AP Gov Exam Review Vocabulary AP U.S. Government and Politics/Economics Mr. Vasquez

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1 AP Gov Exam Review Vocabulary AP U.S. Government and Politics/Economics Mr. Vasquez These are all the concepts that we have studied in AP Government throughout the school year. Please review them and be familiar with definition and significance. Chapter 1 Introducing Government in America 1. Government 2. Public goods 3. Politics 4. Political participation 5. Single- issue groups 6. Policymaking system 7. Linkage institutions 8. Policy agenda 9. Political issue 10. Policymaking institutions 11. Public policy 12. Democracy 13. Majority rule 14. Minority rights 15. Representation 16. Pluralist theory 17. Elite and class theory 18. Hyperpluralism 19. Policy gridlock 20. Political culture 21. Gross domestic product Chapter 2 The Constitution 22. Constitution 23. Declaration of Independence 24. Natural rights 25. Consent of the governed 26. Limited government 27. Articles of Confederation 28. Shays Rebellion 29. U.S. Constitution 30. Factions 31. New Jersey Plan 32. Virginia Plan 33. Connecticut Compromise (Great Compromise) 34. Writ of habeas corpus 1

2 35. Separation of powers 36. Checks and balances 37. Republic 38. Federalists 39. Anti- Federalists 40. Federalist Paper #10 (main arguments) 41. Federalist Paper #51 (main arguments) 42. Bill of Rights 43. Equal Rights Amendment 44. Marbury v. Madison 45. Judicial review 46. First Amendment 47. Fifth Amendment 48. Sixth Amendment 49. Eighth Amendment 50. Ninth Amendment 51. Tenth Amendment 52. Bills of attainder 53. Ex post facto law Chapter 3- - Federalism 54. Federalism 55. Unitary governments 56. Confederation 57. Intergovernmental relations 58. Supremacy clause 59. McCulloch v. Maryland 60. Enumerated powers (expressed powers) 61. Implied powers 62. Elastic clause 63. Devolution 64. Gibbons v. Ogden 65. Full faith and credit 66. Extradition 67. Privileges and immunities 68. Dual federalism ( layer cake federalism ) 69. Cooperative federalism ( marble cake federalism ) 70. New federalism 71. Reserved powers 72. Inherent powers 73. Concurrent powers 74. Fiscal federalism 75. Categorical grants 76. Project grants 77. Formula grants 2

3 78. Block grants 79. Nullification 80. Unfunded mandates Chapter 4 Civil Liberties and Public Policy 81. Civil liberties 82. First Amendment 83. Fourteenth Amendment 84. Due process clause 85. Incorporation doctrine 86. Establishment clause 87. Free exercise clause 88. Equal protection clause 89. Prior restraint 90. Libel 91. Symbolic speech 92. Commercial speech 93. Probable cause 94. Unreasonable searches and seizures 95. Search warrant 96. Exclusionary rule 97. Fifth Amendment 98. Self- incrimination 99. Sixth Amendment 100. Plea bargaining 101. Eighth Amendment 102. Cruel and unusual punishment 103. Right to privacy 104. Barron v. Baltimore 105. Gitlow v. New York 106. Lemon v. Kurtzman 107. Engel v. Vitale 108. Near v. Minnesota 109. Schenck v. United States 110. Texas v. Johnson 111. Mapp v. Ohio 112. Miranda v. Arizona 113. Gideon v. Wainwright 114. Gregg v. Georgia 115. Roe v. Wade 116. Planned Parenthood v. Casey 117. Lawrence v. Texas Chapter 5 Civil Rights and Public Policy 3

4 118. Civil rights 119. Equal protection of the laws 120. Thirteenth Amendment 121. Civil Rights Act of Suffrage 123. Fifteenth Amendment 124. Poll taxes 125. White primary 126. Twenty- fourth Amendment 127. Voting Rights Act of Nineteenth Amendment 129. Comparable worth 130. Americans with Disabilities Act of Affirmative action 132. Scott v. Sandford 133. Plessy v. Ferguson 134. Brown v. Board of Education 135. Korematsu v. United States 136. Reed v. Reed 137. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke 138. Adarand Constructors v. Pena 139. Hernandez v. Texas 140. Equal Rights Amendment 141. Gratz v. Bollinger 142. de jure discrimination 143. de facto discrimination 144. Don t ask, Don t tell policy Chapter 6 Public Opinion and Political Action 145. Public opinion 146. demography 147. census 148. Melting pot 149. Minority majority 150. Reapportionment 151. Political socialization 152. Sample 153. Random sampling 154. Sampling error 155. Exit poll 156. Political ideology 157. Gender gap 158. protest 159. civil disobedience 160. political participation 4

5 161. random- digit dialing 162. Liberalism 163. Conservatism 164. voter turnout 165. political moderate 166. radical 167. reactionary 168. progressive 169. reformer 170. Libertarianism Chapter 7 The Mass Media and the Political Agenda 171. High- tech politics 172. Mass media 172. Media event 173. Press conference 174. Investigative journalism 175. Print media 176. Broadcast media 177. Narrowcasting 178. Chains 179. Beats 180. Trial balloons 181. Sound bites 182. Talking head 183. Policy entrepreneurs 184. Watchdog function 185. Yellow journalism 186. Watergate Scandal 187. Leak 188. Bias 189. Fairness Doctrine 190. Prior restraint 191. Near v. Minnesota 192. New York Times v. United States 193. New York Times v. Sullivan Chapter 8 Political Parties 194. Party competition 195. Political party 196. Rational- choice theory 197. Party image 198. Party identification 199. Ticket splitting 5

6 200. Party machines 201. Patronage 202. Closed primaries 203. Open primaries 204. Blanket primaries 205. National party convention 206. National committee 207. National chairperson 208. Coalition 209. Party eras 210. Critical election 211. Party realignment 212. New Deal coalition 213. Party dealignment 214. Third parties 215. Winner- take- all system 216. Proportional system 217. Coalition government 218. Responsible party model 219. Caucus 220. Party platform 221. Two- party system 222. Political efficacy 223. Linkage institutions 224. Party polarization Chapter 9 Nominations and Campaigns 225. Nomination 226. Campaign strategy 227. Caucus 228. Presidential primaries 229. McGovern- Fraser Commission 230. Superdelegates 231. Frontloading 232. National primary 233. Regional primaries 234. Party platform 235. Direct mail 236. Federal Election Campaign Act 237. Federal Election Commission (FEC) 238. Presidential Election Campaign Fund 239. Matching funds 240. Soft money Groups 242. Political action committees (PAC) 6

7 243. Selective perception 244. Citizens United v. FEC 245. Super PACs 246. General election 247. Delegate model (representational view) 248. Trustee model (attitudinal view) 249. Hard money 250. McCain- Feingold Act (Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act) Chapter 10 Elections and Voting Behavior 251. Legitimacy 252. Referendum 253. Initiative petition 254. Political efficacy 255. Civic duty 256. Voter registration 257. Motor Voter Act 258. Mandate theory of elections 259. Policy voting 260. Electoral college 261. Retrospective voting 262. Suffrage 263. Incumbent 264. Linkage institutions 265. Independent expenditures 266. Interest groups 267. Party identification Chapter 11 Interest Groups 268. Interest group 269. Iron triangle (also known as subgovernments or issue networks) 270. Potential group 271. Actual group 272. Collective good 273. Free- rider problem 274. Olson s law of large groups 275. Selective benefits 276. Lobbying 277. Electioneering 278. Amicus curiae briefs 279. Class action lawsuits 280. Union shop 281. Right- to- work laws 282. Public interest lobbies 7

8 283. Political Action Committees (PAC) 284. Nongovernmental organization (NGO) organization 286. Independent expenditures 287. Pluralism Chapter 12 Congress 288. Incumbents 289. Casework 290. Pork Barrel 291. Bicameral legislature 292. House Rules Committee 293. Filibuster 294. Speaker of the House 295. Majority leader 296. Whips 297. Minority leader 298. Standing committees 299. Joint committees 300. Conference committees 301. Select committees 302. Legislative oversight 303. Committee chairs 304. Seniority system 305. Caucus (congressional) 306. Bill 307. Delegate model (representational model) 308. Trustee model (attitudinal model) 309. Constituency 310. Lobbyist Chapter 13 The Presidency 311. Twenty- second amendment 312. Impeachment 313. Watergate 314. Twenty- fifth amendment 315. Cabinet 316. National Security Council 317. Council of Economic Advisers 318. Office of Management and Budget 319. Veto 320.Pocket veto 321. Presidential coattails 322. War Powers Resolution 8

9 323. Legislative veto 324. Crisis 325. Line item veto 326. Presidential coattails 327. Lame duck 328. Executive order 329. Executive privilege 330. United States v. Nixon 331. Mandate 332. Inherent powers 333. Pyramid structure 334. Article II 335. Electoral College 336. Independent agencies Chapter 14 The Congress, the President, and the Budget Vocabulary 337. Budget 338.Deficit 339. Expenditures 340. Revenues 341. Income tax 342. Sixteenth Amendment 343. Federal debt 344. Tax expenditures 345. Social Security Act 346. Medicare 347. Incrementalism 348. Uncontrollable expenditures 349. Entitlements 350. House Ways and Means Committee 351. Senate Finance Committee 352. Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of Congressional Budget Office 354. Budget resolution 355. Reconciliation 356. Authorization bill 357. Appropriations bill 358. Continuing resolutions 359. Mandatory spending Chapter 15 The Federal Bureaucracy 360. Bureaucracy 361. Patronage 362. Pendleton Civil Service Act 9

10 363. Civil service 364.Merit principle 365. Hatch Act 366. Office of Personnel Management 367. GS (General Schedule) rating 368. Senior Executive Service 369. Independent regulatory agency 370. Government corporations 371. Independent executive agency 372. Policy implementation 373. Standard operating procedures 374. Administrative discretion 375. Street- level bureaucrats 376. Regulation 377. Deregulation 378. Command- and- control policy 379. Incentive system 380. Executive orders 381. Iron triangles 382. Appropriation 383. Oversight 384. Entitlement programs 385. Discretionary spending Chapter 16 The Federal Courts 386. Standing to sue 387. Class action suits 388. Justiciable disputes 389. Original jurisdiction 390. Appellate jurisdiction 391. District courts 392. Courts of appeal 393. U.S. Supreme Court 394. Senatorial courtesy 395. Solicitor general 396. Opinion 397. Stare decisis 398. Precedent 399. Original intent 400. Judicial implementation 401. United States v. Nixon 402. Judicial restraint 403. Judicial activism 404. Political questions 405. Statutory construction 10

11 406. Marbury v. Madison 407. Amicus curiae briefs 408. Concurring opinion 409. Dissenting opinion 410. In forma pauperis 411. Plaintiff 412. Writ of certiorari 413. Rule of four Chapter 17 Economic Policymaking 414. Capitalism 415. Multinational corporations 416. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) 417. Labor union 418. Unemployment rate 419. Underemployment 420. Inflation 421. Consumer price index (CPI) 422. Monetary policy 423. Fiscal policy 424. Monetarism 425. Federal Reserve system (The Fed) 426. Supply- side economics 427. National Labor Relations Act 428. Taft- Hartley Act Chapter 18 Social Welfare Policymaking 429. Entitlement programs 430. Means- tested programs 431. Income 432. Wealth 433. Poverty line 434. Feminization of poverty 435. Progressive tax 436. Regressive tax 437. Social Security Act of Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act Chapter 20 National Security Policymaking 439. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 440. Containment doctrine 441. Secretary of State 442. Secretary of Defense 11

12 443. Joint Chiefs of Staff 444. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 445. Isolationism 446. Cold War 447. Foreign policy 448. United Nations 449. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 12

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