Where is Europe located?

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1

2 Where is Europe located?

3 Where in the world is Europe?

4 How does Texas compare to Europe?

5 How does the U.S. compare to Europe?

6 Albania Andorra Austria Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany There are 45 countries in Europe! Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia and Montenegro Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

7 Europe Great Britain, France, Ireland, Spain, Germany This region has historically been invaded from within their own region/peoples. Outside threats/invaders include Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Most of the internal fighting came to an end after WWII ( ) when peace treaties were signed and alliances were formed, and again with the end of the Cold War and fall of the Iron Curtain. Immigration Europe has received many immigrants from former colonies (Britain: South Asia and the Middle East; France: North Africa, and Sub Saharan Africa) and other countries, which has led to tension as new ethnic groups, languages, and religions are introduced into otherwise homogenous societies. Contemporary The small countries of Europe have gained economic and political clout on the international stage through formation of the European Union.

8 WAYS IN WHICH HUMAN MIGRATION INFLUENCES PLACES AND REGIONS Include cultural exchanges, adaptations and clashes, advances in technology, use of natural resources, trade, etc. Presence in Europe of immigrant from former colonies Push and pull factors that influence patterns of migration Migration to Europe from former colonies developing world; looking for work; intra European migration because of labor surpluses

9 Multicultural society is one in which two or more cultures exist within close proximately Positive qualities of multiculturalism: Cultures borrow from each other Larger varieties of food, traditions, music, religions create opportunities Example: Indian food at its height in England Negative qualities of multiculturalism: Cultures often clash socially, economically or politically Examples: Moves to ban the veil in France, racism in Netherlands, Germany, and Scandinavia 2012, TESCCC

10 EXPERIENCES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF DIVERSE GROUPS TO MULTICULTURAL SOCIETIES Experiences of diverse groups within multicultural societies will vary by society: Muslims in Europe Contributions of diverse groups to multicultural societies will vary by society: economic contributions (need for labor), food, architecture

11 EXAMPLES OF CONFLICT AND COOPERATION BETWEEN AND AMONG CULTURES Various cultures of the European Union especially former enemy nations (France and Britain vs. Germany and Italy; NATO vs. Warsaw Pact) now in the same economic bloc working toward a common goal

12 CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONS IN SOCIETIES Convergence criteria require EU members to have similar government and economic structures How are religious institutions in Europe, such as national churches, similar to one another? How are educational institutions similar to one another? How are they different?

13 IMPACT OF CULTURAL DIFFUSION ON INDIVIDUALS AND WORLD SOCIETIES European culture has diffused throughout the world as a product not only of colonialism, but also through media and cultural production. Europe has also been on the receiving end of cultural diffusion due to in migration from former colonies and other places. There are a number of South Asians in Britain; North and Sub Saharan Africans in France. Noncolonial relationships include Turks in Germany, Afghans and Kurds and Iranians in Netherlands and Scandinavia due to low birth rate after World War II.

14 A culture s art form and philosophies are often an expression of contemporary issues can be expressed in song, art, or even poetry. These are often an outlet for political and social frustrations!

15 European art that transcends the boundaries of Europe and is recognized and celebrated around the world (e.g., Mona Lisa by Da Vinci is the worlds most recognizable painting.)

16 Famous European Artist include: Picasso Da Vinci Monet Van Gogh Raphael Degas All produces artwork that has become a recognizable around the World

17 Geography Why is Europe Called the Peninsula of Peninsulas and what has this done for the economy? How do you think this led to Territorial Expansion?

18 Geography Most Countries have access to the ocean Most Countries have the same type of climate, depending on the terrain. Numerous Rivers for transportation Numerous Natural Resources. Coal, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Uranium, Iron, Fishing.

19 Outside Cultural Influence The American Revolution helped to spark the fire of rebellion in the French to revolt against their King New Religions (Islam) New Food New Celebrations

20 Economics The higher the GDP per capita the higher the standard of living Including: Life Expectancy, Literacy, Calorie Intake. This based on the rationale that all citizens would benefit from their country's increased economic production. The major advantage of GDP per capita as an indicator of standard of living is that it is measured frequently, widely, and consistently. It is measured frequently in that most countries provide information on GDP on a quarterly basis, allowing trends to be seen quickly. It is measured widely in that some measure of GDP is available for almost every country in the world, allowing inter country comparisons. It is measured consistently in that the technical definition of GDP is relatively consistent among countries

21 Economics After World War II most countries in Europe started to experience a declining birth rate (total fertility rate (TFR) that (if sustained) leads to each new generation being less populous than the previous one in a given area as of 2010 England Birthrate was 1.9) With a declining birthrate the most likely factor of production that will decrease is labor. To help prevent this future economic problem a lot of European countries have relaxed immigration polices, mainly from former colonies. What does this lead too?

22 Economics The Formation of the European Union has had the great effect on the Economies of countries. Having the greatest impact on the smaller former Eastern Bloc Countries of the former Warsaw Pact. The Formation of the European Union has made trade between countries easier, and with modern transportation, they are acting as almost one country. The European Union has helped give rise to Entrepreneurs through the use on loans and aid programs: this is vital to the economy because entrepreneurs help to encourage job creation, encourage economic growth, and allow inventiveness to help drive the economy.

23 1) All of the following are ways that entrepreneurs influence economies EXCEPT A job creation B inventiveness C provide skilled labor D encourage economic growth 2) European countries had a history of invasion and fighting until the mid 1900s when peace treaties and alliances were formed that have made the continent much more stable. What happened in the mid1900s that brought about this change toward more cooperation in Europe? A invasion by the Ottoman Empire B international treaties after World War II C end of the Roman Empire D attack by Spanish Armada 2012, TESCCC

24 3) Which of the following is an example of cultural diffusion? A British colonies spread the English language to North America. B Spanish colonies spread the Spanish language to Latin America. C Migration and immigration of Muslims to Europe spread the religion of Islam. D All of the above are correct. 4) The formation of the European Union has had the GREATEST effect on the of countries. A cultures B economies C politics D geography 2012, TESCCC

25 Imperialism Imperialism: as defined by the People of Human Geography, is "the creation and/or maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship (Territorial Expansion), usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination. Lewis Samuel Feuer identifies two major subtypes of imperialism 1. "regressive imperialism" identified with pure conquest, unequivocal exploitation, extermination or reductions of undesired peoples, and settlement of desired peoples into those territories. Examples being Nazi Germany 2. "progressive imperialism" that is founded upon a cosmopolitan view of humanity, that promotes the spread of civilization to allegedly "backward" societies to elevate living standards and culture in conquered territories, and allowance of a conquered people to assimilate into the imperial society, examples being the Roman Empire and British Empire

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