172 Index. CACM. See Central American

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1 Index ALADI. See Latin American Integration A~sociation (LAIA) Andean Community (AC), 4,5,7, 11-28,56,66,95,126,143,167 Barahona Act, 22, 24 customs union, 22, 24 Free Trade Area (FTA), 11 common external tariff, "managed trade" agreements, 23 membership, 4 Ministerial Commission, 22, 25 regional trade patterns, 12 trade negociations, trade policies, Andean Group. See Andean Community (AC) Argentina, 39,41,43,44,45,55,56, 140, 144, 154, 160, 164, 166 central bank, 80 foreign reserves, 80 macroeconomic stability 1990's crises, 81 monetary policy, 80 quasi-currency-board arrangement, 80 ASEAN. See Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA), 3, 103, , 116, 125, ,143, 147 Closer Economic Relations (CER), 135 Common Economic Preferential Tariff (CEPT), 107 Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), 3-5,30-37,99-100, 103, 106, 116, 138, APEC Eminent Persons Group, 145 APEC Heads of Government meeting, 116 Asia-Pacific approach, 145. See also Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC): economic and technical cooperation (Ecotec): Concerted Unilateral Liberalization (CUL) Early Voluntary Sectoral Liberalization (EVSL), 6,33-35, 127, 146 Economic and Technical Cooperation (Ecotec), 5,8,30, 32-33, 146 Concerted Unilateral Liberalization (CUL), 30,31-32, 127, 146 financial cooperation, 36 Executives' Meeting of East Asia and Pacific Central Banks (EMEAP), 36 Finance Ministers' Meeting (FMM), 36 Manila framework, 36 Information Technology Agreement (ITA), 6,33, 146 liberalization policies Bogor Declaration, 30, 139, 144, 146 Collective Action Plans (CAP), 31 Individual Action Plans (laps), 30,31,146 Manila Action Plans for APEC (MAPA), 30,127,146 Osaka Action Agenda (OAA), 30,32,33, 126, 145, 146 Pacific Basin Economic Council (PBEC), 144, 167 Pacific Business Forum (PBF),

2 172 Index Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference (PECC), 36, 144, 167 Trade and Investment Liberalization and Facilitation (TILF), 6, 30, 31 two-track approach, 5 voluntary approach, 5 Asia-Pacific region, 14,115 trade with Latin America, 128 non-tariff barriers (NTBs), A<;ian Development Bank, 33 Greater Mekong Sub-region Project, 33 Asian-Latin America Forum (ASLAF), 129 Association of South East A<;ian Nations (ASEAN), 69, ,116,125, 130, 134, 151, 167 ASEAN Investment Area program, 108 exports to other Asian countries, 142 Australasia, 3, 135 Australia, 20, 140, 160 Baht zone, 143 Bismarck, 41 Bogor Declaration. See Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC): liberalization policies: Bogor Declaration Bolivia, 16,22,66, 140 Brazil, 39,41,44,45,55,56-57,58, 140, 144, 153, 164, 166 monetary policy, 80 foreign reserves, moving target-zone regime, sterilization policy, Real Plan, 56, 72, 83 CACM. See Central American Common Market (CACM) Cambodia, 140 Canada, 3,42, 141 Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI), 155, 163 Caribbean Common Market (CARICOM), 91, 126, 143 CARl COM. See Caribbean Common Market (CARICOM) Central America, 143, 155 Central American Common Market (CACM), 21, 126, 143 CER. See A<;ean Free Trade Area (AFTA): Closer Economic Relations (CER) Chile, 42,43,45,47,55,56,57,58, 140, 153, 154, 160, 161, 164, 165, 167 European Union (EU), 65 exports to Argentina, 62 exports to Mercosur, 62 foreign investment decree law (Decreto Ley 600), 65 free trade agreement between Chile and Mercosur, 63 free trade agreement with NAFT A, Mercosur, military government, 59 trade policy reform, 59 reciprocal liberalization, 60 unilateral trade liberalization, 60 trading partners, 62 China, 55,57,68, , 130, 140, 146, 151, 160 central planning, 111 economic development, Coastal Areas Development Strategy, 113 FDI in Latin AMerica, 164 liberalization policies, , banking and finance sector, 121 export-expansion, import-substitution, 114

3 Index 173 region-hy-region and stepwise opening, 114 special economic zones, 120 Chinese Taipei. See Taiwan Colomhia, 16,20,24,95, 140, 160, 167 Common Economic Preferential Tariff (CEPT). See Asean Free Trade Area (AFT A): Common Economic Preferential Tariff (CEPT) Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD), 154 Compania Manufacturera de Papeles y Cartones (CMPC), 153 Czech Republic, 95 Development, 8-9,44-51 development models, 40-41, accumulation strategy, import substitution industrialization model, regulatory institutional framework, technological modernization, developmental affinities, See also regional integration: developmental affinities East Asia, 147 intra-regional trade, market-led regional integration, 152 Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), 43 economic globalization. See globalization economic liberalization, Ecuador, 22,95, 140, 160 European Free Trade Association (EFTA), 68 European Union (EU), 3-5, 14,56, 60,62,68,91,95,98,108 European Monetary System (EMS), 69, 79 Maastricht Treaty, 87, Promotion of the European Community Investment Partners, 169 regional funds, 5 trade with Chile, 66 EVSL. See Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC): Early Voluntary Sectoral Liberalization Export Processing Zones (EPZ), 149, 152 FDI. See Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) "flying wild geese", 127, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), China, 113 Malaysia, 104 France, 40, 58, 79, 95 Third Republic ( ), 40 Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), 3,7,12,28,58,96, 116,126,139, , , 166 Free Trade Zones (FTZ), 149, 152 FTAA. See Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) Fujian Province, 120 G3 countries, 140, 167 Garibaldi, 41 General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT), 42, 131 article 24, 125, Malaysia, 105 most-favored-nation (MFN) principle, 132 Uruguay Round, 99, 103, 132, 139, 145, 165 Trade-Related Investment Measures Agreement

4 174 Index (TRIM), 105 General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), 105 Germany, 58, 79, 95 globalization, 96-97, , Hainan, 120 High Performing Asian Economies (HPAES), 150 Hong Kong, 113,120,140,163 import substitution policies. See also Development: development models: import substitution industrialization model China, 114 Malaysia, 103 Indonesia, 86, 134, 142, 160 Italy, 41 Japan, 3,20,35,41,68, 130, 140, 160, 163 Korea, 155 Kuwayama, Mikio, 43 tala. See Latin American Integration Association (lala) Laos, 107, 120, 140 Latin America, 3,39, 127, 158 developement, labor force, intra-regional trade, 143 privatization, 154 trade with Asia-Pacific, 128 non-traditional exports, 154 Latin American Free Trade Association (lafta), 142 Latin American Integration A~sociation (lala), 60, 126, , 142, 143 intra-regional FDI, market access, non-tariff barriers (NTBs), trade with Asia-Pacific, 158 macroeconomic convergence. See Southern Common Market (Mercosur): macroeconomic coordination Malaysia, 33,41,55,57,86, 134, 142 AFTA, APEC, 106 development strategies, Kuala Lumpur Action Program on Skill Development, 33 Second Industrial Master Plan, 104 Seventh Development Plan, 104 GATT, 105 automotive sector, 105 Textile Agreement, 105 import substitution policies, 103 "Look East" policy, 152 Multimedia Super Corridor project, 104 maquila, 163. See also Mexico: maquila market-led integration, 127, , See also Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Marrakesh Declaration. See General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT): Uruguay Round Meiji, 41 Mercosur. See Southern Common Market (Mercosur) Mexican crisis, 82, Mexico,S, 38, 39, 41, 43, 44, 45, 96, 140, 153, 154, 155, 167 maquila, 7,38,47, 155 MIT (Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand) effect, 75 modes of domination. See State forms monetary policy, 80 Myanmar, 107 new regionalism. See open regionalism

5 Index 175 New Zealand, 20,140, 160 China, Newly Industrialized Economies developmental affinities (NIEs), 16,69, 113, 140, 151 ideology, 91 intra-regional trade, 142 regional integration agreements non-tariff barriers (NTBs), 164, 168 (RIAs). See herein regional North American Free Trade Area integration (NAFTA), 3, 14,38,42,58,60, regionalism, ,96,99,133, ,140- Rosenstein-Rodan, , , rule-based integration, agricultural goods, 46 Russia, 30, 68 inter-regional trade, 151 occupational structure, 47. See also Latin America: developement: labor force Oceania, 158 One Country, Two Systems policy, 120. See also China: liberalization policies open regionalism, , 106, 125, 145, 166. See also Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) WTO, outward-oriented growth, 62 Papua New Guinea, 140 Paraguay, 144 Pearl River Delta, 120 pension funds, 43 Peru, 14-16,20,30,43, 140, 154, 160, 164, 167 Philippines, 142, 160 Plaza Accord, 152 Poland, 95 preferential trade agreements (PTAs), 27-28,98-99 Privatization, 43 Promotion of the European Community Investment Par, 169 PTAs. See preferential trade agreements (PTAs) Real Plan. See Brazil: Real Plan regional blocs, regional integration, 91-92, Shantou, 120 Shenzhen, 120 Singapore, 41,113,140,163 small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs), Smith, Adam, 93 South African Development Coordination Conference, 135 South China Economic Area, 120 South Korea, 41,98, 113, 130, 140, 160 FDI in Latin America, 163 Southern Common Market (Mercosur), 21,25,42,56--57, 58,62,69-87,91,95,126,128, 135, 140, 144, , 167 automotive industry, 154 Central Banks, 73 Chile, free trade agreement between Chile and Mercosur, common currency, exchange rates, 73,75-79 exchange-rate-based stabilization programs (ERBSP), 75, 86 macroeconomic coordination, stabilization processes, Treaty of Asuncion, 25 Soviet Union, 68 "spaghetti bowl" effect, 98 state forms, Taiwan, 41,113,140,155,163

6 176 Index tariff escalation, 60, 162, 168 Techint Group, 153 tequila effect, 75, 84. See also Mexican crisis Thailand, 86, 120, 142 Tong, Goh Chok, 129 Total Factor Productivity (TFP), 150 Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Right (TRIP), 139 Trade-Related Investment Measures Agreement (TRIM), 105, 129, 139, 168 Turkey, 95, 134 United States, 3,62,68, 141, 166 Generalized System of Preferences, 64. See also Chile: free trade agreement with NAFTA Uruguay, 144, 160 Uruguay Round. See General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT): Uruguay Round Venezuela, 16,20,24,95, 140 Vietnam, 30, 107, 140, 151 World Bank, 98, 150 World Trade Organization (WTO), 27,34,42,57,99, 115, 129, 131, 168 China, 115 Most Favored Nation (MFN) treatment, regional groupings, 133 WTO Millennium Round, 6 World War II, 95 WTO. See World Trade Organization Xiamen, 120 Yellow Sea economic area, 143 Zhuhai, 120

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