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1 This document is designed to assist educators in interpreting Louisiana s 2011 social studies standards. It contains the prioritized content and concepts aligned to GLEs for each unit. The intent of this document is to clarify the essential content and concepts, allowing teachers more flexibility to focus on the three shifts prescribed in the social studies vision: 1. Use sources to learn content. 2. Make connections among people, events, and ideas across time and place. 3. Express informed claims supported by evidence from sources and outside knowledge. As a general caution, this companion document should not be used as a checklist. Teachers should not approach a unit by teaching each piece of prioritized content from the companion document in the order it is presented. The companion documents describe the range of content for a given GLE in each unit, but they do not reflect the sequence in which or method by which content should be taught. The content presented in the companion document is organized by standard and not integrated (as standards should be taught). If not taught in an integrated way, it is unlikely students will master course content or be prepared for the next course of study. Instead, the companion documents should be used alongside the instructional tasks in the Updated Social Studies Scope and Sequences or the curriculum adopted by the school. Companion documents should be used as a reference guide to ensure prioritized content is being adequately covered within a unit and to guide supplementation from current teaching resources. This companion document is considered a living document, as we believe that teachers and other educators will find ways to improve the document as they use it. Please send feedback to so that we may use your input when updating this guide.

2 How to Read Guide The diagram below provides an overview of the information found in all units. 2

3 Priority Content and Concepts: Represents the content and concepts that should be taught for each GLE, aligned with assessment parameters. The priority content and concepts are organized by GLE not sequentially. The Updated Social Studies Scope and Sequences, or other classroom curriculum, should be used as a guide for sequencing content. Key Connections: Represent the important connections students should be making within the content and across units. Making connections among people, events, and ideas across time and place is one of the social studies shifts, and the purpose of including sample connections in this document is to help students and teachers implement this shift. The key connections are not an exhaustive list, but rather serve as a guide for the type of deeper understandings students should be forming. Essential and Ancillary Content: Content is grouped into two categories, essential and ancillary. Essential content represents the most important concepts to be taught in each unit to further connections and understandings of the main ideas in each social studies course. Teachers should spend the majority of their time teaching the essential content. Ancillary content includes skills that are used in support of main ideas (such as map skills which are necessary to interpret and analyze maps), review content within a unit (some GLEs may be essential in some units and ancillary in others), and historical thinking skills (which should be practiced every unit). Ancillary content should not be cut from instruction because, without it, students will not be prepared for their next course of study. The essential and ancillary content distinction can be used to help teachers prioritize how much time to spend on different concepts. A note on teaching the historical thinking skills standards: There are many acceptable options for teaching historical thinking skills. The content provided in the companion documents aligned to historical thinking skills is purposefully broad. Teachers may make adjustments to how historical thinking skills are taught to fit the needs of their classroom. While historical thinking skills are categorized as ancillary content, it is critical that teachers teach the prioritized content in each unit through the historical thinking skills standards. 3

4 Unit One: Road to Independence Topic One: Rising Tension with Britain Topic Two: A Crisis in the Colonies Topic Three: The Revolutionary War Key Connections Government policies prompted political, social, and economic change. Ideas, people, and events have shaped national identity. Grade-Level Expectations (GLEs) Priority Content and Concepts Analyze the causes and effects of key events and ideas in the development of the United States Analyze the causes and effects of the Revolutionary War. ESSENTIAL CONTENT Identify and describe the impact of key events, ideas, and people that led to the American Revolution Describe the outcome of the French and Indian War and its effect on relations between Britain and the colonies leading up to the Revolutionary War. Analyze the causes and consequences of British attempts to assert greater control over the colonies (Proclamation of 1763, regulations of colonial trade, taxation, Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Quartering Act, Declaratory Act, Townshend Acts, Tea Act, Intolerable Acts). Analyze colonists reactions to Britain s actions, including those by groups like the Sons of Liberty and Boston Patriots, and effects of the reactions on relations between Britain and the colonies (Stamp Act Congress, petitions, boycotts, Boston Tea Party, First Continental Congress). Explain the causes and effects of the Boston Massacre. Explain the use of propaganda, including Common Sense, by the colonists and how it contributed to the Revolutionary War. Compare and contrast viewpoints of Loyalists and Patriots, and evaluate their arguments for or against independence from Britain. Analyze how the decision to break away from Britain was influenced by Enlightenment ideas and the ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence Analyze important turning points and major developments of the American Revolution Explain the role and importance of George Washington and his leadership of the Continental Army, including his strategy to win the Revolutionary War. 4

5 7.2.3 Evaluate the development of the United States government from the First Continental Congress through the ratification of the United States Constitution Analyze historical maps, charts, and graphs of the United States from Examine how key legislation and court decisions influenced the course of United States history from Analyze the significance and outcome of key battles and turning points during the American Revolution (Battles of Lexington and Concord, Battles of Trenton and Princeton, Valley Forge, Battle of Saratoga and the alliance with France, Battle of Yorktown). Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the British and Americans in the Revolutionary War. Explain the events that led to British surrender at Yorktown and the terms of the Treaty of Paris of Explain how the Revolutionary War affected women, Native Americans, and African Americans, and explain the contributions of each group to the war. Discuss the reasons for forming the First Continental Congress and Second Continental Congress, and describe the actions and accomplishments of each (boycott of British goods, creation of Continental Army, Olive Branch Petition, Declaration of Independence). Explain how the Continental Congresses affected the relationship between the colonists and Britain. Analyze how the formation of the U.S. government was influenced by ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence. Explain how geography affected events leading to and during the Revolutionary War (distance, knowledge of the climate and terrain). Use charts and graphs to answer questions about the political, social, and economic effects of the Revolutionary War (casualties, trade disruptions, inflation). Discuss how British acts influenced events leading up to the Revolutionary War (Proclamation of 1763, Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Quartering Act, Declaratory Act, Townshend Acts, Tea Act, Intolerable Acts). ANCILLARY Produce clear and coherent writing for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences by completing the following tasks: Conducting historical research Evaluating a broad variety of primary and secondary sources Comparing and contrasting varied points of view Opportunities for addressing GLE in Unit 1: Conduct research on the events leading up to the Revolutionary War. Read and analyze excerpts from primary sources to answer questions about the Revolutionary War. Compare and contrast the views of Loyalists and Patriots. Explain the significance of words and phrases such as no taxation without representation, all men are created equal, inalienable rights, and consent of the governed. Make a claim about the extent to which society changed as a result of independence from Britain. 5

6 Determining the meaning of words and phrases from historical texts Using technology to research, produce, or publish a written product Explain patterns and recurring themes in United States history Opportunities for addressing GLE in Unit 1: Explain how the Revolutionary War shaped American identity Interpret and construct timelines of key events, people and ideas Interpret and/or construct a timeline of key events to answer questions about the Revolutionary period (French and Indian War, Treaty of Paris of 1763, Proclamation of 1763, British acts, Stamp Act Congress, Boston Massacre, Boston Tea Party, First Continental Congress, Second Continental Congress, Declaration of Independence, Common Sense, major battles, turning points, Treaty of Paris of 1783) Analyze primary and secondary sources to answer questions related to United States history Opportunities for addressing GLE in Unit 1: Analyze colonial propaganda and evaluate its impact. Read and analyze excerpts from primary sources such as Common Sense by Thomas Paine, John Dickinson s speech arguing against the independence of the colonies, and the Declaration of Independence to answer questions about the ideas and events leading to the American Revolution. Read and analyze excerpts from primary sources, such as Commander Washington s General Orders 1775 and articles of the Treaty of Paris 1783, to answer questions about the outcome of the American Revolution Analyze the physical and political features of the United States Create maps, charts, and graphs of the United States from Explain how physical features have influenced political boundaries in North America. Examine political boundaries in North America from , and explain reasons for changing boundaries. Create maps, charts, and graphs about key ideas and events related to the Revolutionary War Compare and contrast political divisions of the world from Compare and contrast political divisions of the world from

7 7.9.2 Explain various ways nations interact and the impact of these interactions from Describe the influences on and the development and expansion of individual rights and freedoms Social Studies Companion Document Describe key terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1763, and explain its geographic, economic, and social effects. Explain how key terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1783 affected relations between the United States and other countries. Analyze the extent to which individual rights and freedoms changed as a result of American independence. 7

8 Unit Two: Governing the Nation Topic One: Articles of Confederation Topic Two: Creating the Constitution Topic Three: The Federal System Key Connections: Historical ideas, people, and events contributed to the development of the U.S. government. Division and compromise influenced the formation of the U.S. government. Ideas, people, and events have shaped national identity. Grade-Level Expectations (GLEs) Priority Content and Concepts Analyze the causes and effects of key events and ideas in the development of the United States Explain the causes and effects of problems facing the United States after the Revolutionary War and how they affected the development of the U.S. government. Explain the causes and effects of Shays Rebellion and its influence on the Constitutional Convention. ESSENTIAL CONTENT Evaluate the development of the United States government from the First Continental Congress through the ratification of the United States Constitution Explain the key characteristics of the Articles of Confederation (federal and state powers, federal government structure). Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, including effectiveness/ineffectiveness in addressing the issues facing the new nation. Analyze motivations for the creation of a stronger national government, including Shays Rebellion. Compare and contrast views on government held by the Founding Fathers. Describe the divisive issues at the Constitutional Convention, explain the compromises, both proposed and reached (differences in representation between Articles of Confederation and Constitution, New Jersey Plan, Virginia Plan, Great Compromise, Three-Fifths Compromise), and analyze whether compromises reflected the aspirational ideals of the U.S. Constitution. Explain the arguments of Federalists and Anti-Federalists and how they influenced the development of the U.S. government Evaluate the major purposes of government according to the Preamble to the Constitution of the United States Describe the purposes of government as outlined in the Preamble to the Constitution of the United States. Analyze how the Preamble reflects the ideals of the Declaration of Independence. 8

9 7.8.3 Explain how key ideas expressed in historical documents influenced the formation of U.S. government Evaluate the principles of government embodied in the United States Constitution Discuss how ideas about representative/constitutional government influenced the Founding Fathers and the formation of the U.S. government (ancient Greece and Rome, England, Enlightenment). Explain how ideas expressed by the Founding Fathers influenced the development of the U.S. government (letters, Common Sense, Declaration of Independence, Federalist Papers). Evaluate the principles of government in the Constitution (separation of powers, checks and balances, federalism, republicanism, limited government, popular sovereignty, individual rights) Describe the structure and powers of the three branches of the federal government Describe the structure and powers of the three branches of the federal government as outlined in the U.S. Constitution, and explain how the establishment of three branches addressed concerns about government under the Articles of Confederation. Describe the enumerated, concurrent, and reserved powers that the U.S. Constitution gives the federal government and state governments Describe the influences on and the development and expansion of individual rights and freedoms Describe government policies that influenced the United States economy Analyze different views on the need for and development of a bill of rights. Analyze the individual rights in the Bill of Rights, and explain reasons those specific rights were included. Explain how government policies influenced the U.S. economy (debt repayment, high-interest lending, taxes, trade restrictions). ANCILLARY CONTENT Produce clear and coherent writing for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences by completing the following tasks: Conducting historical research Evaluating a broad variety of primary and secondary sources Comparing and contrasting varied points of view Determining the meaning of words and phrases from historical texts Using technology to research, produce, or publish a written product Opportunities for addressing GLE in Unit 2: Conduct historical research about the founding of the U.S. government using historical documents. Compare and contrast varying points of view about the formation of the U.S. government. Compare and contrast the Articles of Confederation and the U.S. Constitution. Make a claim about how key ideas and events after the American Revolution influenced the identify of the new nation. 9

10 7.1.2 Explain patterns and recurring themes in United States history Interpret and construct timelines of key events, people and ideas Analyze primary and secondary sources to answer questions related to United States history Create maps, charts, and graphs of the United States from Analyze historical maps, charts, and graphs of the United States from Explain how differences in land use influenced cultural characteristics among regions in the United States from Differentiate between various forms of government Illustrate how a bill becomes a law at the federal level Opportunities for addressing GLE in Unit 2: Explain the role of conflict and compromise in the formation of the U.S. government. Construct and/or interpret a timeline of key events to answer questions about the development of the U.S. government (Articles of Confederation, Shays Rebellion, Constitutional Convention, U.S. Constitution, Bill of Rights). Opportunities for addressing GLE in Unit 2: Read and analyze excerpts from the Articles of Confederation, examining its key principles and influences on the development of the U.S. Constitution. Read and analyze excerpts from letters written by the Founding Fathers about the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. Read and analyze excerpts from letters written by Thomas Jefferson and George Washington on Shays Rebellion. Read and analyze excerpts from the Federalist Papers to answer questions about the development and ratification of the U.S. Constitution. Read and analyze excerpts from the U.S. Constitution (Preamble, articles, Bill of Rights) to answer questions about the principles, purposes, and formation of the U.S. government. Create charts and graphs about key ideas, people, and events related to the development of the U.S. government. Use charts and graphs to answer questions about problems facing the new nation and the development of the U.S. government. Explain how land use affected the views of people in different regions of the United States from (representation, taxes). Differentiate between various forms of government (absolute monarchy, constitutional monarchy, representative democracy). Explain how a bill becomes a law at the federal level, including how a bill vetoed or not signed by the president may still become a law. 10

11 7.8.7 Describe the process used to amend the Constitution Examine how key legislation and court decisions influenced the course of United States history from Explain how federal officials are elected or appointed Compare and contrast political divisions of the world from Explain various ways nations interact and the impact of these interactions from Identify and describe ways in which citizens influence change in a democratic society Explain the duties and responsibilities of United States citizens Describe the qualifications or requirements for United States citizenship Describe the development and roles of political parties and special interest groups in the United States from Describe the process used to amend the Constitution. Discuss how key legislation and court decisions can influence events. Explain the processes for electing and appointing federal officials (president, vice president, Electoral College, senator, representative, Supreme Court justices, federal court judges). Discuss the reasons for terms, term limits, and lifetime appointments, and debate the benefits and drawbacks of each. Compare and contrast political divisions of the world from Describe interactions between the United States and other nations after the Revolutionary War (territorial disputes, trade, lending, impressment) and their effects on the development of the U.S. government. Explain how individuals and groups worked to influence change in the U.S. government from Describe the civic duties and responsibilities of citizens in the newly-founded nation and in the United States today. Describe the qualifications and requirements for citizenship in the new nation and in the United States today. Explain how the ideas of Federalists and Anti-Federalists influenced the development of political parties in the United States. 11

12 Unit Three: The New Republic Topic One: Governing the New Nation Topic Two: The Jefferson Era Topic Three: Jacksonian Democracy Key Connections: Historical ideas, people, and events shaped U.S. foreign and domestic policies. Territorial expansion contributed to conflict among groups. Social, political, and economic factors contributed to continuity and change in the lives of people/groups. Varied points of view shaped the origin and development of political parties. Ideas about executive power and the role of the government changed over time. Grade-Level Expectations (GLEs) Analyze the causes and effects of key events and ideas in the development of the United States Priority Content and Concepts Analyze the causes and effects of the War of Explain how ideas about democracy and executive power shifted during the Jacksonian era. ESSENTIAL CONTENT Describe the major political and economic events and policies of the Washington and Adams presidencies Explain how Native American policies during the Washington and Adams administrations influenced the development of the United States and how those policies affected Native Americans. Explain the causes and events of the Whiskey Rebellion, the response from the Washington administration, and the effect it had on the development of the United States. Describe key precedents set by George Washington for future presidents and their influence on the development of the United States (presidential cabinet and departments, transfer of power after two terms, executive restraint with vetoes, role of the vice president). Analyze Washington s Farewell Address and how his recommendations influenced the development of the United States (political parties, foreign affairs). Explain how the Adams administration addressed foreign and domestic challenges and how those challenges influenced the development of the United States (Alien and Sedition Acts, principle of nullification, increasing size of the military, enacting taxes to pay for expenses, Adams-Onis Treaty) Analyze political, social, and economic factors that led to westward expansion from Explain how Pinckney s Treaty influenced westward expansion and settlement. 12

13 Explain U.S. motivations for purchasing the Louisiana Territory and the effects of the Louisiana Purchase on westward expansion. Explain reasons for westward expansion and how expansion affected relations with Native Americans (discovery of natural resources, establishment of new settlements, reservations, assimilation, conflict and decimation of tribal groups, declaring treaties null and void ). Analyze the causes and effects of the Indian Removal Act of 1830 (purpose, resistance, Trail of Tears, Chief John Ross, Worcester v. Georgia, President Jackson s justifications and defiance) Identify and explain foreign policy developments between the United States and other nations from Analyze historical maps, charts, and graphs of the United States from Examine how key legislation and court decisions influenced the course of United States history from Explain how United States foreign policy was developed and carried out from Describe the influences on and the development and expansion of individual rights and freedoms Explain the importance and effects of foreign policies during the Jefferson administration (trade disputes, impressment of American sailors). Explain the significance of foreign policy developments over the course of the War of 1812, including relations with other nations and Native Americans. Analyze the origin of the Monroe Doctrine and the extent to which it influenced U.S. foreign policy and interactions with other nations. Analyze maps, charts, and graphs related to presidential elections from the Adams to the Jackson administrations. Analyze maps to answer questions about U.S. territorial growth at the turn of the nineteenth century. Explain how physical geography influenced the Lewis and Clark expedition. Analyze the importance of key legislation from the Washington administration through the Jackson administration and how this legislation influenced the course of U.S. history (Judiciary Acts, Alien and Sedition Acts, Residence Act of 1790, Indian Removal Act). Analyze the impact of the Marbury v. Madison decision. Explain how the Washington and Adams administrations addressed foreign challenges and how those challenges influenced the development of the United States (the French Revolution, the proclamation of neutrality, British forts in the Great Lakes/Northwest Territory and Jay s Treaty, use of the Mississippi/Port of Orleans and Pinckney s Treaty, XYZ affair and the Quasi War, Adams-Onis Treaty). Discuss the causes and effects of the expansion of voting rights during the early nineteenth century. 13

14 Describe the development and roles of political parties and special interest groups in the United States from Explain how economic interdependence developed between regions of the United States and with foreign countries Describe government policies that influenced the United States economy Analyze the views of the Federalists and Democratic Republicans, as represented by Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson (power/role of the federal government, economic strategy, role of citizens). Discuss how perspectives on the War of 1812 differed according to political party affiliation and how the outcome of the war affected each party. Explain the Corrupt Bargain in the presidential election of 1824 and its impact. Explain the economic interdependence between the North, the South, and foreign countries and how tariffs affected each. Describe the economic problems faced by the United States during and directly after Washington's administration, and explain how Alexander Hamilton proposed to solve those financial problems (Hamilton s financial plan, tariffs, taxes, National Bank/First Bank of the United States). Examine the connection between the Tariff of 1828/Tariff of Abominations, the South Carolina nullification crisis, and the doctrine of states rights. Explain reasons for President Jackson s Bank War and how it influenced the U.S. economy. ANCILLARY CONTENT Produce clear and coherent writing for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences by completing the following tasks: Conducting historical research Evaluating a broad variety of primary and secondary sources Comparing and contrasting varied points of view Determining the meaning of words and phrases from historical texts Using technology to research, produce, or publish a written product Explain patterns and recurring themes in United States history Opportunities for addressing GLE in Unit 3: Compare and contrast interests and motivations of Native American tribes aligned with Britain and Native American tribes aligned with the United States during the War of Develop and express claims on the causes or effects of the expansion of voting rights during this period. Use technology to conduct historical research and produce writing on the rise and development of political parties during this period. Opportunities for addressing GLE in Unit 3: Explain how political, economic, and cultural factors influenced the relationship between Native Americans and the U.S. government. 14

15 7.1.4 Interpret and construct timelines of key events, people and ideas Analyze primary and secondary sources to answer questions related to United States history Analyze the physical and political features of the United States Create maps, charts, and graphs of the United States from Analyze settlement patterns of racial and ethnic groups in the United States from Analyze patterns, motivations, and the impact of rural and urban migration in the United States from Explain how key ideas expressed in historical documents influenced the formation of U.S. government Opportunities for addressing GLE in Unit 3: Construct and/or interpret timelines of key events to answer questions about major events from the late eighteenth century to the early nineteenth century and key themes in U.S. history (presidential elections, Northwest Ordinance, Judiciary Acts, Residence Act, First Bank of the United States, Jay s Treaty, Pinckney s Treaty, Quasi War, Alien and Sedition Acts, Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark expedition, Embargo Act, Marbury v. Madison, Adams-Onis Treaty, Tariff of 1828/Tariff of Abominations, Indian Removal Act, Worcester v. Georgia, Trail of Tears). Opportunities for addressing GLE in Unit 3: Read and analyze excerpts from Washington s Farewell Address to answer questions about Washington s views on government and political parties. Read and analyze excerpts from the Monroe Doctrine to answer questions about the purpose and aims of U.S. foreign policy. Read and analyze Andrew Jackson s 1830 message to Congress and document(s) from Native Americans perspective, such as Chief John Ross, to answer questions about the Indian Removal Act. Examine political boundaries in the United States from the late eighteenth century to the early nineteenth century, and explain reasons for changing boundaries. Analyze the physical features that made the Louisiana Territory a desirable purchase. Create maps, charts, and graphs about key ideas, people, and events from the Washington administration to the Jackson administration. Explain the factors that influenced settlement patterns. Describe reasons for westward migration after the Louisiana Purchase and how migration affected economic development. Explain how ideas from the decisions in Supreme Court cases influenced the power and role of the government (Marbury v. Madison). 15

16 7.8.9 Explain how federal officials are elected or appointed Compare and contrast political divisions of the world from Explain various ways nations interact and the impact of these interactions from Explain how the demand for resources and the development of technology influenced economic diversity in the United States Describe the outcomes of the election of 1796 and 1800 and how they affected the ratification of the Twelfth Amendment. Compare and contrast political divisions of the world from the late eighteenth century to the early nineteenth century. Analyze interactions between the United States and other nations from the Washington administration to the Jackson administration and the effects of those interactions. Explain how the War of 1812 affected economic development in the United States. 16

17 Unit Four: Expansion and Conflict Topic One: Westward Expansion Topic Two: Growth and Reform Topic Three: Slavery Key Connections: Reform movements influenced U.S. policies, legislation, and court cases. Political, social, and economic factors influenced migration and settlement patterns. Political, social, and geographic factors shaped the economic development of regions in the United States. New technologies in transportation catalyzed westward expansion. Immigration and economic growth in the United States were interconnected. Specialization led to economic interdependence between regions of the United States. Grade-Level Expectations (GLEs) Analyze the causes and effects of key events and ideas in the development of the United States Priority Content and Concepts Analyze the causes and effects of reform movements in the first half of the nineteenth century. Explain the reasons businesses encouraged immigration to the United States (cheap labor source) and the effects of mass immigration. ESSENTIAL CONTENT Analyze political, social, and economic factors that led to westward expansion from Identify and explain foreign policy developments between the United States and other nations from Analyze the factors that contributed to westward expansion. Analyze how the concept of Manifest Destiny contributed to westward expansion. Explain the connections between westward expansion and the building of canals, roads, and railroads. Explain the political, social, and economic motivations that influenced the annexation of the territories of Oregon, California, Texas, and New Mexico. Explain how relationships between Native Americans and white settlers moving westward changed over time. Explain the causes and effects of the Mexican-American War Examine the motivations and influence of major American reform movements during the 19th Explain the motivations and importance of nineteenth-century reform movements (education, prison, mental health, women s rights, abolition, temperance). 17

18 century Explain the nineteenth-century status of women in society (legal rights in marriage, property ownership, contracts, societal beliefs about women s roles and nature) and describe differences in the lives of women based on socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity. Analyze the goals of the women s rights movement of the nineteenth century. Analyze the development of the abolitionist movement, including differences within the movement, and evaluate the effectiveness of the strategies abolitionists used in the fight against slavery. Evaluate the extent to which nineteenth-century reform movements achieved their goals. Compare and contrast major American reform movements of the nineteenth century Compare and contrast the political, social, and economic development of the different regions of the United States Explain reasons for the expansion of slavery in the South after 1800 and describe the life of enslaved African Americans, and their responses to slavery Analyze historical maps, charts, and graphs of the United States from Explain the reasons for and effects of the development of transportation systems and infrastructure in different regions of the United States (roads, canals, railroads). Compare and contrast the political, social, and economic development of the Northern, Southern, and Western regions of the United States during the antebellum period. Analyze the extent to which economic development of U.S. regions contributed to political and social differences. Analyze the factors that contributed to the spread and continuation of slavery during the antebellum period (inventions such as the cotton gin, territorial expansion, production, demand). Examine the experiences of enslaved people, demonstrating an understanding of differences between individual experiences and common experiences, as derived from multiple primary source narratives written by enslaved people. Explain the responses to slavery by enslaved people (escape, Underground Railroad, forms of resistance, social/familial networks). Analyze maps, tables, charts, and/or graphs from the period to explain motivations for and trends related to territorial expansion and westward migration. Analyze maps, charts, and/or graphs to explain immigration patterns in the early to midnineteenth century. Analyze economic activity, resource, and land-use maps (manufacturing and agricultural production) from the early to mid-nineteenth century to answer questions about economic differences between regions of the United States. Analyze maps, charts, and/or graphs to examine factors related to the spread of slavery in the early to mid-nineteenth century. 18

19 7.6.2 Describe motivations of immigrants to the United States from and the obstacles they faced Analyze patterns, motivations, and the impact of rural and urban migration in the United States from Explain how Americans adapted and transformed various physical environments in the United States to expand its growth and influence Examine how key legislation and court decisions influenced the course of United States history from Explain how United States foreign policy was developed and carried out from Describe the influences on and the development and expansion of individual rights and freedoms Identify and describe ways in which citizens influence change in a democratic society Explain how the demand for resources and the development of technology influenced economic diversity in the United States Explain how economic interdependence developed between regions of the United States Explain the factors that motivated immigrants to migrate to the United States during the nineteenth century, and describe their experiences in the United States during this period (discrimination, nativism). Analyze push and pull factors that led to increased westward expansion and settlement, and explain the challenges experienced by people in the West. Explain how westward migration and settlement affected Native Americans. Analyze origins of European immigrants, their patterns of settlement, and their impact on the areas where they settled. Explain how Americans adapted and transformed various physical environments for economic gain and discuss the resulting environmental impact. Describe the challenges posed by and modifications made to the physical environment as they relate to industrialization and westward expansion (mills, mining, trails, canals, roads, railroads). Explain how westward expansion and settlement was affected by key legislation (Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850, Kansas-Nebraska Act). Analyze the relationship between Manifest Destiny and the Mexican-American War. Explain how the ideas expressed in founding documents influenced nineteenth-century reform movements in their efforts to expand rights and freedoms. Evaluate the success of reform movements in helping to expand individual rights. Describe the strategies reformers used to promote change. Analyze how technology contributed to economic growth and diversity in the United States during the early to mid-nineteenth century (advancements in agriculture, industry/manufacturing, transportation, and communication). Analyze economic interdependence between regions of the United States and with foreign countries such as Great Britain. 19

20 and with foreign countries Explain how specialization and improvements in transportation affected economic interdependence between regions of the United States and with foreign countries. ANCILLARY CONTENT Produce clear and coherent writing for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences by completing the following tasks: Conducting historical research Evaluating a broad variety of primary and secondary sources Comparing and contrasting varied points of view Determining the meaning of words and phrases from historical texts Using technology to research, produce, or publish a written product Explain patterns and recurring themes in United States history Interpret and construct timelines of key events, people and ideas Opportunities for addressing GLE in Unit 4: Conduct historical research on key people and events of the nineteenth-century reform movements (women s rights, abolitionist, temperance, education, and/or prison/asylum reform). Compare and contrast the perspectives of Native Americans and proponents and opponents of Manifest Destiny. Use technology to research and produce writing on the causes and effects of U.S. territorial expansion. Opportunities for addressing GLE in Unit 4: Analyze continuities and changes in the institution of slavery during this period compared with earlier periods in U.S. history. Analyze continuities and changes in women s lives during this period compared with earlier periods in U.S. history. Analyze continuities and changes in American responses to immigration during this period compared with earlier periods in U.S. history. Opportunities for addressing GLE in Unit 4: Construct and/or interpret a timeline of key events to answer questions about major events from the early to mid-nineteenth century and key themes in U.S. history (Manifest Destiny, annexation of Texas, Oregon Treaty, Mexican-American War, Mexican Cession/Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, California Gold Rush, Seneca Falls Convention, Compromise of 1850, Gadsden Purchase, Kansas-Nebraska Act) Analyze primary and secondary sources to answer questions related to United States history Opportunities for addressing GLE in Unit 4: Read and analyze excerpts from the Declaration of Sentiments and Sojourner Truth s Ain t I a Woman speech to answer questions about the women s rights movement of the nineteenth century. 20

21 Analyze primary sources, such as diaries and testimonials of enslaved people and abolitionists, to answer questions about the conditions of enslaved people, their responses to slavery, and their roles in the abolition movement Analyze the physical and political features of the United States Create maps, charts, and graphs of the United States from Analyze settlement patterns of racial and ethnic groups in the United States from Explain how differences in land use influenced cultural characteristics among regions in the United States from Compare and contrast political divisions of the world from Describe the development and roles of political parties and special interest groups in the United States from Describe government policies that influenced the United States economy Examine political boundaries in the United States from the early to mid-nineteenth century, and explain reasons for changing boundaries. Analyze how physical geography influenced the decision of migrants to settle in the Great Plains. Create maps, charts, and graphs about key ideas, people, and events during the early to midnineteenth century. Analyze settlement patterns of immigrant groups that migrated to the United States during the first half of the nineteenth century. Examine the relationship between land use and differences among the Northern, Southern, and Western regions of the United States during the antebellum period (population distribution/density, level of industrialization, presence of slavery). Compare and contrast political divisions of the world from the early to mid-nineteenth century. Describe the rise and purpose of labor unions during the nineteenth century. Describe the reasons for the rise of the Know-Nothing Party. Explain the importance of government policies to the development of transportation systems and infrastructure (canals, roads, railroads). Explain the reasons for and effects of federal government regulation during the early to midnineteenth century. 21

22 Unit Five: A Nation Divided Topic One: Sectionalism Topic Two: Lincoln and Secession Topic Three: The Civil War Key Connections: Resources and land use contributed to regional differences in economic development. Social, political, and economic factors led to the expansion of slavery. Territorial expansion contributed to conflict and compromise among groups. Ideas, people, and events have shaped national identity. Grade-Level Expectations (GLEs) Priority Content and Concepts Analyze the causes and effects of key events and ideas in the development of the United States Examine the motivations and influence of major American reform movements during the 19th century Analyze how westward expansion led to conflict and compromise on the issue of slavery. Describe the influence abolitionists had on establishing emancipation as a war aim. ESSENTIAL CONTENT Explain reasons for the expansion of slavery in the South after 1800 and describe the life of enslaved African Americans, and their responses to slavery Identify and describe the role of the election of Abraham Lincoln and other key events, ideas, and people, which led to the Civil War Describe the effects of the Missouri Compromise on the expansion of slavery. Compare and contrast differing perspectives on slavery and its expansion. Explain the relationship between the Dred Scott decision and the Missouri Compromise. Describe how enslaved people responded to the Civil War and how their lives changed over the course of the war, recognizing both general patterns and differences in individual experiences. Explain how legislation and events contributed to and reflected the growing tension over the issue of slavery (Missouri Compromise, Nat Turner s Rebellion, Wilmot Proviso, Compromise of 1850, Fugitive Slave Act, publication of Uncle Tom s Cabin, Kansas- Nebraska Act, Bleeding Kansas conflicts, case of Dred Scott v. Sandford, Lincoln-Douglas debates, John Brown s raid on Harpers Ferry). Analyze how the political breakdown of the Second Party System (Democrats and Whigs) both reflected and contributed to tensions over slavery leading up to the Civil War. 22

23 Explain how the election of 1860 triggered a series of events leading to the outbreak of the Civil War Analyze important turning points and major developments during the Civil War Examine how key legislation and court decisions influenced the course of United States history from Describe the influences on and the development and expansion of individual rights and freedoms Evaluate the relative strengths and weaknesses of the North (Union) and the South (Confederacy) at the outset of the Civil War and the reasons for the Union victory. Analyze the purpose and effectiveness of strategies used during the Civil War (blockades, Anaconda Plan, capture and destroy). Analyze how Lincoln s views on slavery evolved over time and explain his reasons for issuing the Emancipation Proclamation in the midst of the Civil War. Analyze how major developments during the Civil War affected the North and the South and influenced the course of the war (draft, Emancipation Proclamation, foreign support for the war). Analyze the significance and outcome of key military actions and turning-point battles during the Civil War (Fort Sumter, Antietam, Vicksburg, Sherman s March to the Sea, Gettysburg, Appomattox Courthouse). Analyze the extent to which daily life changed for different groups of people over the course of the war. Explain the motivations for passing and the effects of key legislation as they relate to the Civil War (Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850, Fugitive Slave Act, Kansas- Nebraska Act). Explain the arguments and ruling in the case of Dred Scott v. Sandford and the effects of the decision. Analyze the importance of key legislation passed during the Civil War (Revenue Act, Homestead Act, Pacific Railway Act, Conscription Act) and effects on expansion and conflict. Analyze varying views on rights and freedoms and the means of protecting them, including perspectives on what rights and freedoms freedmen would have after the war. ANCILL Produce clear and coherent writing for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences by completing the following tasks: Conducting historical research Opportunities for addressing GLE in Unit 5: Conduct historical research to explore the war s impact on different individuals and groups. 23

24 Evaluating a broad variety of primary and secondary sources Comparing and contrasting varied points of view Determining the meaning of words and phrases from historical texts Using technology to research, produce, or publish a written product Social Studies Companion Document Compare and contrast the views and motivations of different groups (soldiers, politicians, women) in their support of the Union or Confederacy. Evaluate a variety of primary and secondary sources to explain how perceptions of the purpose of the war shifted over time. Explain the significance of words and phrases used by Abraham Lincoln such as his use of all men are created equal in the Gettysburg Address to analyze how ideas of equality changed over time Explain patterns and recurring themes in United States history Interpret and construct timelines of key events, people and ideas Opportunities for addressing GLE in Unit 5: Explain how political, social, and economic factors influenced events surrounding the Civil War. Opportunities for addressing GLE in Unit 5: Construct and/or interpret timelines of key events to answer question about major events related to the Civil War and key themes in U.S. history (Missouri Compromise, Wilmot Proviso, Compromise of 1850, Fugitive Slave Act, publication of Uncle Tom s Cabin, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Bleeding Kansas conflicts, Dred Scott v. Sandford, John Brown s raid on Harpers Ferry, election of Abraham Lincoln, turning point battles, Homestead Act, Pacific Railway Act, Emancipation Proclamation, assassination of Abraham Lincoln, transcontinental railroad). 24

25 7.1.5 Analyze primary and secondary sources to answer questions related to United States history Compare and contrast the political, social, and economic development of the different regions of the United States Analyze the physical and political features of the United States Analyze historical maps, charts, and graphs of the United States from Explain how differences in land use influenced cultural characteristics among regions in the United States from Opportunities for addressing GLE in Unit 5: Read and analyze excerpts from key legislation to answer questions about compromises and agreements leading up to the Civil War (Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850, Fugitive Slave Act, Kansas-Nebraska Act). Read and analyze excerpts from the majority and dissenting opinions in the Supreme Court case of Dred Scott v. Sandford to answer questions about the significance and effects of the ruling. Read and analyze excerpts from Lincoln s first and second inaugural address to answer questions about how ideas expressed in his speeches affected the start and course of the Civil War. Read and analyze excerpts from declarations of secession to answer questions about justifications given by Southern states for secession. Read and analyze the Emancipation Proclamation and the Gettysburg Address (full text or excerpts) to answer questions about the course and effects of the Civil War. Read and analyze letters written during the war to explore the impact of the war on individuals and groups. Read and analyze excerpts from the Homestead Act and Pacific Railway Act to answer questions about westward expansion, migration, and settlement. Compare and contrast the political, social, and economic characteristics of the North and the South, and explain how differences between the regions contributed to tension. Examine political boundaries in the United States from the early to mid-nineteenth century, and explain reasons for changing boundaries. Explain the importance of controlling the Mississippi River during the Civil War. Analyze maps, charts, or graphs related to the presidential election of Analyze maps to answer questions about turning-point battles during the Civil War. Analyze charts and graphs to answer questions about conditions in the North and the South and the effects of the Civil War (economies, resources, casualties). Explain how the economies of the North and South influenced views on the institution of slavery. 25

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