DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

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1 DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Aleksandra Jaskólska, -Tuesday, , r Wednesday, , r. 400

2 Cooperation of Developing countries. Circumstances and factors concerning the creation of cooperation between developing countries. Non-alignment Movement in 90s. New form of cooperation following the end the cold war - IBSA Forum, G-4, G-20. Common Identity of Developing Countries? Constraints of cooperation of Developing countries. New regionalism in developing countries (Africa, Asia, Latin America): ASEAN, MERCOSUR, Africa Union; subregional organizations.

3 Non-alignment Movement IBSA Forum BRIC/S Forum G-4 G-20 G-77 Africa Union ASEAN SAARC APEC

4 A WORLD OF REGIONS Regional multilateralism worldwide: regional organizations and regional trading blocs African Union (AU) = 54 member states Shanghai Cooperation Organisation = 6 member states

5 NAM

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7 IBSA June 2003, Yashwant Sinha (External affairs minister of India), Celso Amorim (Foreign minister of Brazil) and Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma (Foreign minister of South Africa) met in Brasilia IBSA Dialogue forum was formalized - "Brasilia Declaration last summit 2011 in South Africa

8 BRIC/S by chairman of Goldman Sachs Asset Management, Jim O'Neill (Building Better Global Economic BRICs.) foreign ministers met in New York City in September 2006 at the margins of the General Debate of the UN General Assembly first formal summit - in Yekaterinburg, 16 June 2009 (Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Dmitry Medvedev, Manmohan Singh and Hu Jintao) South Africa officially became a member nation on 24 December 2010 BRICS April 2011, Jacob Zuma, attended the 2011 BRICS summit in China, as a full member

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10 G -7/20/77 G7/8 - group consisting of the finance ministers and central bank governors of seven major advanced economies ms/g7_g8_g20/index_en.htm 1999/ group was founded "Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries" issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development first major meeting was in Algiers in 1967, Charter of Algiers was adopted ( G-24 is a chapter of the G-77 that was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues (

11 G7

12 AFRICA UNION Organization of African Unity ( )

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14 MERCOSUR/MERCOSUL full members are Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela associate countries are Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador and Suriname observer countries are New Zealand and Mexico Mercosur was established in 1991 by the Treaty of Asunción, which was later amended and updated by the 1994 Treaty of Ouro Preto

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16 REGIONAL MULTILATERALISM IN SOUTH ASIA THE SOUTH ASIAN ASSOCIATION FOR REGIONAL COOPERATION (SAARC) Original initiative: Bangladesh in 1978 Original vision: extensive regional multilateralism along the lines of EC (EU) Negotiation stages: Eventually founded in 1985 Members: first 7, now 8 SAARC Headquarters; SAARC Secretary General 8 Observer countries: Australia, China, European Union, Japan, Iran, Mauritius, Myanmar, South Korea, United States Evolutionary stages: Summits and Conventions 18 Summits until 2015

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18 REGIONAL MULTILATERALISM IN SOUTH ASIA THE SOUTH ASIAN ASSOCIATION FOR REGIONAL COOPERATION (SAARC) SAARC Achievements: SAARC Headquarters; Secretary-General Summits and Conventions/Agreements SAARC identity through SAARC Centers (ASEAN identity?) Non-institutionalization / diminished multilateralism Educational relevance Economic relevance Political relevance 18

19 REGIONAL MULTILATERALISM BEYOND SOUTH ASIA INDIAN OCEAN RIM ASSOCATION [IORA] Initiative: Australia and South Africa Founded: 1997 Original vision: extensive regional multilateralism, security and politics Member Countries: 20 Dialogue Partners: 6 Priority sectors: Maritime Security, Trade & Investment Facilitation, Fisheries Management, Disaster Risk Management, Science & Technology & Academic Cooperation and Tourism Headquarters and Secretary-General 13 Council of Minister (CoM) Meetings until 2015 No summits Pakistan rejected

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21 REGIONAL MULTILATERALISM BEYOND SOUTH ASIA INDIAN OCEAN RIM ASSOCATION FOR REGIONAL COOPERATION [IOR-ARC] The organization itself is lean to the point of emaciation, with just a half-dozen staff (including the gardener). Shashi Tharoor, 2009 Pilot mechanism in Mauritius Secretariat with Secretary-General Tripartite governance system of APEC Australia no longer an active member Name change in 2104 Panchsheel-principles incorporated, noninstitutionalization

22 REGIONAL MULTILATERALISM BEYOND SOUTH ASIA: BAY OF BENGAL INITIATIVE FOR MULTI-SECTORAL [BIMST-EC] Negotiating stages: Initiator: Thailand Original vision: political and economic community Founded: 1997 (Bangkok Declaration) Since September 2014: permanent secretariat in Dhaka 3 Summits 14 priority sectors BIMST-EC FTA planned Non-institutionalization

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24 REGIONAL MULTILATERALISM BEYOND SOUTH ASIA MEKONG GANGA COOPERATION (INITIATIVE) [MGC]

25 REGIONAL MULTILATERALISM BEYOND SOUTH ASIA MEKONG GANGA COOPERATION (INITIATIVE) [MGC] Initiated by Thailand Original vision extensive regional cooperation Eventually founded in 2000 Vientiane Declaration 6 Members No logo Meetings: on the margins of ASEAN Summits Only 6 Ministerial meetings until December 2012 Geostrategic relevance Economic relevance

26 Regional Inter-governmental Organization 10 members 4.5million sq kms 570million people (growth1.5%)

27 OVERVIEW 8 August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) Founding Fathers of ASEAN: 5 Foreign Ministers - Adam Malik (Indonesia), Narciso R. Ramos ( Philippines), Tun Abdul Razak (Malaysia), S. Rajaratnam (Singapore) and Thanat Khoman (Thailand)

28 BANGKOK DECLARATION cooperation in the economic, social, cultural, technical, educational and other fields, promotion of regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law and adherence to the principles of the UN Charter. representing the collective will of the nations of Southeast Asia to bind themselves together in friendship and cooperation joint efforts and sacrifices, secure for their peoples and for posterity the blessings of peace, freedom and prosperity

29 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Feb Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC) : Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity, and national identity of all nations The rights of every state to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion, and coercion Non-interference in the internal affairs of one another Settlement of differences or disputes by peaceful manner Renunciation of the threat or use of force; and Effective cooperation among themselves.

30 ASEAN CHARTER Ratified by 10 ASEAN member states Came into force: 15 Dec 2008, Jakarta Gives legal personality to ASEAN Clarifies common objectives and principles Defines structure, Mechanisms, Operations

31 ASEAN: STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT First 10 years ( ): establishment, solidarity, dialogue partners The next 20 years: ( ): expansion - Brunei (1984); Vietnam (1995); Lao PDR and Myanmar (1997); and Cambodia (1999) The next 10 years: ( ): vision, formalization The next 7 years: ( ): Community building

32 ASEAN COMMUNITY ASEAN Political-Security Community peaceful processes in the settlement of intra-regional differences and it has the following components: political development, shaping and sharing of norms, conflict prevention, conflict resolution, post-conflict peace building, and implementing mechanisms ASEAN Economic Community - creating a stable, prosperous and highly competitive ASEAN economic region in which there is a free flow of goods, services, investment and a freer flow of capital, equitable economic development and reduced poverty and socio-economic disparities in year 2020; ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community - envisages a community of caring societies and founded on a common regional identity, with cooperation focused on social development aimed at raising the standard of living of disadvantaged groups and the rural population, and shall seek the active involvement of all sectors of society, in particular women, youth, and local communities

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34 ASEAN Plus Three is a meeting between ASEAN, China, Japan, and South Korea, and is primarily held during each ASEAN Summit Asia Europe Meeting (ASEM) is an informal dialogue process initiated in 1996 with the intention of strengthening co-operation between the countries of Europe and Asia, especially members of the EU and ASEAN Asia-Europe Foundation (ASEF), a sociocultural organisation associated with the meeting The ASEAN Russia Summit is an annual meeting between leaders of member states and the President of Russia

35 Introducing APEC Copyright 2013 APEC Secretariat

36 APEC was established in 1989 with the objective of promoting trade, investment and cooperation in the Asia-Pacific. The ultimate objective of course is to achieve prosperity for the region. When APEC was established, free trade was not the dominant discourse it is today. But several trends such as advances in information and communications technologies and the shift in geopolitical heft from the mid-atlantic to the mid-pacific were bringing economies in the Asia-Pacific closer together. Together, these forces of globalisation promoted increased cooperation at the official level between the economies of the world s fastest growing region. Copyright 2013 APEC Secretariat

37 APEC Member Economies APEC Official Observers Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Secretariat Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) Copyright 2013 APEC Secretariat

38 APEC s Mission Statement APEC is the premier Asia-Pacific economic forum. Our primary goal is to support sustainable economic growth and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region. We are united in our drive to build a dynamic and harmonious Asia-Pacific community by championing free and open trade and investment, promoting and accelerating regional economic integration, encouraging economic and technical cooperation, enhancing human security, and facilitating a favorable and sustainable business environment. Our initiatives turn policy goals into concrete results and agreements into tangible benefits. Copyright 2013 APEC Secretariat

39 APEC s Development Ministerial level dialogue 1993 First APEC Economic Leaders Meeting 1994 Bogor Goals of free and open trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific by 2010 for industrialised economies by 2020 for developing economies Copyright 2013 APEC Secretariat

40 9. US, EU, Russia, Japan international strategies towards developing countries. The activity of the US, EU, Russia and Japan in the Developing Countries circumstances and factors. The new US, EU, Japan and Russia approach to the developing countries since The role of the US, EU and Japan in the developing countries an assessment and comparative analysis.

41 US: EU: Russia: Japan:

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45 THANK YOU

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