OECD Strategic Education Governance A perspective for Scotland. Claire Shewbridge 25 October 2017 Edinburgh

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1 OECD Strategic Education Governance A perspective for Scotland Claire Shewbridge 25 October 2017 Edinburgh

2 CERI overview What CERI does Generate forward-looking research analyses and syntheses Identify and stimulate educational innovation Promote international exchange of knowledge and experience

3 This presentation. OECD CERI Strategic Education Governance Fed into the consultation document for proposed reform in Scotland Empowering teachers, parents and communities to achieve: Excellence and equity in education, pp 4-5 A few key findings from an OECD review of the Scottish school system in 2015 Further insights from PISA 2015 results (released December 2016) Some considerations for a successful reform The need to balance autonomy with a constructive accountability mechanism Not an easy task! A challenge shared among OECD systems Promoting more strategic education governance

4 OECD CERI - Strategic education governance Meeting challenges of how to Encourage strategic thinking Design accountability mechanisms Build capacity for policy making and implementation Based on five key elements of effective governance in complex systems Get governance processes right Build in flexibility and adapt to unexpected events Involve stakeholders in open dialogue Look at the system as a whole Harness evidence and research effectively for policy reform

5 OECD review in 2015 Mixed evidence on overall quality of Scottish schooling Scottish students performing above the OECD average in science and reading and at the average in mathematics (PISA 2012) But some declining achievement levels on international data and also on Scottish data Positive attitudes reported by Scottish teenagers (PISA 2012) Positive points for equity Scottish schools are inclusive Migrant students do well But national data show persistent gaps between students in least and most deprived areas

6 Significant drop in average performance of Scottish students in the PISA mathematics test Between 2003 and 2012 when mathematics was the main part of the PISA test 6

7 Negative trend confirmed in PISA 2015 Science performance Scottish students performed at the OECD average in PISA 2015 In earlier PISA surveys, their performance was above average (515 in 2006) A lower proportion of students performing well on the most challenging PISA science tasks Mean score PISA 2015 SCIENCE Japan Chinese Taipei Macao (China) Viet Nam B-S-J-G (China) New Zealand Australia Germany Ireland Denmark Portugal Sweden Austria Spain Russia Italy Hungary CABA (Argentina) Israel Malta Bulgaria Singapore Estonia Finland Canada Hong Kong (China) Korea Slovenia UK Netherlands Belgium Poland Norway United States Scotland France Czech Republic Latvia Luxembourg Lithuania Croatia Iceland Slovak Republic Greece Chile United Arab Emirates Figure I Romania Uruguay Turkey Trinidad and Tobago Costa Rica Qatar Mexico Montenegro Moldova Albania Thailand Colombia Georgia Jordan 10 countries perform below this line

8 Singapore Chinese Taipei Japan Finland B-S-J-G (China) Estonia New Zealand Canada Australia Netherlands United Kingdom Korea Slovenia Germany Switzerland Macao (China) Belgium United States Sweden Viet Nam France Norway OECD average Austria Malta Scotland Portugal Hong Kong (China) Poland Czech Republic Ireland Denmark Luxembourg Israel Spain Hungary Lithuania Italy Croatia Latvia Iceland Russia Slovak Republic Bulgaria United Arab Emirates CABA (Argentina) Greece Qatar Trinidad and Tobago Uruguay Chile Georgia Moldova Romania Brazil Montenegro Thailand Lebanon Albania Colombia Turkey FYROM Jordan Costa Rica Peru Mexico Indonesia Tunisia Algeria Dominican Republic Kosovo Scottish students losing ground at the top Percentage of top performers in science (PISA 2015) Table I.2.2a % There was a higher than average proportion of top performers in the PISA 2006 science test 12.5% Scotland; 9.0% OECD average 5 0

9 Viet Nam Macao (China) Estonia Hong Kong (China) Singapore Japan Canada Finland Chinese Taipei Korea Slovenia Ireland Denmark B-S-J-G (China) Poland Germany Latvia Portugal United Kingdom New Zealand Australia Russia Spain Switzerland Netherlands Norway Scotland Belgium United States Czech Republic Austria OECD average Sweden France CABA (Argentina) Italy Croatia Lithuania Iceland Luxembourg Hungary Slovak Republic Israel Malta Greece Chile Bulgaria Romania Uruguay Albania United Arab Emirates Moldova Turkey Trinidad and Tobago Costa Rica Thailand Mexico Colombia Jordan Qatar Georgia Montenegro Indonesia Brazil Peru Lebanon FYROM Tunisia Kosovo Algeria Dominican Republic Percentage of lowest performers in science (PISA 2015) Table I.2.2a % Lowest performers in PISA 2006 science test 19.3% OECD average 14.6% Scotland

10 Dominican Republic CABA (Argentina) Peru Singapore France Hungary B-S-J-G (China) Luxembourg Chile Bulgaria Belgium Czech Republic Slovak Republic Germany Switzerland Chinese Taipei New Zealand Spain Austria Japan Portugal Poland Australia Israel Uruguay OECD average Malta Ireland Greece Jordan Lebanon Romania Slovenia Costa Rica Italy Mexico Finland Georgia Netherlands Sweden Brazil Moldova Lithuania Canada Qatar United States Denmark Colombia Indonesia Korea Norway Tunisia United Arab Emirates United Kingdom Scotland Russia Croatia Trinidad and Tobago FYROM Viet Nam Turkey Estonia Hong Kong (China) Latvia Montenegro Kosovo Iceland Thailand Macao (China) Algeria Disadvantaged Scottish students fare relatively better in basic science proficiency Figure I.6.9 Odds ratio 7 Odds ratio that disadvantaged students do NOT attain the baseline level of proficiency in science (PISA 2015)

11 Greece Costa Rica Jordan CABA (Argentina) Israel Sweden France Slovenia Austria Germany Netherlands Denmark Italy Norway Belgium OECD average Spain Croatia United States Luxembourg Switzerland Qatar Portugal Russia United Arab Emirates United Kingdom Scotland Ireland Australia Estonia Hong Kong (China) New Zealand Canada Macao (China) Singapore Relative performance of immigrant students in science Similar to other students in Scotland and stronger than counterparts in many other systems (PISA 2015) Figure I Score points Non-immigrant students Second-generation immigrant students First-generation immigrant students

12 Scottish students report strong approach to acquiring scientific knowledge Figure I.2.32 Students' epistemic beliefs (PISA 2015) Scotland United Kingdom OECD average The ideas in <broad science> science books sometimes change Sometimes <broad science> scientists change their minds about what is true in science It is good to try experiments more than once to make sure of your findings Good answers are based on evidence from many different experiments Ideas in <broad science> sometimes change A good way to know if something is true is to do an experiment Percentage of students who agreed with the following statements

13 Complex systems: many actors involved and the need for a constructive accountability system PISA survey cycles have allowed insight to the greater number of actors involved in decision making Well established trend to greater responsibility at the school level But starting to reverse between 2009 and 2015 Fewer principals reported having considerable responsibility over budget, hiring teachers or courses offered at school PISA 2015 highlighted the interplay between autonomy and accountability Science performance better when principals report greater autonomy over resources, curriculum and other school policies But especially in countries where achievement data are tracked over time or posted publicly principals report higher levels of educational leadership OECD Governance in Complex Education Systems case studies revealed challenges in striking this balance in all systems

14 Complex systems: stakeholder involvement, capacity building and constructive accountability System Focus of the case study Implementation lessons Flanders (Belgium) Germany Poland Sweden Netherlands Norway Attainment targets & stakeholder participation Building local capacity & promoting use of data Implementation of new school supervision system Devolution of decision making to municipal authorities Improving the performance of weak primary schools Implementation of formative student assessment programme Overall context of multi-level governance Local factors that influence the relative effectiveness Logistical & structural issues; building trust in evaluation for improvement Lack of local capacity building & system vision Dynamics of implementation; role of the media and parents Dynamics of change and capacity building for teachers when going large scale

15 A framework for strategic education governance Crafting, sharing and consolidating a system vision Overcoming system inertia Strategic thinking Adapting to changing contexts and new knowledge Developing synergies within the system and moderating tensions Whole-of-system perspective Balancing urgencies/ short-term priorities with the long term system vision Collecting quality and rich data for research and decisionmaking Enabling local discretion while limiting fragmentation Facilitating access to data and knowledge Knowledge governance Accountability Promoting a culture of learning and improvement Promoting a culture of using rich data and knowledge Ensuring capacity for policymaking and implementation Integrating stakeholder knowledge and perspectives Capacity Stimulating horizontal capacity building Fostering support, shared responsibility, ownership and trust Stakeholder focus

16 Thank you!

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