2 Aim: How does the U.S. and U.S.S.R. go from allies to rivals? Do Now: Communism holds that the world is so deeply divided into opposing classes that war is inevitable. Democracy holds that free nations can settle differences justly and maintain lasting peace. -President Harry S. Truman, Inaugural Address, January 20 th, 1949
4 THE COLD WAR ERA The Cold War ( ) Competition between the United States and the Soviet Union over opposing ideologies, for power and influence in the world. The Cold war was characterized by political, economic and military tensions. There was NEVER direct military engagement!
7 The Fair Deal Truman s opportunity to pass legislation. His continuation of FDR s New Deal. oraise minimum wage from 40 cents to 75 cents/hour. Federal funding for low-income housing construction. More federal funded estate projects (flood control, irrigation, and electric)
11 Cold War Origins Truman gets the sense that Stalin wants to spread Communism. Stalin wanted a harsh punishment for Germany, such as paying for all the Soviet losses in WWII. He wants their raw materials and industry to help rebuild. Truman wanted free-elections for Poland (under Soviet control). Never happens. Truman felt that spreading Democracy was vital to U.S. prosperity. Using Eastern European raw materials and new markets would allow the U.S. (and Democracy) to prosper. Stalin didn t like this idea
12 Stalin felt that establishing Origins Communist governments in Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Poland would help the U.S.S.R. recover from WWII devastating losses. In 1946, Truman decided it was Time to stop Babying the Soviets Containment = Taking measures to prevent any extension of communist rule to other countries. o Military bases set up around Soviet Union. o Create alliances to stop spread of Communism and block their trade.
13 The Iron Curtain falls Europe is divided into a Democratic Western Europe and a Communist Eastern Europe. Iron Curtain Division of Europe The Iron Curtain is not a real curtain, it is an imaginary line between Eastern Europe and Western Europe
15 Potsdam Conference In Germany Germany would be disarmed, divided into four zones (U.S., French, British and U.S.S.R.) Berlin also is divided.
16 Truman Doctrine Before WWII, Britain was financially supporting the effort to resist Communism in Greece and Turkey. After the war, Britain could no longer afford it, and asked the U.S. to for help. Truman accepts the role on March 12 th, 1947 when he asks Congress for $400 million in economic and military aid for Greece and Turkey. Truman and Congress agreed to protect those people who resist Soviet influence.
18 MARSHALL PLAN: After WWII, Europe was in chaos. Millions of people were living in refugee camps. This was ripe for Communism. In 1947, American Secretary of State George Marshall feared that the hungry and the homeless in Europe would support the communist. o He proposed that the U.S. give aid to European nations whom needed it. o 16 countries, in 4 years, would receive $13 billion in aid o Western Europe by 1952, was flourishing, Eastern Europe wasn t America s PLAN to rebuild Europe. This plan of rebuilding Europe is called the Marshall Plan
19 Germany Divided In 1948, the US, Britain and France decide to unite their occupied zones of Germany. They want Germany to be one country after the war. The Soviet Union fears a united Germany and refuses to allow the country to reunite. Germany is divided into West Germany (Democratic) and East Germany (Communist).
20 Berlin was the former capital of Germany. After World War II, the allies divided Berlin into four sections. The section with the British, FOCUS ON BERLIN the American and the French became known as West Berlin. The section of Berlin occupied by the Soviet Union became known as East Berlin.
21 United Germany? Berlin is occupied by the four allies, but is in the Soviet occupation zone. There was no agreement with Stalin, mandating a reunification. Stalin recognized the loophole. Stalin shuts off all highway and railroad routes going into West Berlin. No food or fuel was allowed to reach those people.
22 BERLIN AIRLIFT WHY: Because France, England and the United States unite their sections of Berlin into West Berlin. Once West Germany is created, Stalin closes all roads to Berlin. TheUS does not want West Berlin to fall into the Soviet Union hands, but the US also does not want to start shooting at the Russians. The solution was to help the people in West Berlin by flying food and fuel into the city. By May 1949, (327 days), the Soviets realized they were beat, and lift the blockade.
23 BERLIN WALL Many people living in East Berlin would cross over into West Berlin and then travel to West Germany. The escape of so many people embarrassed East Germany and the Soviet Union. In 1961, East German soldiers built a wall through the city of Berlin dividing East Berlin from West Berlin. The wall prevented people from leaving East Berlin. The wall remained until 1989.
24 NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization: o United States creates NATO in o NATO is a defensive military alliance of western European nations. If one NATO country is attacked by Russia, all the nations promise to come to the aid of the country attacked. o Belgium, Denmark, France, Britain, Ireland, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Norway, Canada, and Portugal. Turkey joins in 1952, West Germany in 1955.
26 WARSAW PACT Warsaw is the capital of Poland. Seeing NATO as a threat, and West Germany able to rearm, the Soviet Union form the Warsaw Pact. The Warsaw Pact included all of the countries inside the Iron Curtain Eastern European countries.
27 SOVIET INFLUENCE Soviet Union - after the war, much of Eastern Europe was occupied by Russian forces. Stalin promises to hold free election in the Eastern European countries under Soviet control. Later he changes his mind and installs communist government in all the Eastern European countries
28 SOVIET UNION Eastern European countries that remained under Soviet control were called Satellite Nations. Satellite nations Nations who are controlled and influenced by a more powerful nation
29 SOVIET UNION Soviet Union explodes their own atomic bomb in 1949 Soviet Union is the second country to have an atomic bomb
30 China Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek, resisted the Japanese during the war. His government was corrupt and inefficient. Communist leader Mao Zedong, gained support by supporting the peasants of China. He encouraged reading and improving food production. By 1945, most of Northern China was communist.
32 China When the defeated Japanese leave, that s when the Nationalist and Communists cease cooperation Civil War! In 1949, the Communists in China, led by Mao Zedong, drives out the Nationalists led by Chiang Kai-shek. He creates The People s Republic of China. Chiang Kai-shek is an ally of the United States. Chiang and his people escapes to the island of Formosa. This island is later renamed Taiwan. To this day, the United States still supports and pledges to defend Taiwan from Chinese attack.
34 The Cold War at home The Second Red Scare: o Senator Joseph McCarthy claims that he has 205 names of communists who are working in the entertainment industry and in the U.S. government McCarthyism House Committee on Un-American Activities calls people to testify before Congress and answer questions if they are communist or not. They are forced to name people who are communist
36 McCarthyism Many innocent people were named and their lives destroyed because of this process In the end, Senator McCarthy NEVER had a list of communist names. It was all a fake These witch hunts were part of McCarthyism. The House of Un-American Activities Committee is formed in 1938, to look into communist activity in the U.S.
37 Korea Japan annexed Korea in They ruled Korea until Japanese troops above the 38 th parallel surrendered to the Soviets, below to the Americans (After WWII) Two different nations develop, like in Germany Democratic and Communist.
38 War! June 25 th, 1950 North Korean troops cross the 38 th parallel. Days later North Korean troops move deep into South Korea. South Korea turns to the U.N. for help o They authorize military action The Soviets boycott the action because the U.S. recognized Taiwan as China
39 Korean War 16 countries send troops (90% American) in charge of defending Korea. Truman puts Gen. MacArthur in charge of defeating the communists At first, North Korean troops are very successful. They almost push the South Korean and US forces into the sea MacArthur launches a counter-attack on the Port of Inchon. He cuts off the North Korean supplies and communication. North Korean soldiers fall back
40 Truman vs. MacArthur As the US forces push the North Korean army all way to the Chinese border, final victory seems in sight. Then the Chinese send hundreds of thousands of troops across the border and attack UN forces. UN forces fall back and lose all of the advances they made MacArthur calls for the US to attack China with nuclear weapons. Truman refuses to attack China MacArthur publicly denounces Truman Truman fires MacArthur
41 Korean War Chinese and North Korean forces are pushed back across the 38 th parallel. The war seems like a stalemate. Macarthur tells Truman to invade China Truman disagrees A cease fire was agreed upon on June 23 rd, 1951.
42 War Ends A Cease Fire is called for in 1951 Today, North Korea is still a communist country. The world is very concerned over North Korea s nuclear weapons and will they use those weapons against the South Koreans. Today, the United States has over 30,000 solders still stationed in South Korea Korean War officially ended July 27, 1951 with a cease-fire. o More than 130,000 Americans had been killed or wounded. o Over 2 million Korean and Chinese casualties
44 Eisenhower Doctrine Troubles in the Middle East led Congress to adopt what becomes known as the Eisenhower doctrine in The United States would pledge to help any Middle Eastern Country resist Communist aggression Lebanon, in 1958 asks for help. U.S. sends troops marines to help political unrest.
47 Brinkmanship President Eisenhower s Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, is anticommunist. He has a philosophy of being willing to rage nuclear warfare and all of the U.S. force to prevent the spread of Communism. What s the idea of preventing the spread of Communism called?
51 CONFLICT OVER CUBA 1959 Fidel Castro leads a revolution with the help of the U.S. to over throw a dictator Castro claims that he is a friend of the U.S. Castro then sets up a communist system of government U.S. is upset and embarrassed that it supported Castro
52 Cuba January 3 rd, 1961 Eisenhower cuts off diplomatic ties with Cuba. Cuba now relies on Soviet aid. Under President Eisenhower, the CIA plans an invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles and those Cubans who resent Castro Exiles are people who have been forced to leave their own country
53 Bay of Pigs A few months after Kennedy becomes President, Eisenhower s plan to invade Cuba begins. On April 17, ,400 Cuban exiles land on the Bay of Pigs on the southern coast of Cuba. The CIA thought more people would join, once the invasion started. Eisenhower pushed for the invasion.
54 Bay of Pigs Nothing went as planned. The air strike didn t knock out the Cuban air force. Kennedy fails to use U.S. Air Force to support the landing. The landing fails. Those who did make it to shore met 25,000 Cuban troops, backed by Soviet tanks and aircraft. Many exiles die, or imprisoned. Kennedy is embarrassed and Castro seeks help from the Soviet Union to preventanother invasion from the U.S.
56 CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS Soviet Union plans to help Castro defend his island with the help of nuclear missiles In 1962, Soviet Union began to build a secret nuclear missile base on Cuba U.S. sends the U.S. Navy to blockade Cuba. No ships were allowed to enter or leave Cuba without U.S. inspection. If the ship refused to stop, the U.S. Navy was authorized to sink the ship. Khrushchev ordered his ships not to stop for any U.S. warship. He did not think Kennedy would risk sinking a Soviet ship over the missiles in Cuba. If a Soviet ship was sunk by a U.S. Navy ship, that action would lead to war.
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