Romania's position in the online database of the European Commission on gender balance in decision-making positions in public administration

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1 Romania's position in the online database of the European Commission on gender balance in decision-making positions in public administration Comparative Analysis Str. Petofi Sandor nr.47, Sector 1, București Tel.: , Fax:

2 The European Commission, through the Directorate General for Justice - Gender Equality Unit, released on the official website of the European Union a database on gender balance in decision-making positions in public administration for 2015 ( As it had done in previous years, in 2015, the European Commission centralized data on gender balance in decision-making positions communicated by national administrations in 35 countries: 28 Member States of the European Union (EU), four candidate countries (Montenegro, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey and The Republic of Serbia) and the countries from the European Economic Area (Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). For Romania, responsible for communication data on public administration to COM is the Ministry of Labour, Family, Social Protection and Elderly, through the National Agency for Equal Opportunities between and. 1. What does it represent the online database of the European Commission on gender balance in decision-making positions? Developed since 2003, the online database of the European Commission (COM) represents an important tool for the dissemination of comparable information on women and men in decision-making positions, for the following areas: a) political; b) public administration; c) judiciary; d) business and finance; e) social partners and NGOs; f) environment; g) media; h) additional information (population, employment, managers in companies and small businesses). The methodology for collecting and centralizing the data in the European database is the same for all states which report this type of information, their communication dashboard having a standard format. For the public administration domain, the COM database takes into account the distribution of non-political decision-making positions, on grounds of gender on a central level (national): ministries or departments on a national level led by a minister. The decision-making positions covered by the database are the first high-level administrative level (non - political) called decisional level 1 and the second administrative level (non - political as well) - called decisional level 2 - as defined in each Member State. For Romania, the public administration on a national level comprises all ministries and the General Secretariat of Government, where the decision-making levels include the following positions: Decisional level 1: Secretary General, Deputy Secretary General, Director- General and Deputy Director-General. Decisional level 2: Director and Deputy Director.

3 2. The position of Romania in the online database of the European Commission in 2014 and 2015 For the years 2014 and 2015, the European database presents the following data for the 28 EU member states, EU candidate countries and countries belonging to the European Economic Area (EEA). The general data collected by COM for 2014 and 2015 are provided in Appendix 1. Year 2014 Year 2015 Decisional level 1 Decisional level 2 Decisional level 1 Decisional level 2 UE Romania All of the 35 States The analysis of Romania's positioning in the online database of the European Commission on gender balance in decision-making positions in public administration is made from the perspective of female employment in the decisional levels above mentioned. Decisional level 1 In 2014, the share of women in Romania who occupied positions included in decisional level 1 was of 46%; this share has ranked 2nd out of the 28 EU states, after Slovenia (53 %), tied with Latvia (46%) and ahead of Greece (45%). At the level of the EU states, in 2015, Romania has remained 2nd (tied with Greece) the percentage being of 45%, after Slovenia, which had kept the percentage of the previous year (53%), followed by Poland (44%) ranking of the 28 EU member states is found in Annex 2.

4 Slovenia Romania Greece Poland Sweden Latvia Slovakia Spain EU-28 In the overall ranking of all states that have reported data, Romania was ranked 4th, tied with Greece (45%), after Iceland (63%), Slovenia (53%) and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (47%) rankings in all countries that reported data is found in Appendix Iceland Slovenia Former Yugoslav Republic of Romania Greece Poland Sweden Latvia Slovakia Norway Spain All the states 2015 % 2015 % With respect to the situation presented above we can make the following observations: - Although in Romania the share of women in decision-making positions (level 1) decreased in 2015 by one percent as opposed to the previous year, our country is still in a leading position, both at the EU level and also among all the countries that have reported this data. The average percentage of the EU states and of all the states that have reported data is of 34% women in decisionmaking positions level 1, the percentage recorded by Romania being superior; - Slovenia is the only EU member state where the number of women in decisionmaking positions level 1 exceeds that of men found in similar decision-making positions; situated immediately behind Slovenia, Romania paves the way for the other Member States in which the following rule is applied: "the higher the public position, the greater the probability that it will be given to a man." Across all countries that reported data, Iceland joins Slovenia with a female percentage higher than the male one;

5 - It is worth mentioning that there is an EU member state, Luxembourg, where the decisional level 1 has maximum percentage of men in decision-making positions. Decisional level 2 In 2014, both at the EU level and in the overall classification, Romania was ranked 2nd, with a percentage of 57%, after Slovenia (58%). At the level of the 28 UE member states, 3rd place was occupied by Estonia (55%) and among all the states that have reported data, Estonia and Liechtenstein (55%), with the same percentage. In 2015, Romania remains 2nd in the EU-28 classification, with a percentage of 56% after Slovenia (61%), being followed by Estonia (55%). For this decision-making level, the ranking among the EU-28 Member States can be seen in Annex % 2015 % Slovenia Romania Estonia Bulgaria Sweden Lithuania Latvia Croatia Portugal Greece Finland Slovakia EU-28 Among all countries that have reported data, both Romania and Slovenia were outrunned by Liechtenstein (67%). Therefore, in this classification, Liechtenstein ranks first, Slovenia second and Romania third. For this decision-making level, the positioning in the overall ranking of all the states that have reported data can be seen in Appendix Liechtenstein Slovenia Romania Estonia Bulgaria Sweden Lithuania Latvia Croatia Portugal Greece Finland Serbia Former Montenegro Slovakia Toate statele 2015 % 2015 %

6 Observations on the data regarding the decisional level 2: - Romania is part of the "select" group of the 8 EU-28 states and 9 countries (out of 35) in which the number of women occupying these decisional positions is greater than that of men; - Portugal is the only state where the percentage is split equally between women and men at this decisional level; - Romania recorded a higher percentage than the average rank of the EU-28 (40%) and also higher than the average rank of all the other states that reported data (40%). Romania, with a percentage of 56% is situated among the top positions of the ranking, respectively 2nd in the EU-28 standings and 3rd in the overall ones. 3. Gender balance in decision-making positions according to the BEIS typology - the European Commission's method of classifying national ministries For processing and analyzing the data, COM uses the BEIS typology that classifies ministries 1 into 4 categories (the inclusion of Romanian ministries in the BEIS typology is performed by COM): B Basic functions: domestic and foreign affairs, defense and justice (data collected for this category are found in Appendix 6). The Romanian institutions belonging to this category are: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of European Funds and the General Secretariat of the Government. E - Economic: finance, trade, industry and agriculture (data collected for this category can be found in Appendix 7). The Romanian institutions belonging to this category are: Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Tourism, Ministry of Energy, Small and Medium Enterprises and Business Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and Ministry of Regional Development and Public Administration. I - Infrastructure: transport, communications and environment (data collected for this category can be found in Appendix 8). The Romanian institutions belonging to this category are: Ministry of Transport, Ministry for Informational Society and Ministry of Environment, Water and Forests. S - Sociocultural: labor and social affairs, health, children, family, youth, elderly, education, science and culture (data collected for this category can be found in Appendix 9). The Romanian institutions belonging to this category are: Ministry of Labor, Family, Social Protection and Elderly, Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research, Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Youth and Sports and Ministry of Health. 1 The names of Romanian ministries included in the 4 BEIS categories at the time of the data collection (August 2015)

7 Romania's position according to the BEIS typology for 2014 and 2015: BEIS typology B Basic functions 35 states B - Basic functions - Romania Decisional level Decisional level 2 Decisional level 1 Decisional level E Economic 35 states E Economic - Romania I Infrastructure 35 states I Infrastructure - Romania S - Socio-cultural 35 states S - Socio-cultural - Romania As opposed to the situation in 2014 and according to the BEIS typology, 2015 shows the following: Within ministries under the B - Basic functions classification, at the decisional level 1, the share of women increased by 2 percent at the level of the 35 countries (29% in 2015 vs. 27% in 2014) while for Romania, the percentage has decreased as opposed to the previous year (30% in 2015 to 37% in 2014), occupying at this decisional level, the 9th position at the EU-28 level (28%) and the 12th position among all the states that have reported the data. The maximum female score is 80% (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia). At this decisional level, there are 3 countries (Poland, Croatia and Belgium) where decision-making positions are divided equally between women and men and 4 states where the positions are filled exclusively by men (Turkey, Liechtenstein, Ireland and Cyprus). With respect to the decisional level 2, in all countries that have reported data was found an increase of 1 percent (from 35% in 2014 to 36% in 2015) and in

8 Romania an increase of 3 percentage points (from 53% in 2014 to 56% in 2015), this making Romania occupy the 2nd position, both at EU-28 level as well as at the level of all the 35 states. At this decisional level, there has not been registered in any state a maximum score. In both decisional levels, Romania has recorded percentages higher than the average of the 35 states and the EU-28. In these ministries (B), the share of women is inferior to that of men in decisional level 1 and superior in decisional level BASIC Decisional level 1 Decisional level 2 3-D Column 1 Romania UE states Romania UE states Within the E - Economic ministries, at the decisional level 1, at the level of the 35 states, the percentage rose 4 points for women (from 29% in 2014 to 33% in 2015) and at the decisional level 2, the share of women and men remained unchanged from the previous year (39% women and 61%men). For Romania, there was an increase of 7 percentages at the decisional level 1 (53% in 2015 to 46% in 2014), making it rank 4th at the EU-28 level and in all countries that have reported the data. We can say that at this decisional level, if women s maximum percentage is 67% (owned by Latvia), the situation changes in terms of employment when it comes to men in decision-making positions, who have maximum percentage in 9 countries (Turkey, Norway, Montenegro, Great Britain, Iceland, Ireland, Germany, Denmark and Belgium). Regarding the decisional level 2, although Romania decreased by 6 percentage points (from 66% in 2014 to 60% in 2015), it maintained its 3rd position at the EU-28 level and was ranked 5th within all the states that have reported data. Among the 35 countries, Liechtenstein is the only state in which the positions are filled exclusively by women, while Turkey and Iceland are states in which the positions are filled exclusively by men. Note that in these ministries (E), decision-making positions at both levels are of a majority owned by women.

9 ECONOMIC Decisional level 1 Decisional level 2 3-D Column 1 Romania UE states Romania UE states Within the I Infrastructure ministries, all of the 35 states recorded an increase in women's representation on both decisional levels, thus lowering the representation of men. In Romania, there was a decrease both in level one (from 48% in 2014 to 45% in 2015) as well as in level 2 (from 52% in 2014 to 47% in 2015). However, Romania recorded higher percentage on the EU-28 level (32% decisional level 1 and 40% decisional level 2) and as well in relation to all the other states that reported data (33% decisional level 1 and 40% decisional level 2). Based on the figures registered in 2015, Romania was ranked 4th in decisional level 1 in the EU-28 and 6th among the 35 states. Note that in these ministries, at this decisional level, Liechtenstein and Iceland have a maximum percentage of women in positions of decision, but the maximum percentage of men is present in many more countries: Turkey, Malta, Lithuania, Latvia, Ireland, Germany, Denmark, Croatia, Cyprus and Belgium. With respect to the decisional level 2, Romania occupies the 9th position (47%) both at the EU-28 level and at the level of the 35 states, the largest female percentage being 78% (Portugal), while the maximum male score being present in 2 states: Turkey and Iceland. On both decisional levels, infrastructure decision-making positions are occupied mostly by men.

10 INFRASTRUCTURE Decisional level 1 Decisional level 2 3-D Column 1 Romania UE states Romania UE states Inside the S - Socio-cultural ministries, the share of women increases when it comes to decisional level 1 both for the 35 countries (from 40% in 2014 to 42% in 2015) and for the EU-28 (from 42% in 2014 to 44% in 2015), the growth being of 2% in both cases. In Romania, however, the percentage drops when it comes to both decisional levels. If at decisional level 1, in 2014 there was a record of 67%, in 2015 it was recorded a percentage of 55%, the decrease being of 12 percentage points. However, Romania ranks far above the average EU-28 level and the average of all states that have reported data, occupying the 7th place when it comes to decisional level 1, among the EU-28, and the 8th place among all countries that have reported data. Iceland is the state which has a female percentage of 100%, while Malta, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein and Belgium are countries which have maximum male percentage. With respect to decisional level 2, for Romania there was a decrease of 3 percentage points (57% in 2015 vs. 60% in 2014). When it comes to this decisional level, Romania ranks 8th in terms of the EU-28 ranking and 9th in the ranking of all 35 states. For this decisional level, maximum percentages have not been recorded SOCIO-CULTURAL Decisional level 1 Decisional level 2 3-D Column 1 Romania UE states Romania UE states

11 According to the data collected by COM in 2015, regarding decisional level 1, both the average of EU-28 and that of the 35 states increased for 3 of the BEIS typologies. Therefore, the basic functions and socio-cultural ones increased by 2 percentage points and the economic by 4 points. Only in terms of infrastructure functions there has not been registered any percent change in all of the 35 states B - Basic 35 states B - Basic - Romania E Economic 35 states DECISIONAL LEVEL 1 E Economic - Romania I Infrastructur e 35 I Infrastructur e - Romania S - Sociocultural 35 states S - Sociocultural - Romania With respect to decisional level 2, compared to 2014, at the level of all the 35 states there were registered increases in women's representation in decisionmaking positions in basic and infrastructure ministries (1 and respectively 3 percentage points). Although, the situation remains unchanged for the economic and socio-cultural ministries B - Basic 35 states B - Basic - Romania E Economice 35 state DECISIONAL LEVEL 2 E Economic - Romania I Infrastructure 35 states I Infrastructure - Romania S - Sociocultural 35 states S - Sociocultural - Romania Romania's position in the overall standings, according to the BEIS typology is found in Annex 10.

12 For 2015, with respect to those presented above, there can be drawn the following conclusions: - At a European level we can speak of a significant "masculinisation" in decisionmaking positions in central public administration: in all ministries belonging to the 4 BEIS categories, men hold most of the positions as decision makers at both decisional levels; - The situation in Romania is, however, different. When it comes to decisional level 1, men occupy the majority in 2 BEIS categories (basic functions and infrastructure) and when it comes to decisional level 2, in one category (infrastructure). It is worth mentioning that the positioning of women in decision-making positions is distributed in a much more balanced way in all the categories of the BEIS typology. Also, the percentage of women occupying decision-making positions is much higher than the European average and also than the average of the 35 states, among all the BEIS categories; - In 2015, just like in the previous year, the central public administration of Romania has met the quantitative indicator of the Theory of Critical Mass, which represents the balance between women and men occupying decisionmaking positions in the public administration domain, which, in the opinion of some analysts, is of 40% for each sex; - In fact, the situation reflects the concern of the Romanian Government to promote women in decision-making positions in central public administration - an area that falls exclusively within it - and providing clear criteria to prevent any discrimination on grounds of gender for leading position candidates. In this context, perhaps being more aware of the knowledge, experiences and skills that they have and being more motivated and encouraged to apply for "key" positions against male candidates, women in Romania occupy a great majority of the decision-making positions, their share being not only higher than the European average, but also than that of certain Member States known as active promoters of equality of opportunity and treatment between women and men.

13 Annex 1 National administrations 2014 Overall table Number of Ministries Level 1 administrators Level 2 administrators Covered With data EU Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Croatia Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Montenegro former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the Serbia Turkey Iceland Liechtenstein Norway All countries

14 National administrations 2015 Overall table Number of Ministries Level 1 administrators Level 2 administrators Covered With data EU Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Croatia Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Montenegro former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the Serbia Turkey Iceland Liechtenstein Norway All countries

15 Annex 2 Ranking level 1 of decision EU-28 Number of Ministries Level 1 administrators Covered With data Slovenia Romania Greece Poland Sweden Latvia Slovakia Spain EU Portugal Finland Bulgaria Italy Lithuania France Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia Croatia Netherlands Malta Austria United Kingdom Germany Denmark Hungary Belgium Ireland Luxembourg

16 Annex 3 Ranking level 1 of decision to all members that have reported data Number of Ministries Covered With data Level 1 administrators Iceland Slovenia former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the Romania Greece Poland Sweden Latvia Slovakia Norway Spain EU All countries Portugal Finland Bulgaria Montenegro Italy Lithuania Liechtenstein France Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia Croatia Netherlands Malta Austria United Kingdom Serbia Germany Denmark Hungary Belgium Ireland Turkey Luxembourg

17 Annex 4 Ranking level 2 of decision EU-28 Number of Ministries Level 2 administrators Covered With data Slovenia Romania Estonia Bulgaria Sweden Lithuania Latvia Croatia Portugal Greece Finland Slovakia Poland EU Austria Malta Cyprus United Kingdom Netherlands Italy Czech Republic Luxembourg France Ireland Spain Denmark Germany Hungary Belgium

18 Annex 5 Ranking level 2 of decision of all members that have reported data Number of Ministries Covered With data Level 2 administrators Liechtenstein Slovenia Romania Estonia Bulgaria Sweden Lithuania Latvia Croatia Portugal Greece Finland Serbia former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the Montenegro Slovakia Poland Norway EU All countries Austria Malta Cyprus United Kingdom Netherlands Italy Czech Republic Luxembourg France Ireland Spain Denmark Germany Iceland Hungary Belgium Turkey

19 Annex 6 National administrations on BEIS typologies: B = Basic functions Number of Ministries Level 1 administrators Level 2 administrators Covered With data EU Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Croatia Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg 6 6 : : Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Montenegro former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the Serbia Turkey Iceland Liechtenstein Norway All countries

20 Annex 7 E = Economy Number of Ministries Level 1 administrators Level 2 administrators Covered With data EU Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Croatia Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg 3 3 : : Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Montenegro former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the Serbia Turkey Iceland Liechtenstein Norway All countries

21 Annex 8 I = Infrastructure Number of Ministries Level 1 administrators Level 2 administrators Covered With data EU Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Croatia Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg 2 2 : : Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Montenegro former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the Serbia Turkey Iceland Liechtenstein Norway All countries

22 Annex 9 S = Socio-cultural Number of Ministries Level 1 administrators Level 2 administrators Covered With data EU Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Croatia Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Montenegro former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the Serbia Turkey Iceland Liechtenstein Norway All countries

23 Annex 10 Romania's ranking in the European Commission's data base - Position in the ranking in EU Member States Ranking position in all states that reported the data LEVEL 1 ADMINISTRATORS Position in the ranking in EU Member States Ranking position in all states that reported the data LEVEL 2 ADMINISTRATORS General B = Basic functions E = Economic I = Infrastructure S = Socio-cultural

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