Civil War & Reconstruction: Division in America

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1 Civil War & Reconstruction: Division in America

2 Perspective North: The Civil War South: The War Between the States The War of Northern Aggression The War for Southern Independence

3 Causes 1. Slavery 2. Economic/regional differences 3. Meaning of states rights 4. Distrust 5. Emergence of the Republican Party (antislavery) that had political clout 6. Reaction to the Election of 1860 Lincoln being elected (South doesn t trust him)

4 Attack on Fort Sumter

5 Lincoln Responds Calls upon northern states for troops (75,000) Goal Squelch the rebellion & preserve the union Lincoln gets an overwhelming response; support from even his political enemies Rest of southern states must make a choice Are they staying or are they going?

6 U.S. Map

7 The North Advantages: Larger population More wealth Industry to support the war Food production Extensive rail system Big Disadvantage: Lack of quality military leadership

8 The South Advantages: Strong military leadership Robert E. Lee commanding general Home field advantage Stronger motivation to fight out to prove something Disadvantages: Lack of industry Less population

9 Key Battles Fort Sumter Attack by southern forces Bull Run (1 st Manassas) First major battle Union army is devastated Antietam Bloodiest one day battle 23,000 are killed; Confederate army repelled; Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation soon after Gettysburg Three day battle that was a huge turning point in the war (July 1-3, 1863) Vicksburg Victory by the Union army gives them control of the Mississippi River Sherman s March to the Sea Nov. & Dec Appomattox Lee surrenders to Grant (April 9, 1865)

10 How will the South be treated? Conquered territory or equal states? Lincoln s 10 percent plan Viewed by many as a soft approach 10% of the voting population (based on 1860 election) must sign loyalty oaths could be reinstated to the union Rewrite their state constitutions to abolish slavery Lincoln agrees to pardon all residents of the South except for the highest ranking military & political officials 10 percent plan is despised by the Radicals in the Republican Party Wade-Davis Bill passes Congress Much tougher Lincoln uses the pocket veto

11 Firsts during the Civil War Use of the ironclads Repeat firing rifles Machine guns Railway to move troops Telegraph for communication Suspension of habeas corpus Video link: 8

12 Reconstruction Time period from 1865 to 1876 Key Amendments: 13 th Amendment abolishes slavery 14 th Amendment grants citizenship to former slaves; defines citizenship; and equal protection clause 15 th Amendment suffrage granted to all men regardless of race or ethnicity

13 Power Struggle Begins Lincoln is assassinated (April 14, 1865) Andrew Johnson (VP) becomes president

14 A. Johnson vs. Republicans in Congress Radical Republicans don t trust Johnson Many reasons: southerner, slave owner, seemed to be sympathetic to the South Johnson wants to continue Lincoln s soft approach Republican leadership wants to punish the South

15 Conditions for former slaves did not change Mass poverty Little to no education Many ended up working on the same plantations for a very low wage No representation in the state legislatures Black Codes laws passed in southern states to restrict freedoms of blacks

16 Sample Black Codes - Louisiana... Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the police jury of the parish of St. Landry, That no negro shall be allowed to pass within the limits of said parish without special permit in writing from his employer. Whoever shall violate this provision shall pay a fine of two dollars and fifty cents, or in default thereof shall be forced to work four days on the public road, or suffer corporeal punishment as provided hereinafter.... Sec No negro shall be permitted to rent or keep a house within said parish. Any negro violating this provision shall be immediately ejected and compelled to find an employer; and any person who shall rent, or give the use of any house to any negro, in violation of this section, shall pay a fine of five dollars for each offence. Sec Every negro is required to be in the regular service of some white person, or former owner, who shall be held responsible for the conduct of said negro. But said employer or former owner may permit said negro to hire his own time by special permission in writing, which permission shall not extend over seven days at any one time.... Sec No public meetings or congregations of negroes shall be allowed within said parish after sunset; but such public meetings and congregations may be held between the hours of sunrise and sunset, by the special permission in writing of the captain of patrol, within whose beat such meetings shall take place....

17 More Black Codes Sec No negro shall be permitted to preach, exhort, or otherwise declaim to congregations of colored people, without a special permission in writing from the president of the police jury.... Sec No negro who is not in the military service shall be allowed to carry fire-arms, or any kind of weapons, within the parish, without the special written permission of his employers, approved and indorsed by the nearest and most convenient chief of patrol.... Sec No negro shall sell, barter, or exchange any articles of merchandise or traffic within said parish without the special written permission of his employer, specifying the article of sale, barter or traffic.... Sec Any negro found drunk, within the said parish shall pay a fine of five dollars, or in default thereof work five days on the public road, or suffer corporeal punishment as hereinafter provided. Sec It shall be the duty of every citizen to act as a police officer for the detection of offences and the apprehension of offenders, who shall be immediately handed over to the proper captain or chief of patrol....

18 Congress Responds Passage of four Reconstruction Acts Civil Rights Acts of 1866 Creation of the Freedmen s Bureau creates financial assistance programs & schools for blacks living in the South South is divided into military districts & occupied by Union forces Tenure of Office Act leads to impeachment of Andrew Johnson Survives removal by one vote in the Senate trial

19 Military Districts

20 End of Reconstruction Election of 1876: Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) vs. Samuel Tilden (Democrat) Tilden wins the popular vote However, the Electoral College is disputed Allegations of corruption 2 nd corrupt bargain = South agrees to allow Hayes to be POTUS, but the North must remove the military troops Reconstruction collapses Leads to the rise of segregation in the South Blacks living in the South experience oppression through political and social means Violence, intimidation, voting restrictions blacks are treated as 2 nd class citizens in the South Federal gov t does nothing about Civil Rights until the 1950s and 1960s

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