myworld Geography Eastern Hemisphere 2011

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1 A Correlation of to the Pennsylvania Assessment Anchor Standards Civics and Government Economics Geography History Grades 6-8

2 INTRODUCTION This document demonstrates how 2011 meets the objectives of the 2009 Pennsylvania Assessment Anchors and Eligible Content. Correlation page references are to the Student and Teacher Editions. Connect, Experience, and Understand with! Take your classroom on a virtual exploration around the globe and through time with the exciting new digitally driven social studies program. engages 21 st century learners by integrating myworldgeography.com and the Student Edition with the goal of expanding their understanding of the world and its people. Connect with mystory: Watch your students connect to the stories of real teens from around the world in this one-of-a-kind video series. Experience Virtual Travel: Students travel across regions and through time completing game-based assignments tied to Essential Questions. Understand World Geography: Informal and formal assessments, both in print and online, ensure that your students grasp the important concepts. Edition Units: Unit 1: Europe and Russia Unit 2: Africa Unit 3: Southwest Asia Unit 4: South and Central Asia Unit 5: East and Southeast Asia Unit 6: Australia and the Pacific

3 Table of Contents GRADE Civics and Government; Principles and Documents of Government Economics; Scarcity and Choice Geography; Basic Geographic Literacy History; Historical Analysis and Skills Development... 8 GRADE Civics and Government; Principles and Documents of Government Economics; Scarcity and Choice Geography; Basic Geographic Literacy History; Historical Analysis and Skills Development GRADE Civics and Government; Principles and Documents of Government Economics; Scarcity and Choice Geography; Basic Geographic Literacy History; Historical Analysis and Skills Development... 33

4 Grade Civics and Government; Principles and Documents of Government Grade A: Explain the effect of the rule of law in protecting property rights, individual rights, and the common good B: Compare and contrast a direct democracy with a republican form of government. SE/TE: Purpose of Government, 104; Limited Government, 105; Rule of Law, 108 SE/TE: Limited Government, 105; Direct Democracy, 106; Branches of Government, 109; Roman republic, C: Explain how the principles and ideals shape local, state, and national government. Liberty / Freedom Democracy Justice Equality D: Explain the basic principles and ideals within documents and the roles played by the framers as found in significant documents: Declaration of Independence United States Constitution Bill of Rights Pennsylvania Constitution E: Summarize individual rights guaranteed by the PA Constitution and the U.S. Constitution F: Describe how citizens and leaders use political symbols. 5.2 Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship A: Compare and contrast rights and responsibilities of citizenship in the community, state, and nation B: Explain how citizens resolve conflicts in society and government C: Describe the importance of political leadership and public service. SE/TE: Serving Her Country, 103; Limited Government, 105; Democracy, 106; Principles of Government, 108; Document-Based Questions: The Federalist, 115 SE/TE: Constitution, U.S., 109; Bill of Rights, 112; Declaration of Independence, 196 SE/TE: Bill of Rights, 112 SE/TE: Serving Her Country, 103; Image of U.S. Flag, 105; Queen of England, 106; Statue of Ki Il- Sung, 107; U.S. Capitol, 108; Naturalization ceremony, 112; Civic Participation, 113 SE/TE: Serving Her Country, 103; Rights and Responsibilities, ; Document-Based Questions: Voter Participation, 115 SE/TE: For related material see: Serving Her Country, 103; Limited Government, 105; Democracy, 106; Rule of Law, 108; Checks and Balances, 109; Citizenship, SE/TE: Serving Her Country, 103; Democracy, 106; Branches of Government, 109; Civic Life, 113 1

5 Grade D: Explain why participation in government and civic life is important. 5.3 How Government Works A: Describe the responsibilities and powers of the three branches of government B: Define and compare the role and structure of local, state, and national governments C: Describe how local, state, and national governments provide services D: Identify leadership positions and their primary duties at the local, state, and national levels E: Describe the voting process, including registration, primaries, and general elections F: Explain how courts resolve conflicts G: Identify individual interest groups and how they impact government H: Describe the influence of mass media on society I: Explain what taxes are and why they are necessary. SE/TE: Serving Her Country, 103; Democracy, 106; Civic Life, 113 SE/TE: Branches of Government, 109 SE/TE: Political Structures (types and levels of governments in the United States), 108 SE/TE: For related material see: Political Structures (types and levels of governments in the United States), 108 SE/TE: For related material see: Political Structures (types and levels of governments in the United States), 108 SE/TE: Serving Her Country, 103; Democracy, 106; Rights and Responsibilities (voting), 113; Document-Based Questions: Voter Participation, 115 SE/TE: Judicial Branch, 109; Using the courts to fight an injustice, 112 SE/TE: Civic Participation: Join an interest group, 113 SE/TE: 21 st Century Learning: Analyze Media Content, , Evaluate Web Sites, SE/TE: For related material see: Taxes and taxation, How International Relationships Function A: Identify how countries have varying interests. SE/TE: Trade Barriers and Free Trade, 67; Conflict and Cooperation, ; European Union, 211; International Issues, 214; At the Center of the European Union, 242, 243; Regional Newcomers, ; Russia and the World, ; The African Union, ; Problems and Potential, ; Resources and Trade, ; The Persian Gulf in Modern Times, ; Israel and Its Neighbors Today, ; How the Oil Rich Can Help the Oil Poor, ; Joining 2

6 Grade 6 (Continued) Identify how countries have varying interests B: Explain the difference between allies and adversaries. the World Economy, 564; Governments and Economies, ; Economic Growth: the Importance of Exports, ; Southeast Asia and the World, 709 SE/TE: World War I, ; A War of Ideas, 203; World War II, ; Cold War and Division, ; European Union, 211; Yugoslavia Splits, 278; Ethnic Conflict Continues, 279; Cold War Russia, 303; Independence and Beyond (Africa), ; Political Challenges, ; Independence and Conflict (Israel), ; The Palestinian-Israeli Conflict, ; Iran and the United States, 524; Divided Cyprus, ; Communists Take Control, 559; South Asia After Independence, ; Conflicts in South Asia, 601; International Conflicts and Connections, ; The Korean War, 668; Independence, War, and Recovery, Economics; Scarcity and Choice Grade A: Explain how limited resources and unlimited wants cause scarcity B: Compare ways that people meet their needs with how they meet their wants. Describe how resources are combined to produce different goods and services C: Define opportunity cost and describe the opportunity cost of personal choice. SE/TE: Scarcity, SE/TE: Goods and Services, 58, 59, 60; Factors of Production, 58 SE/TE: Opportunity Cost, D: Identify incentives that affect personal choices. SE/TE: Incentives, Markets and Economic Systems A: Describe the interaction of consumers and producers of goods and services in the state and national economy B: Explain why and how market competition takes place C: Explain how advertising influences economic decisions. SE/TE: Economic Basics, 58 59; Economic Process, 60 61; Economic Systems, SE/TE: Economic Process, 60 61; Economic Systems, SE/TE: Advertising, 61; also see: Planning a Marketing Campaign,

7 Grade D: Describe how prices influence both buyers and sellers and explain why prices may vary for similar products E: Explain the causes and effects of expansion and contraction of businesses F: Explain the influence of private economic institutions on the local and state economy G: Examine how various economic systems address the three basic questions. What to produce? How? For whom? 6.3 Functions of Government A: Examine government's role in providing public goods and services B: Describe the impact of government involvement in state and national economic activities. SE/TE: Prices, 59, 61 SE/TE: For related material see: Inflation, 61; Recession, 61; Great Depression and, 202 SE/TE: For related material see: Economic Basics, 58 59; Economic Process, SE/TE: Economic Systems, 62 63; see also Economy of Different Countries: Algeria, ; Arabia and Iraq, 439, 456; Australia, 745; Baltic Nations, 275; Bangladesh, 602; Belgium, 245; Central Asia and Caucasus, 564; China, ; Czech Republic, 276; Egypt, 417; Europe, 214; France, 244; Germany, 202, 214, 246; Greece, , 254; India, ; Iran, 524; Israel, 493; Italy, , 254; Japan, 669, 676; Jordan, 493; Kenya, 385; Lebanon, 493; Libya, ; Mongolia, 640, 641; New Zealand, 745; North Africa, ; North Korea, 675; Pacific region, 745; Pakistan, 602; Poland, ; Portugal, , 254; Russian Federation, 305, 307; Saudi Arabia, 457; Scandinavia, 239; Slovakia, 276; Slovenia, 277; Solomon Islands, 745; South Africa, 385; South Asia, 600, ; Southeast Asia, ; South Korea, 673; Southwest Asia, 493; Spain, , 254; Syria, 493; Taiwan, 640, 641; Tajikistan, 564; Turkey, ; United Kingdom, 237; West and Central Africa, ; Western Europe, 240; Yemen, 456 SE/TE: Goods and Services, 58, 59, 60; Public Health Organization, 110 SE/TE: Economic Basics, 58 59; Economic Process, 60 61; Economic Systems, 62 63; Economy of Different Countries: Algeria, ; Arabia and Iraq, 439, 456; Australia, 745; Baltic Nations, 275; Bangladesh, 602; Belgium, 245; Central Asia and Caucasus, 564; China, ; Czech Republic, 276; Egypt, 417; Europe, 214; France, 244; Germany, 202, 214, 246; Greece, , 254; India, ; Iran, 524; Israel, 4

8 Grade 6 (Continued) B: Describe the impact of government involvement in state and national economic activities C: Explain the cost and benefits of taxation. 493; Italy, , 254; Japan, 669, 676; Jordan, 493; Kenya, 385; Lebanon, 493; Libya, ; Mongolia, 640, 641; New Zealand, 745; North Africa, ; North Korea, 675; Pacific region, 745; Pakistan, 602; Poland, ; Portugal, , 254; Russian Federation, 305, 307; Saudi Arabia, 457; Scandinavia, 239; Slovakia, 276; Slovenia, 277; Solomon Islands, 745; South Africa, 385; South Asia, 600, ; Southeast Asia, ; South Korea, 673; Southwest Asia, 493; Spain, , 254; Syria, 493; Taiwan, 640, 641; Tajikistan, 564; Turkey, ; United Kingdom, 237; West and Central Africa, ; Western Europe, 240; Yemen, 456 SE/TE: Taxes and Taxation, 151; also see: Tariffs, 67, 254, D: Explain the benefits of international trade. SE/TE: Trade Barriers, 67; Tariffs, 67, 254, 709; Free Trade, 67, 239, 709; Economic Development, Economic Interdependence A: Explain why people specialize in the production SE/TE: Specialization, of goods and services and divide labor B: Explain how trade affects standards of living. SE/TE: Trade, 66 67; ancient Greece, ; Arabian Peninsula, 446; barter, 60; Crusades and, ; cultural traits and, 96 97; culture and, 585; definition of, 66; geography and, 66 67; Greece, 255; historical maps and, 125; India, 591, 602, 603; Industrial Revolution and, 198; Israel, 492, , 497; Middle Ages, ; Muslim empire, 446; North Africa, 403, 407; Persian empire, 515; Renaissance, , 180; Roman empire, 151; slave, 192, 342; Southeast Asia, 693, ; Southern and Eastern Africa, 373, 374; Sumatra, 699; Turkey, ; types of, 67; United Kingdom, 237; West and Central Africa, , C: Explain how multinational corporations contribute to economic interdependence. SE/TE: For related material see: Economic Process,

9 Grade D: Explain how transportation, communication networks, and technology contribute to economic interdependence. 6.5 Income, Profit, and Wealth A: Describe how the availability of goods and services is made possible by the work of members of the society B: Explain the concept of labor productivity D: Explain how profits and losses serve as incentives E: Describe how people accumulate tangible and intangible assets F: Explain the role of the entrepreneur in Pennsylvania SE/TE: Economic Development, 64 65; Trade, 66 67; Transportation Systems, 77, 97, 98 99, 198, 231, 294, 553 SE/TE: Economic Basics, 58 59; Economic Process, 60 61; Money Management, SE/TE: Economic Basics, 58 59; Economic Process, SE/TE: Business and the Economic Process, 60 61; Incentives, 59 SE/TE: Money Management, 68 69; also see Banks and Banking: Luxembourg, 245; Renaissance, 178 SE/TE: For related material see: Entrepreneurs and, 57, 58, 62, 198, 237, 274, 456, G: Identify the costs and benefits of saving. SE/TE: Money Management, H: Explain the differences between interest rates for saving and borrowing. 7.1 Geography; Basic Geographic Literacy Grade A: Describe how common geographic tools are used to organize and interpret information about people, places, and environment. SE/TE: Money Management, SE/TE: Tools of Geography: The Study of Earth, 4-5, Geography s Five Themes, 6 7, Ways to Show Earth s Surface, 8 9, Understanding Maps, 10 11, Types of Maps, 12 13; Climates and Ecosystems: Climate and Weather, 32 33, Temperature, 34 35, Water and Climate, 36 37, Air Circulation and Precipitation, 38 39, Types of Climate, 40 41, Ecosystems, 42 43; Human- Environment Interaction: Environment and Resources, 48 49, Land Use, 50 51, People s Impact on the Environment, 52 53; Population and Movement: Population Growth, 74 75, Population Distribution, 76 77, Migration, 78 79, Urbanization,

10 Grade B: Describe and locate places and regions as defined by physical and human features. SE/TE: Geography s Five Themes, 6 7; Understanding Maps, 10 11; Types of Maps, 12 13; Climate and Weather, 32 33; Types of Climate, 40 41; Ecosystems, 42 43; Land Use, 50 51; Population Distribution, 76 77; Urbanization, 80 81; Historical Maps, ; also see: Chapter Atlas, , , , , , , , , , , , , , Physical Characteristics of Places and Regions A: Describe the characteristics of places and SE/TE: Types of Maps, 12 13; Climate and regions. Weather, 32 33; Water and Climate, 36 37; Types of Climate, 40 41; Ecosystems, 42 43; Environment and Resources, 48 49; Land Use, 50 51; also see: Chapter Atlas, , , , , , , , , , , , , , B: Describe the physical processes that shape patterns on Earth s surface. SE/TE: Forces on Earth s Surface, 24 25; also see: Water and Climate, 36 37; Ecosystems, 42 43; Erosion, Human Characteristics of Places and Regions A: Describe the human characteristics of places and SE/TE: Environment and Resources, 48 49; Land regions using the following criteria: Use, 50 51; People s Impact on the Environment, Population 52 53; Economic Basics, 58 59; Economic Culture Process, 60 61; Economic Systems, 62 63; Settlement Economic Development, 64 65; Trade, 66 67; Economic activities Money Management, 68 69; Population Growth, Political activities 74 75; Population Distribution, 76 77; Migration, 78 79; Urbanization, 80 81; What is Culture?, 86 87; Families and Societies, 88 89; Language, 90 91; Religion, 92 93; Art, 94 95; Cultural Diffusion and Change, 96 97; Science and Technology, 98 99; Foundations of Government, ; Political Systems, ; Political Structures, ; Conflict and Cooperation, ; Citizenship,

11 Grade Interactions Between People and the Environment A: Describe and explain the effects of the physical SE/TE: Climate and Weather, 32 33; systems on people within regions. Temperature, 34 35; Water and Climate, 36 37; Air Circulation and Precipitation, 38 39; Types of Climate, 40 41; Ecosystems, 42 43; Chapter Atlas, , , , , , , , , , , , , , B: Describe and explain the effects of people on the physical systems within regions. 8.1 History; Historical Analysis and Skills Development Grade A: Explain continuity and change over time using sequential order and context of events. SE/TE: Environment and Resources, 48 49; Land Use, 50 51; People s Impact on the Environment, 52 53; Natural Resources and the Environment, 267; Russia s Resources, ; People and the Land, ; Riches from the Land, ; Resources and Trade, ; Land Use and Energy, ; Climate and Land Use, ; Land Use and Resources, 582; Climate and Land Use, ; Land Use and Natural Resources, ; Environmental Threats, 663; Settlement and Land Use, 694 SE/TE: Tools of History: Measuring Time, , Historical Sources, , Archaeology and Other Sources, , Historical Maps, ; Timelines, 118, 153, , 341, 449, 484, B: Differentiate between fact and opinion, multiple points of view, and primary and secondary sources to explain historical events. SE/TE: Identify Bias, 193; Fact and Opinion, 218; also see: Document-Based Questions, 15, 29, 45, 55, 71, 83, 101, 115, , 127, 147, 155, 163, 173, 187, 207, 216, 219, 249, 257, 283, 307, 319, 357, 359, 379, 391, 421, 423, 453, 465, 499, 501, 521, 535, 561, 595, 609, 637, 651, 671, 685, 703, 715, 741, 757; Analyze Primary and Secondary Sources, 126, 422; 21 st Century Learning: Evaluate Web sites, 15, 121, , 651; Analyze media content, 83, 115, , 391, 501 TE only: Primary Source Lesson Plan: Europe and Russia, T14, T122, T30, T50, T70, T78, T106, T134, T154; Africa, T28, T48, T84; Southwest Asia, T20, T56, T76; South and Central Asia, T20, T48; East and Southeast Asia, T20, T48, T76; Australia and the Pacific, T20 8

12 Grade C: Identify a thesis statement using appropriate primary and secondary sources. (Reference RWSL Standard Research) 8.2 Pennsylvania History A: Explain the social, political, cultural, and economic contributions of individuals and groups from Pennsylvania B: Describe the importance of significant historical documents, artifacts, and places critical to Pennsylvania history C: Explain how continuity and change have impacted Pennsylvania history. Belief systems and religions Commerce and industry Technology Politics and government Physical and human geography Social organizations D: Explain how conflict and cooperation among groups and organizations have impacted the history and development of Pennsylvania. Ethnicity and race Working conditions Immigration Military conflict Economic stability 8.3 United States History A: Explain the social, political, cultural, and economic contributions of individuals and groups to United States history. SE/TE: Document-Based Questions, 15, 29, 45, 55, 71, 83, 101, 115, , 127, 147, 155, 163, 173, 187, 207, 216, 219, 249, 257, 283, 307, 319, 357, 359, 379, 391, 421, 423, 453, 465, 499, 501, 521, 535, 561, 595, 609, 637, 651, 671, 685, 703, 715, 741, 757 TE only: Primary Source Lesson Plan: Europe and Russia, T14, T122, T30, T50, T70, T78, T106, T134, T154; Africa, T28, T48, T84; Southwest Asia, T20, T56, T76; South and Central Asia, T20, T48; East and Southeast Asia, T20, T48, T76; Australia and the Pacific, T20 SE/TE: For related material see: Serving Her Country, 103; Citizenship, SE/TE: For related material see: U.S. Capitol (photograph), 105, 108; Constitution, U.S., 109; Bill of Rights, 112; Declaration of Independence, 196 SE/TE: For related material see: Serving Her Country, 103; Limited Government, 105; Democracy, 106; Political Structures, ; Citizenship, SE/TE: For related material see: Immigration, 73, 78, 79; World War I, 201; World War II, 204, 205; Terrorism, 593; Vietnam War, 701 SE/TE: Religion, 92 93; Political Structures,

13 Grade B: Explain the importance of significant historical documents, artifacts, and places critical to United States history C: Explain how continuity and change have impacted U.S. history. Belief systems and religions Commerce and industry Technology Politics and government Physical and human geography Social organizations D: Explain how conflict and cooperation among groups and organizations have impacted the history and development of the U.S. Ethnicity and race Working conditions Immigration Military conflict Economic stability 8.4 World History Grade 6 Explain the social, political, cultural, and economic contributions of individuals and groups to world history. SE/TE: Constitution, U.S., 109; Bill of Rights, 112; Declaration of Independence, 196 SE/TE: Religion, 92 93; Political Structures, SE/TE: World War I and, 201; World War II and, ; Korean War, 668; United Nations (UN), 111, 247 SE/TE: Ancient and Medieval Europe, ; Europe in Modern Times, ; Western Europe Today, ; Eastern Europe Today, ; History of Russia, ; Russia Today, ; History of West and Central Africa, ; West and Central Africa Today, ; History of Southern and Eastern Africa, ; Southern and Eastern Africa Today, ; History of North Africa, ; North Africa Today, ; History of Arabia and Iraq, ; Arabia and Iraq Today, ; History of Israel and Its Neighbors, ; Israel and Its Neighbors Today, ; History of Iran, Turkey, and Cyprus, ; Iran, Turkey, and Cyprus Today, ; History of Central Asia and the Caucasus, ; Central Asia and the Caucasus Today, ; History of South Asia, ; South Asia Today, ; History of China and Its Neighbors, ; China and Its Neighbors Today, ; History of Japan and the Koreas, ; Japan and the Koreas Today, ; History of Southeast Asia, ; Southeast Asia Today, ; History of Australia and the Pacific, ; Australia and the Pacific Today,

14 Grade B: Identify and explain the importance of historical documents, artifacts, and sites which are critical to world history C: Explain how continuity and change have impacted world history. Belief systems and religions Commerce and industry Technology Politics and government Physical and human geography Social organizations SE/TE: Document-Based Questions, 15, 29, 45, 55, 71, 83, 101, 115, , 127, 147, 155, 163, 173, 187, 207, 216, 219, 249, 257, 283, 307, 319, 357, 359, 379, 391, 421, 423, 453, 465, 499, 501, 521, 535, 561, 595, 609, 637, 651, 671, 685, 703, 715, 741, 757; Analyze Primary and Secondary Sources, 126, 422; Artifacts, 120, 123; Art, 94 95, 165, 179, 179, 251, 353, 407, 481, 525; Architecture, 94, 143, 158, 165, 407, 525 TE only: Primary Source Lesson Plan: Core Concepts, 12, 27, 33, 49, 97, 106, 110, 118 SE/TE: Ancient and Medieval Europe, ; Europe in Modern Times, ; Western Europe Today, ; Eastern Europe Today, ; History of Russia, ; Russia Today, ; History of West and Central Africa, ; West and Central Africa Today, ; History of Southern and Eastern Africa, ; Southern and Eastern Africa Today, ; History of North Africa, ; North Africa Today, ; History of Arabia and Iraq, ; Arabia and Iraq Today, ; History of Israel and Its Neighbors, ; Israel and Its Neighbors Today, ; History of Iran, Turkey, and Cyprus, ; Iran, Turkey, and Cyprus Today, ; History of Central Asia and the Caucasus, ; Central Asia and the Caucasus Today, ; History of South Asia, ; South Asia Today, ; History of China and Its Neighbors, ; China and Its Neighbors Today, ; History of Japan and the Koreas, ; Japan and the Koreas Today, ; History of Southeast Asia, ; Southeast Asia Today, ; History of Australia and the Pacific, ; Australia and the Pacific Today,

15 Grade D: Examine patterns of conflict and cooperation among groups and organizations that impacted the development of the history of the world. SE/TE: World War I, ; A War of Ideas, 203; World War II, ; Cold War and Division, ; European Union, 211, 243; Yugoslavia Splits, 278; Ethnic Conflict Continues, 279; Cold War Russia, 303; Independence and Beyond (Africa), ; Political Challenges, ; Independence and Conflict (Israel), ; The Palestinian-Israeli Conflict, ; Iran and the United States, 524; Divided Cyprus, ; Communists Take Control, 559; South Asia After Independence, ; Conflicts in South Asia, 601; International Conflicts and Connections, ; The Korean War, 668; Independence, War, and Recovery, ; United Nations (UN), 111,

16 Grade Civics and Government; Principles and Documents of Government Grade A: Cite functional examples of how the rule of law protects property rights, individual rights, and the common good B: Identify the different types of government and the processes they use in making laws. SE/TE: Purpose of government, 104; Limited Government, 105; Rule of Law, 108 SE/TE: Political Systems, ; also see: Law Systems, 109, 149, 151, 156, C: Explain how the principles and ideals shape local, state, and national government. Liberty / Freedom Democracy Justice Equality D: Summarize the basic principles and ideals within documents and the roles played by the framers as found in significant documents: Declaration of Independence United States Constitution Bill of Rights Pennsylvania Constitution E: Compare and contrast the individual rights guaranteed by the PA Constitution versus the U.S. Constitution F: Describe how the media uses political symbols to influence public opinion. 5.2 Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship A: Compare and contrast rights and responsibilities of citizenship in the community, state, and nation B: Compare the methods citizens use to resolve conflicts in society and government C: Describe the role of political leadership and public service SE/TE: Serving Her Country, 103; Limited Government, 105; Democracy, 106; Principles of Government, 108; Document-Based Questions: The Federalist, 115 SE/TE: Constitution, U.S., 109; Bill of Rights, 112; Declaration of Independence, 196 SE/TE: For related material see: Bill of Rights, 112 SE/TE: 21 st Century Learning: Analyze Media Content, SE/TE: Serving Her Country, 103; Rights and Responsibilities, ; Document-Based Questions: Voter Participation, 115 SE/TE: For related material see: Serving Her Country, 103; Limited Government, 105; Democracy, 106; Rule of Law, 108; Checks and Balances, 109; Citizenship, SE/TE: Serving Her Country, 103; Democracy, 106; Branches of Government, 109; Civic Life,

17 Grade D: Describe the citizen s role in the political process. 5.3 How Government Works A: Compare and contrast the responsibilities and powers of the three branches of government B: Define and compare the role and structure of local, state, and national governments C: Describe how local, state, and national governments provide services D: Identify leadership positions and the role of political party affiliation at the local, state, and national levels E: Describe the closed primary voting process in Pennsylvania F: Identify the different levels of the court system G: Explain the role of interest groups in local and Pennsylvania governments H: Describe the influence of mass media on society I: Identify types of local, state, and national taxes SE/TE: Serving Her Country, 103; Democracy, 106; Civic Life, 113 SE/TE: Branches of Government, 109 SE/TE: Political Structures (types and levels of governments in the United States), 108 SE/TE: For related material see: Political Structures (types and levels of governments in the United States), 108 SE/TE: For related material see: Political Structures (types and levels of governments in the United States), 108 SE/TE: For related material see: Political Structures, SE/TE: For related material see: Judicial Branch, 109; Using the courts to fight an injustice, 112 SE/TE: Civic Participation: Join an interest group, 113 SE/TE: 21 st Century Learning: Analyze Media Content, , Evaluate Web Sites, SE/TE: For related material see: Taxes and taxation, J: Identify various types of governments. 14 SE/TE: Political Systems, ; Government Systems: Afghanistan, 602; Albania, 279; Algeria, 418; Ancient Egypt, 405; Ancient Greece, , 145; Arabia and Iraq, 450; Australia, 744; Austria, 247; Bangladesh, 602; Belgium, 245; Bhutan, 602; Brunei, 706; Bulgaria, 279; Cambodia, 706; Caucasus, ; China, 105, 629, , 636, 639; Cuba, 107; Czech Republic, 276; East Timor, 706; Egypt, 409, 418;

18 Grade 7 (Continued) J: Identify various types of governments. England, 168, 169, 196; Estonia, 274, 275; Ethiopia, 375; France, 193, 197, 244; Georgia, ; Germany, 107, 197; Greece, 250; Hungary, 277; India, 602; Indonesia, 706; Iran, ; Israel, ; Italy, 197; Japan, ; Jordan, 491; Kazakhstan, 566; Laos, 706; Latvia, 274, 275; Lebanon, 491; Libya, 418; Lithuania, 274, 275; Malaysia, 706; Mongolia, ; Morocco, 418, 419; Myanmar, 706; Nepal, 602; New Zealand, 744; North Africa, ; North Korea, 107; Pakistan, 602; Russia, ; Saudi Arabia, 107, 450; Singapore, 706; South Africa, 383, 384; South Korea, ; Sudan, 383; Switzerland, 247; Syria, 491; Taiwan, 639; Turkey, ; United Kingdom, 107, ; United States, 105, 106, 108; Vietnam, 81; Zimbabwe, How International Relationships Function A: Identify how countries have varying interests. SE/TE: Trade Barriers and Free Trade, 67; Conflict and Cooperation, ; European Union, 211; International Issues, 214; At the Center of the European Union, 242, 243; Regional Newcomers, ; Russia and the World, ; The African Union, ; Problems and Potential, ; Resources and Trade, ; The Persian Gulf in Modern Times, ; Israel and Its Neighbors Today, ; How the Oil Rich Can Help the Oil Poor, ; Joining the World Economy, 564; Governments and Economies, ; Economic Growth: the Importance of Exports, ; Southeast Asia and the World, B: Describe how countries coexist in the world community. 15 SE/TE: Trade Barriers and Free Trade, 67; Conflict and Cooperation, ; European Union, 211; International Issues, 214; At the Center of the European Union, 242, 243; Regional Newcomers, ; Russia and the World, ; The African Union, ; Problems and Potential, ; Resources and Trade, ; The Persian Gulf in Modern Times, ; Israel and Its Neighbors Today, ; How the Oil Rich Can Help the Oil Poor, ; Joining the World Economy, 564; Governments and Economies, ; Economic Growth: the Importance of Exports, ; Southeast Asia and the World, 709; United Nations (UN), 111, 247

19 Grade D: Identify mass media sources and how they report world events. SE/TE: 21 st Century Learning: Analyze Media Content, Economics; Scarcity and Choice Grade A: Explain how limited resources and unlimited wants cause scarcity B: Compare decisions made because of limited resources and unlimited wants. Describe how resources are combined to produce different goods and services. SE/TE: Scarcity, SE/TE: Goods and Services, 58, 59, 60; Factors of Production, C: Define opportunity cost and describe the opportunity cost of personal choice. SE/TE: Opportunity Cost, D: Explain how positive and negative incentives affect behavior. SE/TE: Incentives, Markets and Economic Systems A: Describe the interaction of consumers and producers of goods and services in the state and national economy. SE/TE: Economic Basics, 58 59; Economic Process, 60 61; Economic Systems, B: Explain why and how market competition takes place. SE/TE: Economic Process, 60 61; Economic Systems, C: Explain how advertising influences economic decisions D: Explain the effects that changes in price have on buyers and sellers. SE/TE: Advertising, 61; also see: Planning a Marketing Campaign, SE/TE: Prices, 59, E: Explain the causes and effects of expansion and contraction of businesses. 16 SE/TE: For related material see: Inflation, 61; Recession, 61; Great Depression and, 202

20 Grade F: Explain the influence of private economic institutions on the local and state economy. SE/TE: For related material see: Economic Basics, 58 59; Economic Process, G: Examine how various economic systems address the three basic questions. What to produce? How? For whom? 6.3 Functions of Government A: Explain the impact of public goods and services on the local community and state B: Describe the impact of government involvement in state and national economic activities. SE/TE: Economic Systems, 62 63; see also Economy of Different Countries: Algeria, ; Arabia and Iraq, 439, 456; Australia, 745; Baltic Nations, 275; Bangladesh, 602; Belgium, 245; Central Asia and Caucasus, 564; China, ; Czech Republic, 276; Egypt, 417; Europe, 214; France, 244; Germany, 202, 214, 246; Greece, , 254; India, ; Iran, 524; Israel, 493; Italy, , 254; Japan, 669, 676; Jordan, 493; Kenya, 385; Lebanon, 493; Libya, ; Mongolia, 640, 641; New Zealand, 745; North Africa, ; North Korea, 675; Pacific region, 745; Pakistan, 602; Poland, ; Portugal, , 254; Russian Federation, 305, 307; Saudi Arabia, 457; Scandinavia, 239; Slovakia, 276; Slovenia, 277; Solomon Islands, 745; South Africa, 385; South Asia, 600, ; Southeast Asia, ; South Korea, 673; Southwest Asia, 493; Spain, , 254; Syria, 493; Taiwan, 640, 641; Tajikistan, 564; Turkey, ; United Kingdom, 237; West and Central Africa, ; Western Europe, 240; Yemen, 456 SE/TE: Goods and Services, 58, 59, 60; Public Health Organization, 110 SE/TE: Economic Basics, 58 59; Economic Process, 60 61; Economic Systems, 62 63; Economy of Different Countries: Algeria, ; Arabia and Iraq, 439, 456; Australia, 745; Baltic Nations, 275; Bangladesh, 602; Belgium, 245; Central Asia and Caucasus, 564; China, ; Czech Republic, 276; Egypt, 417; Europe, 214; France, 244; Germany, 202, 214, 246; Greece, , 254; India, ; Iran, 524; Israel, 493; Italy, , 254; Japan, 669, 676; Jordan, 493; Kenya, 385; Lebanon, 493; Libya, ; Mongolia, 640, 641; New Zealand, 745; North Africa, ; North Korea, 675; Pacific region, 745; Pakistan, 17

21 Grade 7 (Continued) B: Describe the impact of government involvement in state and national economic activities. 602; Poland, ; Portugal, , 254; Russian Federation, 305, 307; Saudi Arabia, 457; Scandinavia, 239; Slovakia, 276; Slovenia, 277; Solomon Islands, 745; South Africa, 385; South Asia, 600, ; Southeast Asia, ; South Korea, 673; Southwest Asia, 493; Spain, , 254; Syria, 493; Taiwan, 640, 641; Tajikistan, 564; Turkey, ; United Kingdom, 237; West and Central Africa, ; Western Europe, 240; Yemen, C: Explain the cost and benefits of taxation D: Identify how governments limit or promote international trade. 6.4 Economic Interdependence A: Explain why people specialize in the production of goods and services and divide labor B: Analyze how changes in trade affect standards of living C: Explain how multinational corporations and other non-government organizations contribute to economic interdependence D: Explain how transportation, communication networks, and technology contribute to economic interdependence. SE/TE: Taxes and Taxation, 151; also see: Tariffs, 67, 254, 709 SE/TE: Trade Barriers, 67; Tariffs, 67, 254, 709; Free Trade, 67, 239, 709; Economic Development, SE/TE: Specialization, SE/TE: Trade, 66 67; ancient Greece, ; Arabian Peninsula, 446; barter, 60; Crusades and, ; cultural traits and, 96 97; culture and, 585; definition of, 66; geography and, 66 67; Greece, 255; historical maps and, 125; India, 591, 602, 603; Industrial Revolution and, 198; Israel, 492, , 497; Middle Ages, ; Muslim empire, 446; North Africa, 403, 407; Persian empire, 515; Renaissance, , 180; Roman empire, 151; slave, 192, 342; Southeast Asia, 693, ; Southern and Eastern Africa, 373, 374; Sumatra, 699; Turkey, ; types of, 67; United Kingdom, 237; West and Central Africa, , 342 SE/TE: For related material see: Economic Process, SE/TE: Economic Development, 64 65; Trade, 66 67; Transportation Systems, 77, 97, 98 99, 198, 231, 294,

22 Grade Income, Profit, and Wealth A: Describe how people are compensated for their production of goods and services B: Describe the characteristics of productive workers D: Explain the relationship between risk and reward E: Describe how people accumulate tangible and financial assets through income, saving, and financial investment F: Explain the role of entrepreneurship in Pennsylvania G: Identify the costs and benefits of various financial tools available to savers H: Identify the effect of higher and lower interest rates. 7.1 Geography; Basic Geographic Literacy Grade A: Explain how common geographic tools are used to organize and interpret information about people, places, and environment B: Explain and locate places and regions as defined by physical and human features. 19 SE/TE: Wages, 640; also see: Money Management, 68 69; Money as an Incentive, 59 SE/TE: Economic Basics, SE/TE: For related material see: Entrepreneurs and, 57, 58, 62, 198, 237, 274, 456, 457 SE/TE: Money Management, 68 69; also see Banks and Banking: Luxembourg, 245; Renaissance, 178 SE/TE: For related material see: Entrepreneurs and, 57, 58, 62, 198, 237, 274, 456, 457 SE/TE: Money Management, SE/TE: Money Management, SE/TE: Tools of Geography: The Study of Earth, 4-5, Geography s Five Themes, 6 7, Ways to Show Earth s Surface, 8 9, Understanding Maps, 10 11, Types of Maps, 12 13; Climates and Ecosystems: Climate and Weather, 32 33, Temperature, 34 35, Water and Climate, 36 37, Air Circulation and Precipitation, 38 39, Types of Climate, 40 41, Ecosystems, 42 43; Human- Environment Interaction: Environment and Resources, 48 49, Land Use, 50 51, People s Impact on the Environment, 52 53; Population and Movement: Population Growth, 74 75, Population Distribution, 76 77, Migration, 78 79, Urbanization, SE/TE: Geography s Five Themes, 6 7; Understanding Maps, 10 11; Types of Maps, 12 13; Climate and Weather, 32 33; Types of Climate, 40 41; Ecosystems, 42 43; Land Use, 50 51; Population Distribution, 76 77; Urbanization, 80 81; Historical Maps, ; also see: Chapter Atlas, , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

23 Grade Physical Characteristics of Places and Regions A: Explain the characteristics of places and SE/TE: Types of Maps, 12 13; Climate and regions. Weather, 32 33; Water and Climate, 36 37; Types of Climate, 40 41; Ecosystems, 42 43; Environment and Resources, 48 49; Land Use, 50 51; also see: Chapter Atlas, , , , , , , , , , , , , , B: Describe the physical processes that shape patterns on Earth s surface. SE/TE: Forces on Earth s Surface, 24 25; also see: Water and Climate, 36 37; Ecosystems, 42 43; Erosion, Human Characteristics of Places and Regions A: Describe the human characteristics of places and SE/TE: Environment and Resources, 48 49; Land regions using the following criteria: Use, 50 51; People s Impact on the Environment, Population 52 53; Economic Basics, 58 59; Economic Culture Process, 60 61; Economic Systems, 62 63; Settlement Economic Development, 64 65; Trade, 66 67; Economic activities Money Management, 68 69; Population Growth, Political activities 74 75; Population Distribution, 76 77; Migration, 78 79; Urbanization, 80 81; What is Culture?, 86 87; Families and Societies, 88 89; Language, 90 91; Religion, 92 93; Art, 94 95; Cultural Diffusion and Change, 96 97; Science and Technology, 98 99; Foundations of Government, ; Political Systems, ; Political Structures, ; Conflict and Cooperation, ; Citizenship, Interactions Between People and the Environment A: Describe and explain the effects of the physical SE/TE: Climate and Weather, 32 33; systems on people within regions. Temperature, 34 35; Water and Climate, 36 37; Air Circulation and Precipitation, 38 39; Types of Climate, 40 41; Ecosystems, 42 43; Chapter Atlas, , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

24 Grade B: Describe and explain the effects of people on the physical systems within regions. SE/TE: Environment and Resources, 48 49; Land Use, 50 51; People s Impact on the Environment, 52 53; Natural Resources and the Environment, 267; Russia s Resources, ; People and the Land, ; Riches from the Land, ; Resources and Trade, ; Land Use and Energy, ; Climate and Land Use, ; Land Use and Resources, 582; Climate and Land Use, ; Land Use and Natural Resources, ; Environmental Threats, 663; Settlement and Land Use, History; Historical Analysis and Skills Development Grade A: Demonstrate continuity and change over time using sequential order and context of events. SE/TE: Tools of History: Measuring Time, , Historical Sources, , Archaeology and Other Sources, , Historical Maps, ; Timelines, 118, 153, , 341, 449, 484, B: Identify and use primary and secondary sources to analyze multiple points of view for historical events C: Form a thesis statement on an assigned topic using appropriate primary and secondary sources. (Reference RWSL Standard Research) SE/TE: Document-Based Questions, 15, 29, 45, 55, 71, 83, 101, 115, , 127, 147, 155, 163, 173, 187, 207, 216, 219, 249, 257, 283, 307, 319, 357, 359, 379, 391, 421, 423, 453, 465, 499, 501, 521, 535, 561, 595, 609, 637, 651, 671, 685, 703, 715, 741, 757; Analyze Primary and Secondary Sources, 126, 422 TE only: Primary Source Lesson Plan: Europe and Russia, T14, T122, T30, T50, T70, T78, T106, T134, T154; Africa, T28, T48, T84; Southwest Asia, T20, T56, T76; South and Central Asia, T20, T48; East and Southeast Asia, T20, T48, T76; Australia and the Pacific, T20 SE/TE: Document-Based Questions, 15, 29, 45, 55, 71, 83, 101, 115, , 127, 147, 155, 163, 173, 187, 207, 216, 219, 249, 257, 283, 307, 319, 357, 359, 379, 391, 421, 423, 453, 465, 499, 501, 521, 535, 561, 595, 609, 637, 651, 671, 685, 703, 715, 741, 757 TE only: Primary Source Lesson Plan: Europe and Russia, T14, T122, T30, T50, T70, T78, T106, T134, T154; Africa, T28, T48, T84; Southwest Asia, T20, T56, T76; South and Central Asia, T20, T48; East and Southeast Asia, T20, T48, T76; Australia and the Pacific, T20 21

25 Grade Pennsylvania History A: Identify the social, political, cultural, and economic contributions of specific individuals and groups from Pennsylvania B: Identify the role of local communities as related to significant historical documents, artifacts, and places critical to Pennsylvania history. SE/TE: For related material see: Serving Her Country, 103; Citizenship, SE/TE: For related material see: U.S. Capitol (photograph), 105, 108; Constitution, U.S., 109; Bill of Rights, 112; Declaration of Independence, C: Explain how continuity and change have impacted Pennsylvania history as related to local communities. Belief systems and religions Commerce and industry Technology Politics and government Physical and human geography Social organizations D: Identify local connections and examples of conflict and cooperation among groups and organizations and how this impacted the history and development of Pennsylvania. Ethnicity and race Working conditions Immigration Military conflict Economic stability 8.3 United States History A: Classify the social, political, cultural, and economic contributions of individuals and groups throughout United States history B: Examine the importance of significant historical documents, artifacts, and places critical to United States history C: Compare how continuity and change have impacted U.S. history. Belief systems and religions Commerce and industry Technology Politics and government Physical and human geography Social organizations SE/TE: For related material see: Serving Her Country, 103; Limited Government, 105; Democracy, 106; Political Structures, ; Citizenship, SE/TE: For related material see: Immigration, 73, 78, 79; World War I, 201; World War II, 204, 205; Terrorism, 593; Vietnam War, 701 SE/TE: Religion, 92 93; Political Structures, SE/TE: Constitution, U.S., 109; Bill of Rights, 112; Declaration of Independence, 196 SE/TE: Religion, 92 93; Political Structures,

26 Grade D: Examine conflict and cooperation among groups and organizations in U.S. history. Ethnicity and race Working conditions Immigration Military conflict Economic stability 8.4 World History A: Summarize the social, political, cultural, and economic contributions of individuals and groups in world history B: Explain the importance of historical documents, artifacts, and sites which are critical to world history. SE/TE: World War I and, 201; World War II and, ; Korean War, 668; United Nations (UN), 111, 247 SE/TE: Ancient and Medieval Europe, ; Europe in Modern Times, ; Western Europe Today, ; Eastern Europe Today, ; History of Russia, ; Russia Today, ; History of West and Central Africa, ; West and Central Africa Today, ; History of Southern and Eastern Africa, ; Southern and Eastern Africa Today, ; History of North Africa, ; North Africa Today, ; History of Arabia and Iraq, ; Arabia and Iraq Today, ; History of Israel and Its Neighbors, ; Israel and Its Neighbors Today, ; History of Iran, Turkey, and Cyprus, ; Iran, Turkey, and Cyprus Today, ; History of Central Asia and the Caucasus, ; Central Asia and the Caucasus Today, ; History of South Asia, ; South Asia Today, ; History of China and Its Neighbors, ; China and Its Neighbors Today, ; History of Japan and the Koreas, ; Japan and the Koreas Today, ; History of Southeast Asia, ; Southeast Asia Today, ; History of Australia and the Pacific, ; Australia and the Pacific Today, SE/TE: Document-Based Questions, 15, 29, 45, 55, 71, 83, 101, 115, , 127, 147, 155, 163, 173, 187, 207, 216, 219, 249, 257, 283, 307, 319, 357, 359, 379, 391, 421, 423, 453, 465, 499, 501, 521, 535, 561, 595, 609, 637, 651, 671, 685, 703, 715, 741, 757; Analyze Primary and Secondary Sources, 126, 422; Artifacts, 120, 123; Art, 94 95, 165, 179, 179, 251, 353, 407, 481, 525; Architecture, 94, 143, 158, 165, 407, 525 TE only: Primary Source Lesson Plan: Core Concepts, 12, 27, 33, 49, 97, 106, 110,

27 Grade C: Differentiate how continuity and change have impacted world history. Belief systems and religions Commerce and industry Technology Politics and government Physical and human geography Social organizations D: Explain how conflict and cooperation among groups and organizations have impacted the history of the world. SE/TE: Ancient and Medieval Europe, ; Europe in Modern Times, ; Western Europe Today, ; Eastern Europe Today, ; History of Russia, ; Russia Today, ; History of West and Central Africa, ; West and Central Africa Today, ; History of Southern and Eastern Africa, ; Southern and Eastern Africa Today, ; History of North Africa, ; North Africa Today, ; History of Arabia and Iraq, ; Arabia and Iraq Today, ; History of Israel and Its Neighbors, ; Israel and Its Neighbors Today, ; History of Iran, Turkey, and Cyprus, ; Iran, Turkey, and Cyprus Today, ; History of Central Asia and the Caucasus, ; Central Asia and the Caucasus Today, ; History of South Asia, ; South Asia Today, ; History of China and Its Neighbors, ; China and Its Neighbors Today, ; History of Japan and the Koreas, ; Japan and the Koreas Today, ; History of Southeast Asia, ; Southeast Asia Today, ; History of Australia and the Pacific, ; Australia and the Pacific Today, SE/TE: World War I, ; A War of Ideas, 203; World War II, ; Cold War and Division, ; European Union, 211, 243; Yugoslavia Splits, 278; Ethnic Conflict Continues, 279; Cold War Russia, 303; Independence and Beyond (Africa), ; Political Challenges, ; Independence and Conflict (Israel), ; The Palestinian-Israeli Conflict, ; Iran and the United States, 524; Divided Cyprus, ; Communists Take Control, 559; South Asia After Independence, ; Conflicts in South Asia, 601; International Conflicts and Connections, ; The Korean War, 668; Independence, War, and Recovery, ; United Nations (UN), 111,

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