1 Cold War ( conflict, with no fighting, between USA/Democracy and Soviet Union/Russia/ Communism 1) Define the Cold War and identify one reasons why the two nations mistrusted each other. 2) Analyze why the Soviet Union felt the need to take over countries in Eastern Europe. 3) Predict what the relationship between the US and Soviet Union will become in the future and explain how that relationship will impact other countries.
2 Theme of the day Did the US do enough to stop the spread of Communism in Europe (and China?) Look for evidence in today s lecture that will help you prove this point 1) What was Stalin s motivation? 2) Who is attracted to Communism? Is Communism really something to fear? (watch the movie) 3) What are some strategies the US used to prevent the spread of Communism? What s areas of Europe were prevented from becoming Communist? 4) ID where Stalin was successful in spreading Communism. What could the US have done to stop that?
3 Cold War ( ) diplomatic confrontation, without battles, between US/Democracy vs. Soviet Union/Communism Why would these two countries suddenly find themselves at odds with each other after being allies during WWII? US mistrusts communism (claims it will eventually take over the world- workers/poor will rise up against the owners/rich) Communists use fear to gain power Communism does not believe in freedom, private property, and religion Stalin killed his own people up to 20 mil. who spoke out against his Gov. (gulag- political prisoners not killed were sent to Siberia)
4 Soviet Union mistrusts US because US was expanding it s influence worldwide Economically (world buying US products ) Politically (US influences Gov.s around the world) Militarily (US has the A-Bomb) Socially (world wanting to act like Ameicans) Soviets never want to be invaded again (20 mil. Russians died in WWII) Evaluate if the Soviet Union should be mistrustful of the US after WWII
5 Yalta and Potsdam Conferences Big 3 (USA, Britain, and Soviet Union) meet to decide what will happen in Europe (Germany) after WWII Yalta (Feb. 1945) war not over yet, FDR, Churchill, and Stalin agree to split Germany into 4 Zones and free elections in Eastern Europe (occupied by Russia) Potsdam (July 1945) war against Germany over, still fighting Japan, FDR dead, unity that held Big 3 together (defeating Hitler) is gone so open disagreements occur Stalin sets up a Communist Government in Poland (breaks promise of free elections at Yalta) Stalin agrees to join war against Japan (fear Stalin will take land in Asia and turn it Communist- ie North Korea) Truman does not tell Stalin about Atomic Bomb (WHY? Is Stalin an ally?)
6 End of WWII- 35 million died and Europe is completely destroyed, needs to be rebuilt US- came out of WWII as the strongest country in the world and untouched by bombing Soviets- need to rebuild and want to be a world power like the US End of Allied Unity- US and Soviets fought together in WWII *alliance was based on defeating Hitler, not friendship Evaluate if you feel the US and Russia were friends during WWII?
7 Iron Curtain- Eastern European countries that Stalin forces to become Communist Stalin- has troops in Eastern Europe and keeps them under Soviet control after WWII (does not set them free) Buffer Zone- Stalin wanted a safety area to prevent another invasion of Soviet Union *Satellite Countries- Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary (Stalin forces Communism on them) What was Stalin s ultimate goal after WWII? To spread Communism or protect Soviet Union from invasion?
8 Cold War in Europe- US provides aid to help rebuild Europe after WWI and prevent the spread of Communism *US is no longer isolated I can explain the expanding international role of the United States by identifying several events where the United States took an active role in providing aid in Europe, as well as, defining and explaining the impact of United States involvement. Focus Topics Marshall Plan Containment Truman Doctrine Berlin Airlift NATO United Nations
9 Germany- split into 4 zones controlled by US, Eng., France, and USSR Germany is divided into two countries West Germany-(Democratic) 3 zones controlled by US, Eng. and France become one country East Germany (Communist) controlled by Russia Berlin- split into 4 zones too West Berlin (Dem.) part of West Germany but located in East Germany»?What is so unique about West Berlin?» *island of democracy surrounded by communism East Berlin (Communist)
10 Confronting Communism- How should the US try to stop the spread of Communism Containment- US should use force every time communists try to expand (George Kennan) *US believes Communists will avoid war because Com. believe they will eventually take over the world Evaluate who is the aggressor in the Cold War, USA or Soviet Union? Explain (think what your idea of the US has always been in regards to American values and think of what Americans feel are Communist values, is that true?)
11 Marshall Plan- US aid/$ to help Europe rebuild *idea- Europe would spend the money on US products, European countries buying US products will not want to be Communist?Why would they buy US products? Why not German, Japanese, or Chinese??How would Europe been different if the US had gone back to isolationism? * avoids mistake of WWI making Germany pay reparations and punishing Germany (instead US helps rebuild Germany, our enemy in WWII)
12 Truman Doctrine- stated US will help any country threatened by Communism Turkey and Greece- Soviets tried to take over but US aid prevented Communist takeover Why would be the strategic reason the Soviet s would want Greece and Turkey? (Look at above map, Red is Soviet controlled, Blue US allies)?how is the Truman Doctrine different from past US foreign policy? What problems might arise with continued enforcement of the Truman Doctrine?
13 Berlin Blockade Soviets upset US helping Germany rebuild, Why would the Soviet s want to make sure Germany never rebuilt and became prosperous? Blockade- Soviets close all traffic to West Berlin preventing supplies from reaching Berlin Airlift- US flies food and aid to Berlin for 1 year?what does the Berlin Airlift say about the US attitude towards Communism (Esp. right after WWII) *Symbol of US commitment to stop Communist expansion
14 NATO- military alliance of 12 European countries, Canada, and US *US pledges to protect Western Europe from Russia Soviet Response *Warsaw Pact- Soviet Alliance with Eastern European Countries Atomic Bomb- Russia explodes their own in 1949?How has the Cold War changed? What would a war b/t US and Russia look like? What should be the US response? *US develops Hydrogen Bomb (20xs bigger than Atomic Bomb)
15 Cold War at Home Objective: 1) Explain how the government created a feeling of hysteria and fear of Communists infiltrating the United States by defining and explaining the impact of McCarthyism HUAC 2) Identify why the Hollywood 10 and the Rosenberg s were targeted as being Communists by defining who they were, explain if they were fairly targeted, and the result of their being targeted
16 Cold War at Home 1. Americans are afraid Communists are secretly living in the US and causing Americans to spy on the US 2. HUAC (House Committee on Un-American Activities) accused Hollywood of enabling Communists to secretly input Pro- Communist messages in movies Why do you feel the Govt. went after Hollywood? Why does Hollywood get so much criticism sometimes? In the GD many Americans went to Communist meetings WHY do you think many Americans were interested in Communism during the Great Depression They felt US & Democracy was a failure (Communism was seen a an alternative where the Gov. created jobs and provided essential services (housing) for all people
17 3. Friendlies actors, film makers who gave names of suspected Communists (Ronald Reagan, Walt Disney) 4. Hollywood Ten writers, directors, and producers who refused to give names of people who went to Communist meetings in the 30 s If you were named, you lost everything! (friends, jobs, respect unless you gave more names) What do you think would happen to these people if they refused to give names? Blacklisted Hollywood 10 were never allowed to work ever again in Hollywood (and served time in jail) Who do you feel was being more American? Friendlies, who felt they were helping to stop Communism, or the Hollywood 10, who refused to rat on people
18 Rosenberg's Trial Ethel and Julius Rosenberg Accused of selling A-bomb secrets to Soviets (received the death penalty) Do you feel the Soviet s developed the A-Bomb on their own or stole the plans from the US? 1 st Americans executed for espionage (spying) Evidence was not conclusive and they were innocent of helping Soviets develop the A- Bomb Why do you feel the Americans were so passionate and spiteful towards the Rosenburg s?
19 McCarthyism McCarthyism witch hunt for Communists Explain what a witch hunt means? (Think- How many people really are witches? Why do people believe/support witch hunts?) Senator Joe McCarthy - mediocre senator from Wisconsin, (felt hunting Communists was a way to get re-elected and famous) The List McCarthy claimed to have a list of Communists that worked in the Govt. The # on the list changed and had no proof of Communists What do you think would happen if a person questioned McCarthy because he never provided evidence?
20 McCarthyism CONTINUED Americans felt McCarthy was doing the right thing. They did not know he was lying. Americans were afraid to speak out for fear of being labeled a Communist. Downfall McCarthy accused the ARMY of having Communists Televised hearings vs the Army s lawyers who demanded to see the evidence that McCarthy could not provide, McCarthy looked like a bully and lost support Analyze the new role television is going to fulfill in regards to informing Americans. Will television help or hurt the direction of information in the country? What new technologys is providing people with information to make form their opinions?
21 Communism in Asia Identify and show on a map two hot spots in Asia where Communism was threatening to spread in the late 40 s/early fifties and explain the American response to those two Hot Spots Evaluate if the US was correct in getting involved in the Korean War
22 Communism in Asia China Communists take over (Not a surprise to US, US sent aid and weapons to nationalists lead by Jiang Kai Shek but he was corrupt) Mao Zedong- Communist leader of China *Not under Soviet control Evaluate if China is a threat to the US? Should the US have done more to prevent China from becoming Communist?
23 United Nations Founded after WWII to protect the sovereignty (independence) of countries and human rights Made up member nations from around the world who each have a voice (General Assembly) Security Council- 13 members, SC has the power to send troops from member countries to enforce UN decisions 5 permanent members- US, Great Britain, France, Russia, China (each member has veto power meaning one of the permanent members can stop any UN action with their vote) Analyze some problems that will make the UN ineffective in carrying out it s goals
24 Korea- after WWII country split into 2 countries North Korea- Communist South Korea- under a US supported dictator Korean War- ( ) N. Korea invades S. Korea June of 1950 United Nations Police Action sends troops to defend S. Korea *US military makes up 50% of UN troops, 90% of airplanes *N. Korea controls nearly all of S. Korea by Sept. Evaluate if the US should get involved in a war halfway around the world? (Think about what you know about Korea today, North and South, and what would have happened to S. Koreans if the US had not intervened. Of course think of the US in Afghanistan and Iraq and the result of US intervention)
25 US enters the War (and China) Inchon- US troops land behind enemy lines, liberate S. Korea, and invade N. Korea to the border of China by Nov. US believes they will win the war by Christmas *China does not like US troops near it s border China invades N. Korea- 400,000 Chinese troops attack US/UN troops Battle of Chosan- 20,000 US casualties fighting against Chinese and N. Korean troops *one of US worst defeats ever, US now losing the war Evaluate some of the options the US could choose now that they are losing?
26 General MacArthur- In charge of US troops MacArthur threatens to use nuclear bombs on N. Korea and China *Tells the Chinese to surrender or else!! (without the President s approval) Pres. Truman- the President is the only person who can launch nuclear bombs *Truman fires MacArthur for going too far Did the President make the right decision in firing the greatest general in US history and a hero of WWII? How do you think Americans will react?
27 Korean Stalemate- war goes on for two more years with lots of fighting, casualties but little change in land gained *Armistice- war ends in 1953 (50,000 US dead, 1 mil.+ Chinese and Koreans) *importance- N. Korea believes it is still at war with S. Korea and US today N. Korea has the nuclear bomb and 1 mil. Troops in it s army US has 38,000 troops in S. Korea *if war happened today millions would die in Korea, Japan might be nuked, and Cal. might also be nuked Evaluate who won the war? Was it worth US involvement?
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