: F 26. The basic standard of substantive democracy is that government must guarantee a. economic rights. b. civil rights and liberties. c. social equality. d. All of these e. None of these B PTS: 1 REF: 40 NOT: C 27. Agreement among substantive theorists breaks down when the discussion moves from civil rights to a. freedom of expression. b. social rights. c. religious rights. d. economic rights. e. both B and D. E PTS: 1 REF: 40 NOT: F 28. Americans, in a recent Gallup survey, responded the following way after being asked whether or not it was the federal government s responsibility to make sure all Americans have health care coverage: a. 70% believed it was the federal government s responsibility b. 70% believed it was not the federal government s responsibility

8 c. 48% believed it was not the federal government s responsibility d. 47% believed it was the federal government s responsibility e. both c and d E PTS: 1 REF: 40 NOT: F 29. One weakness of the substantive model of democracy is that a. not everyone participates in decision making. b. there is no agreement regarding which policies are democratic. c. the government is less responsive to its people. d. terrible inequities occur in the wealthiest class. e. minority groups are easily defeated. B PTS: 1 REF: 41 NOT: C 30. One of the weaknesses of the procedural model of democracy is that a. it does not provide clear criteria on which to judge whether a government is democratic. b. its reliance on rules may lead to rigidity and inefficiency. c. it neglects the standards of classic Greek democracy. d. it permits policies that violate standards of substantive democracy. e. too much attention is paid to protecting minority rights. D PTS: 1 REF: 41 NOT: C 31. The American system allows for the will of the majority to be blocked by a. a declaration of martial law. b. the Constitution as interpreted by the Supreme Court. c. the lack of institutional mechanisms for gauging public opinion. d. no means. e. majority rule. B PTS: 1 REF: 41 NOT: F 32. A popular election is the primary mechanism for democratic government in which model? a. Substantive democracy b. Procedural democracy c. The majoritarian model d. The pluralist model e. The integrated model C PTS: 1 REF: 43 NOT: C 33. A referendum is best described as a(n) a. statement of legislative goals. b. do-over of a previous election. c. ballot without true competition for offices. d. election on a policy issue. e. decision that resolves a legal issue. D PTS: 1 REF: NOT: F 34. A citizen's group gathers enough signatures on a petition to force a popular vote on a statewide lottery proposal. This proposal would represent a(n) a. recall election. b. referendum. c. initiative.

9 d. popular law. e. citizen's proposal. C PTS: 1 REF: 44 NOT: C 35. Which of the following statements concerning recall is incorrect? a. Sixteen states allow for recall of officials. b. A specified percentage of registered voters must sign a petition. c. A majority vote is required for an officer to be removed. d. Recalls are not used as often as initiatives or referenda. e. None of these E PTS: 1 REF: 44 NOT: F 36. Although they are instruments of majoritarian democracy, initiatives are often sponsored by a. government officials. b. interest groups. c. members of the judiciary. d. foreign multi-national corporations. e. small numbers of average citizens. B PTS: 1 REF: 44 NOT: F 37. Voters in California and Maine approved measures that made marriage: a. only legal for heterosexuals. b. legal for both heterosexuals and homosexuals. c. legal between an adult and a minor. d. illegal for anyone under 18. e. legal for undocumented residents. A PTS: 1 REF: 44 NOT: F 38. A alleged weakness of the majoritarian democratic model is its a. reliance on public opinion polls, which tend to fluctuate over time. b. reliance on the American public to be knowledgeable and participatory. c. insistence that political parties represent the true opinion of the public. d. failure to require elected officials to follow voters' wishes. e. exclusion of interest groups from issue formation. B PTS: 1 REF: 44 NOT: C 39. Many observers of American politics contend that the majoritarian model is not a good description of our system given that a recent survey that found only the following percent of voters said that they follow news about politics very closely : a. 10% b. 5% c. 36% d. 18% e. 50% C PTS: 1 REF: 44 NOT: C 40. The concept of pluralism rests on the premise that a. modern society consists of many groups that share economic, religious, ethnic, and cultural interests. b. government should be responsive to the will of the majority as expressed through free

10 elections. c. government is always responsive to organized interest groups. d. most people belong to interest groups. e. responsibilities for participation and representation are best met by elected representatives. A PTS: 1 REF: 45 NOT: C 41. Compared with majoritarian thought, the pluralist model of democracy shifts the focus of democratic decision making from to. a. organized groups; the mass electorate b. representatives; voters c. procedures; substance d. substance; procedures e. the mass electorate; organized groups E PTS: 1 REF: 46 NOT: C 42. The pluralist model assumes a. the existence of interest groups. b. a decentralized structure of government. c. ready access to public officials. d. openness to arguments for or against government policies. e. All of these E PTS: 1 REF: 46 NOT: C 43. Pluralism is most likely to be found where the government structure is a. hierarchical. b. rapidly changing. c. centralized. d. unorganized and chaotic. e. decentralized. E PTS: 1 REF: 46 NOT: C 44. The division of authority in the U.S. Constitution among competing branches and levels of government has encouraged the development of a. elitism. b. majoritarian democracy. c. indirect democracy. d. pluralism. e. divided government institutions. D PTS: 1 REF: 46 NOT: C 45. According to the text, it is difficult for a country with a market economy to remain in its internal politics. a. democratic b. responsive c. decentralized d. undemocratic e. pluralistic D PTS: 1 REF: 54 NOT: F

11 46. Which theorist argues that a fundamental component of pluralist democracies is multiple centers of power without a sovereign? a. Robert Putnam b. John Locke c. John Stuart Mill d. C.J. Chivers e. Robert Dahl E PTS: 1 REF: 46 NOT: F 47. A sign that pluralist democracy might not be working well in the United States is the a. declining participation of citizens in civic groups like the PTA. b. declining number of interest groups in Washington. c. increasing number of voters in national elections. d. government's failure to pass more legislation each year. e. overinvolvement of elected officials in the protection of rights. A PTS: 1 REF: 47 NOT: C 48. One reason offered that environmentalism has yet to develop as a mass movement in the Czech Republic is the following: a. Communism continues in the Czech Republic b. the Czechs are more interested in economic prosperity than in preserving the environment c. interest groups do not exist in the Czech Republic d. the Czech Republic government banned environmental groups e. none of the above B PTS: 1 REF: NOT: C 49. The idea that the most important government decisions are made by an identifiable and stable minority that shares certain characteristics is called a. substantive democracy. b. elite theory. c. pluralist theory. d. the interest group model. e. aristocracy. B PTS: 1 REF: 48 NOT: F 50. Those who support elite theory claim that the United States is governed by a relatively small class of people whose power is based on a. democratic election. b. interest group membership. c. control of wealth and corporations. d. hereditary titles. e. market share domination. C PTS: 1 REF: 49 NOT: C 51. According to elite theory, the United States is actually a(n) a. oligarchy. b. monarchy. c. aristocracy. d. democracy. e. socialist system.

12 A PTS: 1 REF: 49 NOT: F 52. Studies on decision making concerning public policy issues suggest that much of the elite s power comes from the following: a. the ability of elites to win seats in Congress. b. the ability of elites to become governors of states. c. the ability of elites to finance candidates for president of the United States. d. the ability of elites to keep issues off the political agenda. e. none of the above. D PTS: 1 REF: 50 NOT: C 53. Those who claim that the pluralist model fits the United States better than the elite model point out that a. powerful minorities do not win major policy contests. b. no identifiable elite wins consistently over a broad range of issues. c. in the end, the public at large is the major force in policy making. d. financial resources are irrelevant in affecting public policy decisions. e. business interests control a vast majority of congressional legislation passed each year. B PTS: 1 REF: 50 NOT: C 54. Elite theory is discredited as an explanation of American national politics because studies show that a. elitism cannot coexist with democratic elections. b. there are too few power positions in the United States to constitute an elite. c. government and business leaders generally do not cooperate with one another. d. no one identifiable group regularly prevails on different issues. e. citizens will rally to defend rights they believe are endangered by government policies. D PTS: 1 REF: 50 NOT: C 55. Studies of the congressional agenda demonstrate that it is characterized by: a. an emphasis on legislation concerned with the poor. b. an emphasis on legislation concerned with immigration. c. an emphasis on legislation concerned with increasing taxes on the wealthy. d. an emphasis on business related legislation e. none of the above D PTS: 1 REF: 51 NOT: F 56. In Africa some countries have successfully achieved significant levels of democracy, but many other African countries have been unable to avoid: a. pluralism. b. Communism. c. anarchism. d. authoritarianism. e. None of these D PTS: 1 REF: 52 NOT: C 57. According to pluralist theory, group struggle is democratic if a. the outcomes of the struggle are in the popular interest. b. certain larger groups are provided with more representation than smaller groups. c. all citizens are organized into groups. d. all groups win a fair share of decisions. e. all groups are allowed to participate.

13 E PTS: 1 REF: 51 NOT: C 58. Democratization is the a. process of moving from procedural to substantive democracy. b. process of institutionalizing the rules of procedural democracy and establishing substantive democratic policies. c. act of electing leaders in a way that conforms to the criteria of substantive democracy. d. process of moving from a demand to a market economy. e. requirement that freedoms and rights be protected by written covenant. B PTS: 1 REF: 52 NOT: C 59. Ethnic and religious rivals are often more interested in achieving a form of government that does the following: a. oppresses their opponents. b. provides a separation of church and state. c. requires all citizens to attend religious services. d. requires all schools provide religious instruction e. all of the above A PTS: 1 REF: 52 NOT: F 60. The text observes that the process of democratization is made quite difficult by a. economic equality. b. technology. c. ethnic conflict. d. religious conflict. e. C and D. E PTS: 1 REF: 52 NOT: F 61. The text suggests that there are forces that may be pushing authoritarian governments toward democratization. a. religious b. moral c. philosophical d. ethical e. economic E PTS: 1 REF: 54 NOT: F 62. The authors suggest that the United States fulfills the model quite well. a. authoritarian b. majoritarian c. totalitarian d. pluralist e. egalitarian D PTS: 1 REF: 56 NOT: F ESSAY 1. Describe the debate between Republicans and Democrats over the Obama administration s $787 billion stimulus plan and how various industries viewed the stimulus bill as an opportunity.

14 PTS: 1 REF: Explain why the ancient Greeks were afraid of democracy. PTS: 1 REF: Identify the three questions that are addressed by procedural democratic theory. PTS: 1 REF: Explain the difference between majority rule and plurality rule. PTS: 1 REF: Describe some prominent examples of participatory democracy in both ancient and more recent history. PTS: 1 REF: Identify some of the major arguments for representative democracy (as opposed to participatory democracy). PTS: 1 REF: Identify and explain the four principles of procedural democracy. PTS: 1 REF: Explain the reasons majoritarian theorists see elections as more than mere mechanisms for selecting candidates?

15 PTS: 1 REF: Explain the pluralist model of democracy. PTS: 1 REF: Explain how Robert Putnam's research is related to the pluralist model of democracy. PTS: 1 REF: Explain what the pluralist model of democracy demands of citizens? PTS: 1 REF: Summarize the findings of political scientists who have researched the validity of elite theory, and the response of elite theorists to such findings. PTS: 1 REF: Explain the key difference between elite and pluralist theory. PTS: 1 REF: Discuss why democratization can be difficult to achieve in different parts of the world, and why there is a strong relationship between economic prosperity and democracy. PTS: 1 REF: 52-54

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