Gender segregation in education, training and the labour market:

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1 Gender segregation in education, training and the labour market: Emerging findings from the Beijing Platform for Action report dr. Lina Salanauskaite, European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) STEM Gender Equality Congress European Parliament, March 8-9

2 QUICK BACKGROUND

3 EU28 NL* ES IE PL UK** BE FR DK IT** CY LU SK LV LT BG HU PT FI CZ SE AT SI MT DE EE HR RO EL STEM: share of graduates 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics Information and Communication Technologies Engineering, manufacturing and construction Engineering, manufacturing and construction with 20% of all graduates is the largest study field of STEM disciplines.

4 EU27 GR IE CY ES BE LV LU LT HR BG UK IT RO NL PT PL FR HU DK SI SK AT SE EE FI DE CZ Main STEM occupations Science and engineering (associate) professionals refer to the largest STEM occupation type - in 23 EU countries, from 22% to 45% of all STEM employees 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Stationary plant and machine operators Metal, machinery and related trades workers ICT technicians ICT professionals Electrical and electronics trades workers Building and related trades workers Science and engineering associate professionals Science and engineering professionals In RO and HU metal, machinery and related trades workers is the largest occupation; in Bulgaria stationary plant and machine workers; in Cyprus building and related workers.

5 Rising demand, major shortages Demand for STEM professionals and associate professionals is expected to grow by around 8% by 2025, much higher than the average 3% growth forecast for all occupations (Cedefop) Major skills shortages of STEM and ICT professionals are already observed across all EU countries and expected to exacerbate with future demographic developments (i.e. large retiring foreseen) In spite of a series of measures, women participation in STEM studies, in particular in engineering, remains low in most Member States An insufficient supply of STEM skills and a low participation rate of women in STEM studies are perceived as barriers, which could impede a job rich recovery and growth of economy

6 EIGE s report MONITORING BEIJING PLATFORM FOR ACTION (BPFA)

7 Beijing Platform for Action To support better informed policy-making at EU and Member State levels, EIGE provides support to the Presidencies of the Council of the EU. EIGE s reports assess progress in gender equality in the critical areas of concern of the BPfA chosen by the Presidencies. Gender segregation in education, training and the labour market the topic chosen by the forthcoming Estonian Presidency of the Council.

8 BPfA areas of concern B. Education and Training of Women F. Women and the economy K. Women and the environment Current BPfA Indicators Proportion of female graduates and male graduates of all graduates in mathematics, the sciences and technical disciplines (tertiary education); Proportion of female/male ISCED 5a-graduates of all ISCED 5a-graduates and proportion of female/male PhD graduates of all PhD graduates by broad field of study and total Proportion of women and men among tertiary graduates of all graduates (ISCED levels 5 and 6) in natural sciences and technologies at the EU and Member State level Gender segregation: gender pay gap L. The girl child Proportion of girl students in tertiary education in the field of science, mathematics and computing and in the field of teacher training and education science 15-year-old girls and boys: performance in mathematics & science

9 Rationale Gender segregation in education and training labour market stratification results in: supporting gender stereotypes; narrowing life-choices and employment options; gender pay gap, etc. A causal link. Addressing: participation of women in STEM; participation of men in education, health and welfare (EWH). Policy context: a need of active intervention guided by evidence.

10 EMERGING FINDINGS: STEM

11 FI CY BG MT LV EL LT RO SI SE SK UK FR HU EE NL HR DK PL ES LU CZ PT DE IE BE IT AT Achievements: science and mathematics Gender difference in 15 year olds mean achievement in science and mathematics: Science Math Source: OECD PISA

12 EU28 NL BE SI LU SK IT AT PL CZ HU DE PT FI MT FR LT ES LV UK IE DK HR EE SE EL RO CY BG Women s share in STEM % 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics Information and Communication Technologies Engineering, manufacturing and construction Source: Eurostat, UOE data collection on education: educ_uoe_grad02

13 Changes over time Progress stalled or eroding: 2004 to 2014

14 IT UK NL IE BE AT ES DE FI FR MT LU LT HU SI HR LV SE CZ DK SK EL BG CY PT PL EE RO Segregation by education level Gender segregation in STEM is much worse within vocational education than within tertiary education level ( ); About 55% of all students are enrolled in vocational education programmes. 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% tertiary education vocational education

15 Graduates working in STEM field No smooth transition to the labour market, especially for women with vocational education level 60% 46% 36% 22% 48% 49% 50% 50% 48% 48% 47% 47% 46% 38% 40% 40% 41% 40% 39% 39% 39% 38% 24% 24% 26% 26% 25% 26% 26% 27% 24% 50% 41% 30% 8% 11% 12% 12% 13% 12% 11% 10% 10% 10% 10% 0% STEM women, tertiary STEM men, tertiary STEM women, vocational STEM men, vocational

16 If leaving STEM: occupations of STEM graduates EU, 2014 Tertiary Vocational women men women men Teaching professionals 21% 12% Business and administration professionals 11% 11% Business and administration associate professionals 10% 10% 4% 4% Production and specialized services managers 5% 13% Sales workers 7% 4% 20% 7% Food Processing, Woodworking, Garment and Other Craft and Related Trades Workers 11% 10% Personal Services Workers 10% Drivers and Mobile Plant Operators 3% 15% Labourers in Mining, Construction, 4% 10% Manufacturing and Transport

17 BG PT LT EE HR RO LV SI HU FR SE FI IE DK GR EU27* ES BE CZ DE UK SK IT PL CY LU AT NL Share of women in STEM occupations 30% % 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Share of women in STEM occupations Essentially progress recorded since 2004 with 1 p.p. at the EU level.

18 Share of women employed in ICT,

19 SELECTED INFLUENCES

20 Barriers to the participation of women in STEM Stereotypes, social norms and cultural practices Negative image of STEM Welfare policies STEM fields not considered as family-friendly Family background and the absence of women role models Male dominated culture Biased recruitment, appraisal and promotion procedures Limited access to networks, information, funding or institutional support, biased research evaluation procedures, low recognition in the field

21 Share of women graduating in STEM, % Design of education systems matters BG RO EE IE HR FI IT PT MT ES AT CZ EL UK DE HU FR LV LU DK PL BE SI SK LT SE NL CY Age of pupils at the first placement into different educational tracks

22 Share of women in STEM Share of men in EHW Structure and size of labour markets 40% 40% 35% y = x R² = % y = x R² = % 30% 25% 25% 20% 20% 15% 15% 10% 10% 5% Size of EHW employment 5% Size of STEM employment

23 Effect of narrowing the gender gap in STEM on GDP per capita 5.0% 4.0% 3.0% Improvement in GDP per capita by 0.7 to 0.9% Improvement in GDP by 130 to 180 billion Improvement in GDP per capita by 2.2 to 3.0% Improvement in GDP by 610 to 820 billion 2.0% 1.0% 0.0% Rapid improvement in gender equality Slow improvement in gender equality

24 Effect of narrowing the gender gap in STEM on employment

25 Conclusions Gender segregation in education and the labour market is associated with creating and perpetuating gender inequalities in and beyond the labour market Segregation narrows employment choices and reinforces gender stereotypes The objective of gender equality policy should not necessarily be a homogenisation of the labour market by gender, although gendered roles shall be equally valued and remunerated

26 Conclusions Gender inequalities are dragging down women s economic opportunities and affecting the entire EU economy Leading to shortfall in terms of achieving inclusive and sustainable growth To reach the goal of smart, sustainable and inclusive economic growth, the EU must improve existing and introduce further gender equality measures

27 Thank you! Gedimino pr. 16, LT Vilnius, Lithuania

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