Chapter 15: Secession and the Civil War

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1 Chapter 15: Secession and the Civil War AP United States History Week of February 3, 2016

2 The Storm Gathers Secession of Deep South While the election of Abraham Lincoln (pictured) prompted secession of seven states, it did not immediately lead to conflict December 20, 1860 South Carolina secedes Why? Constitution was a compact between states, from which states could withdraw Moderate cooperationists believed states should act as a unit By Feb 1: SC, AL, MS, FL, GA, LA had left union Why not upper south? Foothold of old Whig party and unionist sentiment Economic diversification, importance of free labour, ties to northern economy

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4 Secession of Deep South, Part II Compromises to save the Union failed, and war broke out between the North and South in the spring of 1861 February 4: delegates from the Deep South established the Confederate States of America Constitution featured moderate, pro-southern interpretations of US constitution Example: no interference with slavery President was Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi Moderation from the delegates: goal was to win support of upper South Also: South was opposed to dissolving Union as long as they didn t interfere with slavery Problem: Lincoln was elected South really just wanted a pre-republican Party union; they even allowed free states to join

5 Secession of Deep South, Part III: Compromise Fails Compromises to save the Union failed, and war broke out between the North and South in the spring of 1861 Moderates in North and border states were working towards a compromise Crittenden compromise would have extended 36º30 line to Pacific Also: constitutional amendment prohibiting regulation of slavery, federal compensation for escaped slaves Lincoln adamantly opposed compromise; compromise failed Could this have prevented war? Would it have satisfied Lincoln s objectives?

6 Arrival of the War Once the possibility of compromise failed, the options were peaceful separation or war Lincoln called for cautious and limited use of force Wanted Confederacy to begin hostilities Ft. Sumter in South Carolina needed reinforcements Lincoln sent reinforcements, but Confederates attacked the fort Lincoln proclaimed insurrection and called forth militia Border states did not want to send troops to maintain the Union More states seceded Effects of Ft. Sumter: North felt patriotism and dedication to Union

7 Adjusting to Total War The Civil War was a total war that involved every aspect of society. Victory for the North would mean complete overthrow of the Southern government. Was this a war to restore the Union, or a war to end the Southern practice of slavery? The North was better prepared at the onset of war Population, industrial capacity, railroad mileage The South had advantages: military leadership, familiar terrain, sympathetic civilian population Also: South could fight a defensive war Northern strategy anaconda plan blockade ports, control Mississippi, cut off supplies Key Mississippi River cities: Vicksburg, MS, and New Orleans, LA

8 Adjusting to Total War, Part II: Mobilizing Two challenges were producing materials for the war and financing the war itself North and South both relied on private industry North initially struggled, but by 1863 its strong economy was producing enough South had a weaker industrial base and imported many goods Later in war, due blockade, government produced and provided war materials Farmers were reluctant to shift to growing food, and rail network was limited Result: undernourished Confederate troops, food shortages, food riots Both governments printed more money, leading to inflation

9 Adjusting to Total War, Part III: Political Leadership How much democracy and individual freedom would be allowed in a war in which the military needed loyalty and the government needed full allegiance? North and South both made president commander-in-chief of Army and Navy Lincoln assumed broad wartime powers April 27, 1861: declared martial law, suspended writ of habeas corpus between Philadelphia and Washington Administration still allowed political dissent Lincoln was a strong party leader he defined party issues and principles in a way that kept nation together Jefferson Davis did not adequately address problems on home front Economy (and morale) deteriorated, did not declare martial law Admit absence of two-party system, by 1863, Davis had lost much support

10 Adjusting to Total War, Part IV: Early Battles The first major battles of the war starting with the Battle of Bull Run were disasters for the North Confederate General Thomas Stonewall Jackson stopped Union advance towards Manassas, VA Battle of Bull Run was big Confederate victory General George McClellan took over as Washington-area commander General Ulysses Grant captured Forts Henry and Donelson Confederates withdrew, but launchd a surprise attack at Battle of Shiloh Union USS Monitor fought Confederate Virginia (originally USS Merrimac) to a stalemate McClellan marched and fought to outskirts of Richmond, but Confederate General Robert E. Lee Lee drove Union forces out of Richmond, back into Maryland Lee and McClellan met in Maryland at Battle of Antietam bloodiest day of the war McClellan did not pursue Lee, who escaped

11 Adjusting to Total War, Part V: Diplomatic Struggles The South fought to gain recognition from foreign powers to help break the Union blockade. The North had to be careful not to end up in two-front war, against both a European power and the Confederacy England and France depended on the South for cotton May, 1861: England and France recognized southern belligerency South could purchase, outfit privateers at international ports Union intercepted Confederate envoys to Britain and France Eventually Lincoln freed envoys Confederacy did not gain official European recognition Britain and France both hesitated As a result of Antietam and England importing cotton from Egypt and India sealed fate for South

12 Fight to the Finish: Emancipation As the war dragged on, the tide shifted in favor of emancipating slaves and bringing blacks into the war on the Union side Slavery was key to the Confederacy s war effort, and the South s economic and social system Initially, Lincoln opposed freeing slaves in Union-occupied areas Prejudice still very present in North Following Antietam victory, Lincoln delivered preliminary proclamation Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863 Ordered all slaves freed in areas of rebellion against government Didn t actually have a great impact on slavery itself However, it did commit North to abolishing slavery as a war aim

13 African Americans, Economies, and the War Emancipation Proclamation inspired Southern slaves to free themselves and African Americans to join the union Union troops captured slaves and freed them Many, however, fought for Confederacy Congress authorized Lincoln to accept African Americans in the army Confederacy faced food shortages, inflation, profiteering Northern industries boomed Medical care: Clara Barton and Dorothea Dix helped Union troops in camps

14 Tide of the War Turns: Gettysburg and Vicksburg By 1863, the Confederacy was in shambles: economy and social order were collapsing. The North, however, was also beset by problems of morale There was a prominent peace movement in the North Copperheads Battle of Fredericksburg: General Lee defeated General Burnside s troops in Virginia Confederates earned another victory at Battle of Chancellorsville Battle of Gettysburg occurred at a low point for Union morale Monumental Union victory; Confederates retreated back to Virginia Ulysses Grant attacked Vicksburg, Mississippi Siege of Vicksburg lasted one month Union now controlled Mississippi River Lincoln delivered Gettysburg Address on July 4, 1863 Spoke about reason for fighting: freedom, equality, self-government Also: extending the Declaration of Independence

15 Last Stages of Conflict: Sherman and the Invasion of Georgia Victories by Ulysses Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman primed the North for an invasion of Georgia Lincoln named Ulysses Grant commander of all Union forces Union forces suffered heavy losses in Virginia: Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor General William Tecumseh Sherman moved Union troops from Tennessee to Atlanta Sherman s forces laid siege to and bombarded Atlanta Marched from Atlanta to Savannah and destroyed everything in sight Sherman s capture of Atlanta helped Lincoln in 1864 election Sherman also captured Savannah and proceeded north Lee surrendered April 9, at Appomattox Courthouse Lincoln was shot on April 14 by John Wilkes Booth, a pro-confederate actor

16 Effects of the War The Civil War began to change gender roles in society, emancipated slaves, underscored the supremacy and activism of the federal government, Women in the North worked as nurses and in administrative jobs Sanitary Commission nurses provided health care services in army camps War did not completely remove barriers to sexual equality Southern women had to take on a larger economic role Government took on larger economic-development role High tariff, homestead act for settlers, land grants to railroad companies, national banking system Civil War transformed United States into a more organized and incorporated nation The North won through large-scale industrialization and organization

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