Immigrant Employment by Field of Study. In Waterloo Region

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1 Immigrant Employment by Field of Study In Waterloo Region

2 Table of Contents Executive Summary Waterloo Region - Part 1 Immigrant Educational Attainment Levels Top Fields of Study Coming to Waterloo Region Employment by Industry All Average Salaries of Immigrants Based on Educational Attainment Average Salaries by Year of Immigration in Waterloo Region Waterloo Region - Part 2 Employment by Industry, Occupation and Income for Each Individual Field of Study Education Visual and Performing Arts, and Communications Technologies Humanities Social and Behavioural Sciences and Law Business, Management and Public Administration Physical and Life Sciences and Technologies Mathematics, Computer and Information Sciences Architecture, Engineering and Related Technologies Agriculture, Natural Resources and Conservation Health, Parks, Recreation and Fitness Personal, Protective and Transportation Services Conclusion Charts Chart 1 Educational Attainment Among Immigrants and Non-Immigrants in Waterloo Region Chart 2 Top Four Immigrants Field of Study Chart 3 Average Salaries of Immigrants and Non-Immigrants in Waterloo Region Chart 4 Average Salaries of Recent Immigrants in Waterloo Region ( to 2005) Tables Table 1 Immigrant Population in Waterloo Region Table 2 Immigrants Fields of Study in Waterloo Region Table 3 Employment of Immigrants and Non-Immigrants by Industry Waterloo Region..5 Table 4 Employment by Occupation in Waterloo Region Table 5 Average Salaries of Immigrants and Non-Immigrants in Waterloo Region Table 6 Average Salaries of Recent Immigrants in Waterloo Region ( to 2005)

3 Executive Summary The intent of this study is to examine whether an immigrant s field of study had any bearing on the ability to succeed in the labour market of Waterloo Region. The report is in two sections. The first looks at general comparisons and the second part looks at each specific field of study individually. The report examined average salaries, occupations, industries and fields of study for the employed workforce and focused on three categories of workers: Non-immigrants Established Immigrants (pre-) Recent Immigrants (-2005) Due to the point based immigration system, recent immigrants should have valuable skills and experience that can be productive for the Region, if used effectively. We also want to ensure that we are attracting immigrants to this area with the skills required by the local workforce and which would provide suitable employment opportunities. The most prevalent fields of study of recent immigrants choosing to live in Waterloo Region are as follows: Architecture, engineering and related technologies (35.3%) Business, management and public administration (18.6%) Mathematics, computer and information technologies (9.4%) Social and behavioural science and law (9.3%) Of the eleven (11) fields of study, it would appear that some are being more easily integrated than others. There are also discrepancies within specific fields of study which implies that some of these immigrants are finding it tougher to find relevant employment than others with the same background. This could be for a variety of reasons; for example, country of origin could be impacting language skills or credential recognition. This report will act as a base point from which further in depth study can be targeted to areas where there are concerns or opportunities identified. All of the statistical data used in the preparation of this report comes from Special Tabulations prepared for the Workforce Planning Board from the 2006 Census. For comparison, an identical report is available for Wellington County. 1

4 Waterloo Region - Part 1 Part 1 of this report will look at general comparisons for Waterloo Region in the areas of immigrant field of study, educational attainment, occupation and income levels. Waterloo Region consists of a number of smaller communities including the Cities of Kitchener, Cambridge and Waterloo, and the Townships of Wellesley, Woolwich, Wilmot, and North Dumfries. Historically, this region has had high employment opportunities which attract immigrants of diverse educational background and skill levels to this region. The total population of Waterloo Region, according to the 2006 Census, was 473,260 of which 22.3% (105,375) were immigrants. From to 2006, the immigration population grew at a rate of over 13% which is double the growth rate of non-immigrants in the same period. Table 1 Immigrant Population in Waterloo Region Municipality Total Population Total immigrant Population % of Total Population Waterloo Region % Cambridge % Kitchener % Waterloo % North Dumfries % Wellesley % Wilmot % Woolwich % Immigrant Educational Attainment Levels Due to the point based system of Canada s immigration policy, recent immigrants coming to Canada have much higher educational attainment levels than the Canadian born population as can be seen in Chart 1. Chart 1 Educational Attainment Among Immigrants and Non-Immigrants in Waterloo Region 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Non-Immigrant Before After Certificate or diploma below bachelor level Bachelor s degree University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor level 2

5 63% of the Canadian born employed workforce have education levels less than a bachelor degree, 25% are bachelor degree holders while only 12% have a master s degree or higher. For established immigrants (those who migrated to Canada more than 10 years ago), with less than a bachelor degree, the numbers are very similar to the non immigrants in the same category. This is probably due to the fact that, although immigrant skill levels were increasing over time, longer term established immigrants did not traditionally have high education levels. However, there are significantly more established immigrants with education levels higher than a bachelor degree (i.e. master s, PhD) than their Canadian born counterparts. In the case of recent immigrants (who migrated less than ten years ago) the story is entirely different. Only 30% have education less than a bachelor degree, almost half of what we see in the non-immigrant and established immigrant groups. This new group of immigrants has over 37% holding a bachelor degree and another 32% have master s or higher educational attainments. This last group with master s degrees and above is almost twice the number of the established immigrants group and three times that of the non-immigrant population. Top Fields of Study Coming to Waterloo Region Looking at the education levels, these new immigrants obviously have valuable skills and experience that can be productive for the Region if used effectively. However, it is also vital to ensure that the Region is attracting immigrants to this area with the skills required by the local workforce and which would provide suitable employment opportunities. To identify which fields of study were most prevalent in those choosing to live in Waterloo Region we compared the field of study for all three groups. Table 2 indicates that the top four fields of study among recent immigrants are as follows: Architecture, engineering and related technologies (35.3%) Business, management and public administration (18.6%) Mathematics, computer and information technologies (9.4%) Social and behavioural science and law (9.3%) Table 2 Immigrants Fields of Study in Waterloo Region Fields of Study Non-immigrants Immigrants Immigrants Before After Education 6.4% 4.3% 3.0% Visual and performing arts, and 3.4% 3.0% 2.3% communications technologies Humanities 5.9% 4.7% 6.5% Social and behavioural sciences and law 11.9% 9.2% 9.3% Business, management and public administration 20.8% 17.9% 18.6% Physical and life sciences and technologies 3.1% 3.9% 5.3% Mathematics, computer and information sciences 5.4% 6.2% 9.4% Architecture, engineering, and related 22.3% 33.6% 35.3% technologies Agriculture, natural resources and conservation 2.3% 1.5% 2.4% Health, parks, recreation and fitness 12.4% 10.8% 6.2% Personal, protective and transportation services 6.1% 5.0% 1.7% 3

6 Both established and recent immigrants are much more highly concentrated in the Architecture, engineering and related technologies category than their Canadian born counterparts. Over one third of all recent immigrants to Waterloo Region have this educational background. Business management and public administration studies is also popular with recent immigrants; however, the concentration with this background is very similar among all of the groups. The concentration of recent immigrants with a background in Mathematics, computer and information sciences is also much higher at almost 10%. Far fewer recent immigrants are locating here who were educated in the field of Personal, protective and transportation services (1.7%) which is substantially less than both nonimmigrants and established immigrants. Chart 2 Top Four Immigrants Field of Study 40.0% 35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Non-Immigrant Immigrants Before Immigrants After Social and behavioural sciences and law Business, management and public administration Mathematics, computer and information services Architecture, engineering and related technologies 4

7 Employment by Industry All As we have seen in the previous section, almost half of all recent immigrants coming to Waterloo Region are coming here within two key fields of study, both of which are in heavy demand by the local workforce. This section will explore in which industries people, with differing fields of study, are employed. Table 3 details the comparison of immigrants and non-immigrants working in all industries in the Waterloo Region, irrespective of educational background. It provides an overall picture and is the precursor to the more detailed analysis into the employment of immigrants and non-immigrants by field of study which follows. Table 3 Employment of Immigrants and Non-Immigrants by Industry Waterloo Region Field of Industries Non-immigrants Immigrants Immigrants Study Before After Major field of study - All Total - Industry 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 0.6% 0.7% 0.3% 21 Mining and oil and gas extraction 0.1% 0.0% 0.2% 22 Utilities 0.7% 0.5% 0.0% 23 Construction 6.0% 4.9% 3.8% Manufacturing 17.1% 27.0% 28.6% 41 Wholesale trade 4.8% 3.7% 3.8% Retail trade 7.1% 7.1% 7.2% Transportation and warehousing 2.9% 3.3% 4.0% 51 Information and cultural industries 2.3% 2.0% 2.5% 52 Finance and insurance 7.7% 5.4% 4.5% 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 1.7% 2.0% 0.3% 54 Professional, scientific and technical services 9.0% 8.1% 11.0% 55 Management of companies and enterprises 0.1% 0.3% 0.7% 56 Administrative and support, waste management 3.1% 3.1% 6.4% and remediation services 61 Educational services 12.2% 8.8% 11.5% 62 Health care and social assistance 12.1% 11.6% 6.6% 71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 1.2% 0.7% 0.7% 72 Accommodation and food services 2.4% 2.8% 3.9% 81 Other services (except public administration) 4.7% 5.5% 2.4% 91 Public administration 4.1% 2.4% 1.6% Not surprisingly perhaps, the largest employment numbers for both immigrants and nonimmigrants were seen in the manufacturing sector, as it is still the largest industry in this region. With this industry providing almost 23% of local employment, there is a substantially higher concentration of immigrant than Canadian born workers. If we look at the Education and Health care industries, each had a 12% share of nonimmigrant employment, however there are differing scenarios when we look at the number of immigrants working in these industries. In the health care industry, which is a knowledge based and needs specific skills, there are similar numbers of people employed among nonimmigrants and established immigrants. As demand for workers in this industry remains high, we would then expect that we would see similar number of recent immigrants employed in this sector. However, that is not the case. In the Education industry, we see a much closer 5

8 comparison between the recent and non-immigrants rates, with recent immigrants having a higher percentage than the established group (11.5% vs. 8.8%). In the Professional, scientific and technical services industry, the share of recent immigrants is 11% which is higher than that of both established immigrants (8%) and non-immigrants (9%). This makes sense when we take into consideration that almost 50% of recent immigrants have an educational background which would be suited to employment available in this industry. Immigrants have relatively fewer jobs in public administration, finance and insurance, and construction industries than their Canadian born counterparts. Employment by Occupation All Table 4 shows an employment breakdown for non-immigrants, established and recent immigrants by occupational category. Table 4 Employment by Occupation in Waterloo Region Occupations Non- Immigrants immigrants Before Total - Occupation 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% A Management occupations 12.2% 11.4% 11.3% 11.8% 8.0% 3.5% 5.6% B Business, finance and administrative 19.2% 15.4% 14.9% 15.8% 13.4% 15.6% 11.7% occupations C Natural and applied sciences and 9.9% 13.9% 21.4% 27.6% 17.9% 12.1% 22.9% related occupations D Health occupations 7.5% 8.0% 7.1% 2.0% 3.0% 5.0% 5.0% E Occupations in social science, education, 13.9% 9.9% 9.7% 7.9% 8.5% 14.6% 13.4% government service and religion F Occupations in art, culture, recreation 3.1% 1.9% 2.6% 1.0% 1.5% 3.0% 1.1% and sport G Sales and service occupations 15.1% 13.6% 10.0% 12.8% 14.4% 9.5% 11.7% H Trades, transport and equipment 13.3% 15.5% 10.4% 8.9% 11.9% 13.1% 8.9% operators and related occupations I Occupations unique to primary industry 0.9% 0.6% 0.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.1% J Occupations unique to processing, 4.8% 9.7% 12.6% 12.3% 21.4% 23.6% 20.1% manufacturing and utilities 6

9 Average Salaries of Immigrants Based on Educational Attainment This section of the report deals with the average income of immigrants based on their educational attainment level. The main purpose of this section is to investigate whether immigrants are at income disadvantage, despite their higher educational attainments, when compared to Canadian born workers in Waterloo Region. For this purpose, a comparison is made between immigrants and non-immigrants. In order to see if time has any impact on the earning ability of the immigrants, the immigrants are further divided into established immigrants (who landed in Canada before ), and recent immigrants (who landed after ). Table 5 Average Salaries of immigrants and Non-immigrants in Waterloo Region Educational Attainments Non Immigrants Immigrants % change % change Immigrants Before After column 2 column 2 and 4 and 5 Certificate or diploma below bachelor level $47,495 $44,433 $28, % -41.0% Bachelor's degree $64,583 $57,942 $35, % -45.2% University certificate, diploma or degree above $82,710 $74,797 $37, % -54.4% bachelor level Table 5 shows that recent immigrants without a degree are receiving 41% less income than their Canadian counterparts with the same education level. In monetary terms, the recent immigrants are getting 59 cents for each dollar received by non-immigrants. This gap is much narrower for established immigrants who receive 6.4% less income than non-immigrants with the same education level. Chart 3 Average Salaries of Immigrant and Non-Immigrants in Waterloo Region 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 Non-Immigrant Immigrants Before Immigrants After Certificate or diploma below bachelor level Bachelor s degree University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor level 7

10 The income gap widens with increased educational attainment. Recent immigrants with a bachelor degree are getting 45% less in earnings than those born in Canada. This difference is 10% for established immigrants. The largest difference in income is among recent immigrants with master s and higher educational attainments. The recent immigrants in this category are receiving 54% less in income than native born Canadians. It means that recent immigrants with these very highest education levels were earning only 46 cents for each dollar received by their Canadian counterparts. Also evident from this analysis is that this income differential gap is on the rise for the recent immigrants, and furthermore, this gap is more prominent for recent immigrants with higher education 3. The probable reason for this income gap is that many of these highly educated recent immigrants are working in low paid jobs, which are not in accordance with their educational qualifications. See Table 6 in the next section for details. Table 6 Average Salaries of Recent Immigrants in Waterloo Region ( to 2005) Educational Attainments Certificate or diploma below bachelor level $33,437 $30,645 $22,303 $25,140 $23,176 Bachelor's degree $36,203 $34,329 $32,800 $34,331 $36,406 University certificate, diploma or degree above $44,797 $35,146 $43,468 $25,558 $21,812 bachelor level As depicted in Chart 4 the average salaries of recent immigrants tends to rise with time for both those with education less than a bachelor s degree and those whose education is higher than a bachelor s degree (master s or higher). For example, recent immigrants with education less than a bachelor degree had just over $23,000 in income in their first year here (2005). This income increased to $25,000 by year two and went up to $33,000 by year five (). A similar trend was noted for immigrants with educational attainments higher than bachelor. It was roughly $22,000 in 2005 but had progressed to around $45,000 for. However, for immigrants with bachelor level education, the story was different. Their average income was $36,000 in year one (2005) which remained fairly stable throughout this five year period and ended up almost exactly the same in in year five (). Chart 4 Average Salaries of Recent Immigrants in Waterloo Region ( to 2005) $45,000 $35,000 $25,000 $15, Certificate or diploma below bachelor level Bachelor s degree University certificate, diploma or degree above bachelor level 3 Statistics Canada Catalogue no

11 Waterloo Region - Part 2 Employment by Industry, Occupation and Income for Each Individual Field of Study We recognize that even non-immigrants do not always take employment related to their field of study for a variety of reasons. We can also assume that, based on the points system, recent immigrants in particular should be coming here with skills required in the workplace. This would suggest that they would be more likely to be searching for employment opportunities related to their field of study. This section will examine which industries are employing workers by field of study to see if immigrants are relatively more or less likely to be employed in their field compared to their non-immigrant counterparts in the workforce. Each of the 11 fields of study will be analyzed individually. These fields of study are: Education Visual and Performing Arts, and Communications Technologies Humanities Social and Behavioural Sciences and Law Business, Management and Public Administration Physical and Life Sciences and Technologies Mathematics, Computer and Information Sciences Architecture, Engineering and Related Technologies Agriculture, Natural Resources and Conservation Health, Parks, Recreation and Fitness Personal, Protective and Transportations Services 9

12 Education This is a specific field of study where high numbers of people with this background expect to find employment in occupations directly related to their studies. The table below indicates that recent immigrants with this field of study have been much less likely to find employment in the Education industry than among the other two classes. Only 18% of recent immigrants are working in the educational services industry despite their relevant educational background however, this increases to 53% for established immigrants, and 75% for non-immigrants. Employment by Industry - Field of Study - Education Field of Industries Non-immigrants Immigrants Immigrants Study Before After Education Total - Industry 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 0.3% 0.0% 0.0% 21 Mining and oil and gas extraction 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 22 Utilities 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 23 Construction 0.6% 2.7% 2.9% Manufacturing 2.1% 9.7% 5.9% 41 Wholesale trade 0.8% 1.5% 2.9% Retail trade 2.9% 6.6% 29.4% Transportation and warehousing 0.9% 0.0% 8.8% 51 Information and cultural industries 0.7% 0.8% 0.0% 52 Finance and insurance 1.8% 4.6% 5.9% 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 0.8% 1.5% 2.9% 54 Professional, scientific and technical services 1.8% 4.6% 5.9% 55 Management of companies and enterprises 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 56 Administrative and support, waste management 0.9% 1.9% 11.8% and remediation services 61 Educational services 75.3% 52.9% 17.6% 62 Health care and social assistance 4.3% 4.2% 11.8% 71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 1.4% 1.5% 0.0% 72 Accommodation and food services 1.2% 2.7% 0.0% 81 Other services (except public administration) 2.4% 3.1% 2.9% 91 Public administration 1.7% 1.2% 0.0% Key industries where recent immigrants are employed include Retail trade (29.4%), Health care and social assistance (11.8%), and Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services (11.8%) and Transportation and warehousing (8.8%). With over 82% of this cohort of recent immigrants working in industries other than education services, this could indicate high levels of underemployment in this field. However, if we look at their actual occupations, it would appear that there has been a steady increase among more recent immigrants working in education related occupations. 10

13 Occupation - Field of Study - Education Occupations Non- Immigrants immigrants Before Total - Occupation 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% A Management occupations 7.6% 5.8% 55.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% B Business, finance and administrative 5.9% 11.2% 22.2% 27.3% 0.0% 50.0% 0.0% occupations C Natural and applied sciences and 0.8% 1.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% related occupations D Health occupations 1.0% 0.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% E Occupations in social science, education, 67.9% 49.0% 22.2% 27.3% 33.3% 0.0% 50.0% government service and religion F Occupations in art, culture, recreation 2.1% 1.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 50.0% 0.0% and sport G Sales and service occupations 12.5% 17.4% 0.0% 27.3% 33.3% 0.0% 0.0% H Trades, transport and equipment 1.3% 2.7% 0.0% 18.2% 33.3% 0.0% 0.0% operators and related occupations I Occupations unique to primary industry 0.4% 0.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% J Occupations unique to processing, 0.7% 7.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 50.0% manufacturing and utilities Occupations in social science, education etc. have a non-immigrant employment rate of 68%. Established immigrants are at 49% while the most recent cohort in 2005 has 50% employed in these occupations. Average Income - Field of Study - Education Education 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 Non- Immigrant Before It would appear that, in general, the longer an immigrant with this background is here, the higher their income. 11

14 Visual and Performing Arts, and Communications Technologies New immigrants with this type of educational background appear to be doing about the same or just slightly better at finding work in relevant industries than their Canadian born counterparts. Almost 8% of new immigrants were working in Arts, entertainment and recreation while only 6% of non-immigrants with this field of study were in this industry. Approximately 27% of recent immigrants are working in Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services while non-immigrants and established immigrants with the same background make up 4% and 6% respectively. Another 8% of these recent immigrants were working in Public Administration, as opposed to no established immigrants and very few non-immigrants with this field of study. Over the past few years, we have seen a rapid increase in the use of advanced communications technologies in these industries. Perhaps this is providing appropriate opportunities to recent immigrants with this type of background or it could be that they are general entry level occupations. Employment by Industry - Field of Study - Visual and Performing Arts, and Communications Technologies Field of Industries Non-immigrants Immigrants Immigrants Study Before After Visual and Performing Arts, and Communications Technologies Total - Industry 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 0.0% 1.1% 0.0% 21 Mining and oil and gas extraction 0.3% 0.0% 0.0% 22 Utilities 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 23 Construction 2.3% 5.6% 0.0% Manufacturing 15.4% 23.9% 23.1% 41 Wholesale trade 5.8% 2.8% 7.7% Retail trade 12.3% 18.3% 7.7% Transportation and warehousing 0.9% 3.9% 0.0% 51 Information and cultural industries 9.4% 1.7% 3.8% 52 Finance and insurance 4.6% 1.1% 0.0% 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 2.0% 2.8% 0.0% 54 Professional, scientific and technical services 11.9% 7.8% 7.7% 55 Management of companies and enterprises 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 56 Administrative and support, waste management 4.1% 5.6% 26.9% and remediation services 61 Educational services 12.6% 12.2% 3.8% 62 Health care and social assistance 2.6% 2.2% 3.8% 71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 6.0% 5.6% 7.7% 72 Accommodation and food services 4.6% 1.1% 3.8% 81 Other services (except public administration) 3.6% 4.4% 3.8% 91 Public administration 1.3% 0.0% 7.7% Only 7.7% of recent immigrants were working in Retail trade whereas established immigrants were much higher at over 18% and even non-immigrants were at over 12%. 12

15 There appears to be some success among more recent immigrants in finding occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport as can be seen in the table below. Occupation - Field of Study - Visual and Performing Arts, and Communications Technologies Occupations Non- Immigrants immigrants Before Total - Occupation 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% A Management occupations 9.1% 9.4% 0.0% 20.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% B Business, finance and administrative 14.7% 15.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% occupations C Natural and applied sciences and 5.8% 1.1% 0.0% 30.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% related occupations D Health occupations 1.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% E Occupations in social science, education, 7.7% 8.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 50.0% 50.0% government service and religion F Occupations in art, culture, recreation 29.8% 19.4% 50.0% 20.0% 100.0% 50.0% 0.0% and sport G Sales and service occupations 17.3% 21.1% 0.0% 30.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% H Trades, transport and equipment 6.7% 13.9% 50.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% operators and related occupations I Occupations unique to primary industry 1.3% 2.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% J Occupations unique to processing, 6.8% 9.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 50.0% manufacturing and utilities Average Income - Field of Study - Visual and Performing Arts, and Communications Technologies Visual and Performing Arts, and Communications Technologies 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 Non- Immigrant Before Established immigrants and non-immigrants with this background earn similar incomes. Income for 2004 and 2005 was unavailable. 13

16 Humanities An educational background in the Humanities can lead to employment across all sorts of industries. For this field of study, we can only compare the differences between where nonimmigrants and both classes of immigrants are similar or different. This is one field of study where we would not expect to see as many immigrants as are working in manufacturing industries. Their share in this industry was 21.6% while nonimmigrants and established immigrants with the same background were 8.6% and 14.7% respectively. Two other industries where we see discrepancies include Retail trade and Educational services industries. Although their share in these industries was the same at 14.9%, we should expect to see a smaller percentage working in Retail Trade and a much larger percentage in Education. The share of non-immigrants and established immigrants in the Retail industry was 9% and 10.5% respectively, while the share of non-immigrants and recent immigrants in the Education services industry was 22.9% and 17.8% respectively. Employment by Industry - Field of Study - Humanities Field of Industries Non-immigrants Immigrants Immigrants Study Before After Humanities Total - Industry 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 0.3% 0.0% 0.0% 21 Mining and oil and gas extraction 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 22 Utilities 0.2% 0.0% 0.0% 23 Construction 2.1% 1.4% 2.7% Manufacturing 8.6% 14.7% 21.6% 41 Wholesale trade 4.7% 1.7% 5.4% Retail trade 9.0% 10.5% 14.9% Transportation and warehousing 2.1% 2.1% 5.4% 51 Information and cultural industries 3.5% 5.2% 2.7% 52 Finance and insurance 10.2% 7.7% 5.4% 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 2.2% 2.4% 0.0% 54 Professional, scientific and technical services 6.3% 3.8% 5.4% 55 Management of companies and enterprises 0.2% 0.7% 0.0% 56 Administrative and support, waste management 3.4% 5.9% 5.4% and remediation services 61 Educational services 22.9% 17.8% 14.9% 62 Health care and social assistance 7.8% 7.7% 6.8% 71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 2.7% 1.7% 0.0% 72 Accommodation and food services 2.5% 2.4% 4.1% 81 Other services (except public administration) 8.9% 11.2% 4.1% 91 Public administration 2.7% 2.4% 0.0% 14

17 The table below indicates that about half of recent immigrants seem to be having an easier time finding relevant employment than the rest, who appear to be in entry level type occupations. It also indicates that the length of time in Canada appears to be having an impact on finding relevant employment. Occupation - Field of Study - Humanities Occupations Non- Immigrants immigrants Before Total - Occupation 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% A Management occupations 11.6% 15.7% 8.3% 33.3% 21.1% 0.0% 0.0% B Business, finance and administrative 22.3% 18.9% 8.3% 33.3% 15.8% 17.6% 25.0% occupations C Natural and applied sciences and 4.1% 2.8% 12.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% related occupations D Health occupations 2.0% 1.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% E Occupations in social science, education, 28.9% 26.9% 12.5% 33.3% 15.8% 11.8% 25.0% government service and religion F Occupations in art, culture, recreation 7.7% 4.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% and sport G Sales and service occupations 16.4% 14.3% 25.0% 0.0% 10.5% 23.5% 50.0% H Trades, transport and equipment 3.2% 5.9% 12.5% 0.0% 0.0% 23.5% 0.0% operators and related occupations I Occupations unique to primary industry 0.9% 0.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% J Occupations unique to processing, 2.8% 8.7% 20.8% 0.0% 36.8% 23.5% 0.0% manufacturing and utilities Average Income - Field of Study - Humanities Humanities 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 Non- Immigrant Before In general, the longer an immigrant with this background is in Canada, the higher their income. In fact, established immigrants are earning slightly more than their Canadian born counterparts. 15

18 Social and Behavioural Sciences and Law Although not quite as pronounced as in the Humanities, we still see a larger percentage of recent immigrants in this category working in manufacturing industries than should be expected with 20% versus 9.4% of non-immigrants and 15.6% of established immigrants. We also see much higher percentages in Wholesale Trade and Transportation as opposed to non-immigrant share of employment in these industries. The next important industry for recent immigrants was Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services. Over 13% of recent immigrants worked in this industry as compared to the numbers of non-immigrants and established immigrants, which was very low at 2.5% and 3.6% respectively. These industries may be providing opportunities to gain Canadian work experience and earn income not really being relevant to the field of study. On the positive side, this group of recent immigrants is doing very well with respect to employment in the Health care and social assistance industry, where their share was 12.3% as opposed to non-immigrant and established immigrants at almost 15% and 14% respectively. This could indicate a couple of scenarios where perhaps they are entering this industry but not at the level they would wish, i.e. underemployed, but it could also indicate that this group could be having an easier time in having credentials recognized more quickly. This is an area where further research may be warranted. It appears that many recent immigrants are employed in a variety of industries just to make a living and, with the passage of time, they move on to other more relevant employment. An example of this can be seen in the Professional, scientific and technical services industry where recent immigrant employment is low however appears to improve by length of time in Canada. Employment by Industry - Field of Study - Social and Behavioural Sciences and Law Field of Industries Non-immigrants Immigrants Immigrants Study Before After Social and Behavioural Sciences and Law Total - Industry 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 0.4% 0.0% 1.9% 21 Mining and oil and gas extraction 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 22 Utilities 0.1% 0.4% 0.0% 23 Construction 2.5% 1.8% 1.9% Manufacturing 9.4% 15.6% 20.8% 41 Wholesale trade 2.9% 3.1% 7.5% Retail trade 8.0% 8.6% 10.4% Transportation and warehousing 2.0% 2.3% 10.4% 51 Information and cultural industries 3.5% 2.5% 0.0% 52 Finance and insurance 11.0% 9.2% 3.8% 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 2.0% 3.1% 0.9% 54 Professional, scientific and technical services 11.7% 10.4% 2.8% 55 Management of companies and enterprises 0.1% 0.7% 0.0% 56 Administrative and support, waste management 2.5% 3.6% 13.2% and remediation services 61 Educational services 14.3% 12.7% 4.7% 62 Health care and social assistance 14.7% 13.6% 12.3% 71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 1.3% 0.4% 3.8% 72 Accommodation and food services 2.8% 2.5% 3.8% 81 Other services (except public administration) 3.5% 4.8% 4.7% 91 Public administration 7.3% 4.5% 1.9% 16

19 For the majority of categories, established immigrants are much more closely following the norms of non-immigrants in both industry and occupational distribution which would indicate that length of time in Canada is again impacting their finding relevant employment. Occupation - Field of Study - Social and Behavioural Sciences and Law Occupations Non- Immigrants immigrants Before Total - Occupation 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% A Management occupations 13.5% 8.6% 12.5% 10.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% B Business, finance and administrative 24.4% 24.6% 20.8% 30.0% 15.4% 13.6% 9.1% occupations C Natural and applied sciences and 4.3% 7.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 9.1% related occupations D Health occupations 2.7% 2.0% 8.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% E Occupations in social science, education, 27.6% 23.7% 0.0% 0.0% 15.4% 36.4% 22.7% government service and religion F Occupations in art, culture, recreation 3.9% 2.7% 16.7% 0.0% 0.0% 9.1% 0.0% and sport G Sales and service occupations 17.7% 17.4% 20.8% 30.0% 53.8% 9.1% 22.7% H Trades, transport and equipment 2.4% 5.6% 12.5% 10.0% 15.4% 0.0% 9.1% operators and related occupations I Occupations unique to primary industry 0.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 9.1% J Occupations unique to processing, 2.9% 8.3% 8.3% 20.0% 0.0% 31.8% 18.2% manufacturing and utilities Average Income - Field of Study - Social and Behavioural Sciences and Law Social and Behavioural Sciences and Law 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 Non- Immigrant Before Recent immigrants with this background appear to be lagging behind with little change in income levels from 2005 to. Established immigrants are much closer to non-immigrant levels but still lag slightly. 17

20 Business, Management and Public Administration In this field of study, fewer recent immigrants are working in Retail and Wholesale Trade than the non-immigrant population. Recent immigrants appear to have better success though in finding relevant employment than perhaps in other disciplines. This employment however may initially be at a lower level to gain Canadian work experience. Employment by Industry - Field of Study - Business, Management and Public Administration Field of Industries Non-immigrants Immigrants Immigrants Study Before After Business, Management and Public Administration Total - Industry 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 0.3% 0.7% 0.5% 21 Mining and oil and gas extraction 0.0% 0.0% 0.9% 22 Utilities 0.7% 0.2% 0.5% 23 Construction 3.0% 3.5% 2.8% Manufacturing 16.8% 20.3% 26.8% 41 Wholesale trade 6.9% 5.1% 3.8% Retail trade 8.9% 9.7% 7.0% Transportation and warehousing 3.3% 3.6% 3.8% 51 Information and cultural industries 1.6% 1.8% 2.3% 52 Finance and insurance 16.9% 12.2% 11.3% 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 3.2% 3.3% 1.4% 54 Professional, scientific and technical services 10.2% 8.8% 6.6% 55 Management of companies and enterprises 0.3% 0.5% 1.4% 56 Administrative and support, waste management 4.2% 4.5% 6.6% and remediation services 61 Educational services 5.0% 4.8% 6.1% 62 Health care and social assistance 8.2% 8.4% 5.2% 71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 0.9% 0.6% 0.0% 72 Accommodation and food services 2.8% 4.1% 8.5% 81 Other services (except public administration) 2.7% 4.0% 1.9% 91 Public administration 4.1% 3.9% 3.8% Employment among recent immigrants in Public Administration is about the same as could be expected among their Canadian born counterparts. 18

21 Recent immigrants also appear quite successful in entering relevant occupations including those in Social science, education, government services and religion, Business, finance and administrative and Management occupations. Occupation - Field of Study - Business, Management and Public Administration Occupations Non- Immigrants immigrants Before Total - Occupation 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% A Management occupations 19.1% 18.4% 15.3% 16.7% 21.1% 5.0% 14.3% B Business, finance and administrative 40.5% 37.4% 44.1% 36.7% 31.6% 42.5% 22.9% occupations C Natural and applied sciences and 3.2% 2.8% 5.1% 6.7% 7.9% 0.0% 5.7% related occupations D Health occupations 1.3% 1.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 8.6% E Occupations in social science, education, 8.1% 7.8% 6.8% 6.7% 5.3% 0.0% 11.4% government service and religion F Occupations in art, culture, recreation 1.2% 1.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% and sport G Sales and service occupations 18.4% 16.7% 11.9% 13.3% 18.4% 15.0% 17.1% H Trades, transport and equipment 3.9% 6.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 5.7% operators and related occupations I Occupations unique to primary industry 0.3% 0.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% J Occupations unique to processing, 3.9% 7.0% 16.9% 20.0% 15.8% 37.5% 14.3% manufacturing and utilities Average Income - Field of Study - Business, Management and Public Administration Business, Management and Public Administration 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 Non- Immigrant Before Income levels for this field of study tend to increase steadily over time, however do not appear to ever completely catch up to non-immigrants. 19

22 Physical and Life Sciences and Technologies The Educational services industry provides employment to more than 39% of recent immigrants with this background. This was significantly higher than their Canadian born counterparts. Unlike some other disciplines, only 14.8% of these people were employed in manufacturing and far fewer were working in other entry type industries such as Retail trade and Transportation. According to the table below, recent immigrants appear to be doing quite well in accessing the Professional, scientific and technical industry at 11.5% however this increases to 16.9% for established immigrants. A high number in Administrative support could indicate entry level positions to obtain experience and pay bills but, with the passage of time, they eventually move on to more relevant employment. Employment by Industry - Field of Study - Physical and Life Sciences and Technologies Field of Industries Non-immigrants Immigrants Immigrants Study Before After Physical and Life Sciences and Technologies Total - Industry 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 1.7% 1.3% 0.0% 21 Mining and oil and gas extraction 0.8% 0.0% 0.0% 22 Utilities 0.6% 0.0% 0.0% 23 Construction 1.6% 1.3% 4.9% Manufacturing 18.7% 18.6% 14.8% 41 Wholesale trade 5.6% 2.5% 3.3% Retail trade 4.8% 4.2% 4.9% Transportation and warehousing 2.2% 3.8% 1.6% 51 Information and cultural industries 1.9% 3.0% 0.0% 52 Finance and insurance 7.3% 5.5% 6.6% 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 0.9% 1.7% 0.0% 54 Professional, scientific and technical services 16.4% 16.9% 11.5% 55 Management of companies and enterprises 0.0% 0.8% 0.0% 56 Administrative and support, waste management 0.9% 0.8% 6.6% and remediation services 61 Educational services 22.6% 19.5% 39.3% 62 Health care and social assistance 7.3% 9.7% 11.5% 71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 1.4% 0.0% 0.0% 72 Accommodation and food services 2.0% 3.4% 1.6% 81 Other services (except public administration) 0.9% 3.0% 0.0% 91 Public administration 2.3% 2.5% 1.6% It would appear that this field of study was relatively successful at finding relevant employment within a short time of arriving in Canada, although it seems easier for some than others. 20

23 Recent immigrants also appear more successful in entering occupations in Natural and applied sciences and Occupations in social science, education, government services. Occupation - Field of Study - Physical and Life Sciences and Technologies Occupations Non- Immigrants immigrants Before Total - Occupation 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% A Management occupations 12.9% 15.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% B Business, finance and administrative 13.6% 13.1% 14.3% 40.0% 25.0% 0.0% 25.0% occupations C Natural and applied sciences and 22.1% 29.2% 28.6% 0.0% 50.0% 0.0% 25.0% related occupations D Health occupations 7.2% 6.4% 14.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% E Occupations in social science, education, 21.5% 15.3% 33.3% 0.0% 0.0% 57.1% 50.0% government service and religion F Occupations in art, culture, recreation 1.9% 2.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% and sport G Sales and service occupations 10.4% 7.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% H Trades, transport and equipment 4.0% 6.8% 9.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% operators and related occupations I Occupations unique to primary industry 2.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% J Occupations unique to processing, 4.4% 5.1% 0.0% 60.0% 25.0% 42.9% 0.0% manufacturing and utilities Average Income - Field of Study - Physical and Life Sciences and Technologies Physical and Life Sciences and Technologies 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 Non- Immigrant Before It would appear that this group of recent immigrants does not start to earn higher income levels until several years after arrival. 21

24 Mathematics, Computer and Information Sciences Recent immigrants within this field of study appear to be doing very well compared to other established immigrants and even non-immigrants. More than 24% of recent immigrants with this background have found employment in the Professional, scientific and technical services industry. This recent cohort has a much higher share than non-immigrants and established immigrants in this industry with 20.5% and 17.9% respectively. The Education service industry provides employment to an additional 13% of recent immigrants, which again was substantially higher than non-immigrants and established immigrants at 9.5%. There were fewer than expected people working in the Finance industry however this may be due to their high levels of success in other employment sectors. Employment by Industry - Field of Study - Mathematics, Computer and Information Sciences Field of Industries Non-immigrants Immigrants Immigrants Study Before After Mathematics, Computer and Information Sciences Total - Industry 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 0.2% 0.8% 0% 21 Mining and oil and gas extraction 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 22 Utilities 0.5% 0.0% 1.9% 23 Construction 2.0% 2.4% 0.9% Manufacturing 15.2% 22.5% 21.3% 41 Wholesale trade 7.4% 5.6% 7.4% Retail trade 6.6% 7.2% 3.7% Transportation and warehousing 3.0% 2.1% 3.7% 51 Information and cultural industries 8.2% 8.6% 6.5% 52 Finance and insurance 14.8% 8.3% 4.6% 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 0.9% 0.5% 0.0% 54 Professional, scientific and technical services 20.5% 17.9% 24.1% 55 Management of companies and enterprises 0.2% 0.5% 0.0% 56 Administrative and support, waste management 3.6% 2.7% 7.4% and remediation services 61 Educational services 9.5% 9.4% 13.0% 62 Health care and social assistance 3.0% 4.5% 1.9% 71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 0.2% 1.6% 0.0% 72 Accommodation and food services 1.2% 2.1% 1.9% 81 Other services (except public administration) 1.5% 0.8% 1.9% 91 Public administration 1.8% 2.4% 1.9% Given the dynamic of Waterloo Region, this is indicating a fairly high success rate for these immigrants and shows that they have skills and credentials that are not only in demand, but that are also more easily recognized than perhaps in other disciplines. 22

25 In Natural and applied sciences occupations, employment rates were generally higher than those for non-immigrants as well as established immigrants. Within five years, we are seeing recent immigrants move into Management occupations at about the same rate as for nonimmigrants with the same field of study. Occupation - Field of Study - Mathematics, Computer and Information Sciences Occupations Non- Immigrants immigrants Before Total - Occupation 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% A Management occupations 11.5% 11.0% 10.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% B Business, finance and administrative 19.2% 13.4% 0.0% 13.3% 17.4% 25.0% 10.3% occupations C Natural and applied sciences and 40.8% 40.4% 60.7% 60.0% 39.1% 37.5% 58.6% related occupations D Health occupations 0.9% 0.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% E Occupations in social science, education, 6.8% 8.3% 10.7% 13.3% 8.7% 12.5% 6.9% government service and religion F Occupations in art, culture, recreation 4.3% 2.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% and sport G Sales and service occupations 7.7% 8.8% 7.1% 0.0% 8.7% 12.5% 0.0% H Trades, transport and equipment 3.8% 3.5% 0.0% 0.0% 8.7% 0.0% 10.3% operators and related occupations I Occupations unique to primary industry 0.4% 0.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% J Occupations unique to processing, 4.7% 11.2% 10.7% 13.3% 17.4% 12.5% 13.8% manufacturing and utilities Average Income - Field of Study - Mathematics, Computer and Information Sciences Mathematics, Computer and Information Sciences 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 Non- Immigrant Before Recent immigrants in this category appear to have steadily increasing salary levels over time. 23

26 Architecture, Engineering and Related Technologies In Waterloo Region, over one third of all recent immigrants have an educational background in Architecture, engineering and related technologies. The table below indicates that there appear to be three key industries where these people are finding employment; Manufacturing, Professional, scientific and technical and Education. Employment by Industry - Field of Study - Architecture, Engineering, and Related Technologies Field of Industries Non-immigrants Immigrants Immigrants Study Before After Architecture, Engineering, and Related Technologies Total - Industry 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 21 Mining and oil and gas extraction 0.2% 0.0% 0.0% 22 Utilities 1.9% 1.0% 0.5% 23 Construction 18.6% 9.5% 6.4% Manufacturing 36.1% 48.1% 41.3% 41 Wholesale trade 5.5% 4.4% 2.7% Retail trade 4.9% 4.3% 4.2% Transportation and warehousing 3.4% 3.7% 3.0% 51 Information and cultural industries 1.3% 1.2% 2.5% 52 Finance and insurance 1.1% 1.6% 1.7% 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 1.4% 1.3% 0.2% 54 Professional, scientific and technical services 10.0% 8.2% 15.8% 55 Management of companies and enterprises 0.1% 0.2% 0.5% 56 Administrative and support, waste management 2.1% 2.2% 3.0% and remediation services 61 Educational services 2.8% 4.1% 11.4% 62 Health care and social assistance 0.8% 1.2% 0.2% 71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 72 Accommodation and food services 0.8% 1.7% 3.2% 81 Other services (except public administration) 5.5% 5.1% 2.0% 91 Public administration 2.8% 1.6% 1.0% A high percentage of recent immigrants with this background (41%) were employed in the manufacturing industry, most likely as demand increased for technical and engineering skills. However, some may also be working at entry level occupations. Further research could indicate the level of employment which could confirm or negate this hypothesis. The next industry which provided relevant jobs to recent immigrants was the Professional, scientific and technical services industry. This industry provided employment to 15.8% of this cohort. The job share of non-immigrants and established immigrants was 10% and 8.2% respectively. The Educational services industry was the third most important industry in terms of providing jobs for recent immigrants. This industry provided jobs to 11.4% of recent immigrants. The job share of non-immigrants and established immigrant was 2.8% and 4.1% respectively. The length of time in Canada does not appear to be a strong factor for this educational background. 24

27 Success rates for those in occupations in Natural and Applied Sciences are much higher than for non-immigrants, in excess of 10% on average. Occupation - Field of Study - Architecture, Engineering, and Related Technologies Occupations Non- Immigrants immigrants Before Total - Occupation 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% A Management occupations 11.4% 11.0% 13.5% 10.6% 4.5% 5.5% 8.7% B Business, finance and administrative 5.1% 4.6% 6.7% 9.6% 3.0% 2.7% 4.3% occupations C Natural and applied sciences and 20.8% 25.2% 35.6% 43.6% 31.3% 16.4% 34.8% related occupations D Health occupations 0.1% 0.6% 0.0% 0.0% 4.5% 0.0% 0.0% E Occupations in social science, education, 2.0% 3.1% 6.7% 8.5% 4.5% 16.4% 8.7% government service and religion F Occupations in art, culture, recreation 0.5% 0.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 2.7% 0.0% and sport G Sales and service occupations 6.9% 7.0% 5.8% 5.3% 10.4% 2.7% 0.0% H Trades, transport and equipment 44.4% 34.0% 17.3% 14.9% 22.4% 30.1% 13.0% operators and related occupations I Occupations unique to primary industry 0.5% 0.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% J Occupations unique to processing, 8.1% 13.4% 14.4% 8.5% 22.4% 23.3% 26.1% manufacturing and utilities Average Income - Field of Study - Architecture, Engineering, and Related Technologies Architecture, Engineering and Related Technologies 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 Non- Immigrant Before Initial income levels among recent immigrants are quite high compared to other fields of study at just under $40,

28 Agriculture, Natural Resources and Conservation It would appear that this discipline is a bit of a mix with some recent immigrants finding relevant employment fairly quickly and others, while finding work, may not be in relevant occupations. For example almost one fifth of all recent immigrants with this discipline are employed in the Professional, scientific and technical industry (17.9%). This is far higher than the rates for established immigrants and non-immigrants at 5.4% and 9.5% respectively. This disparity between recent and established immigrants could possibly reflect the fact that credential recognition in this field of study has improved for many areas covered by this discipline. This could also account for the discrepancies in employment in Public administration. Looking at the other side, the low rate of recent immigrant employment in Agriculture and the high rates in the Manufacturing, Construction, Transportation and Administrative support industries may indicate that length of time in Canada is also a contributing factor to the success of this field of study. As time progresses, it would appear that these people migrate to other more relevant industries perhaps after having credentials recognized and gaining Canadian work experience. Employment by Industry - Field of Study - Agriculture, Natural Resources and Conservation Field of Industries Non-immigrants Immigrants Immigrants Study Before After Agriculture, Natural Resources and Conservation Total - Industry 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 8.9% 12.9% 3.6% 21 Mining and oil and gas extraction 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 22 Utilities 1.5% 0.0% 0.0% 23 Construction 4.5% 0.0% 7.1% Manufacturing 15.8% 30.1% 42.9% 41 Wholesale trade 8.9% 8.6% 3.6% Retail trade 8.0% 4.3% 0.0% Transportation and warehousing 2.4% 6.5% 14.3% 51 Information and cultural industries 0.9% 0.0% 0.0% 52 Finance and insurance 6.5% 4.3% 0.0% 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 1.3% 2.2% 0.0% 54 Professional, scientific and technical services 9.5% 5.4% 17.9% 55 Management of companies and enterprises 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 56 Administrative and support, waste management 8.6% 0.0% 10.7% and remediation services 61 Educational services 5.0% 4.3% 0.0% 62 Health care and social assistance 1.9% 5.4% 3.6% 71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 2.2% 0.0% 0.0% 72 Accommodation and food services 1.3% 5.4% 0.0% 81 Other services (except public administration) 2.8% 9.7% 0.0% 91 Public administration 10.4% 2.2% 7.1% 26

29 Those entering occupations in Natural and applied sciences in later years appear far more successful than in previous years. However we also see two thirds employed in possible entry level type occupations in Occupation - Field of Study - Agriculture, Natural Resources and Conservation Occupations Non- Immigrants immigrants Before Total - Occupation 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 0.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% A Management occupations 14.5% 14.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% B Business, finance and administrative 12.3% 7.5% 0.0% 0.0% 40.0% 0.0% 33.3% occupations C Natural and applied sciences and 19.0% 4.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0% 33.3% related occupations D Health occupations 0.6% 2.2% 20.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% E Occupations in social science, education, 5.2% 5.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% government service and religion F Occupations in art, culture, recreation 3.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% and sport G Sales and service occupations 12.7% 17.2% 20.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% H Trades, transport and equipment 10.8% 11.8% 40.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% operators and related occupations I Occupations unique to primary industry 13.4% 9.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% J Occupations unique to processing, 8.4% 26.9% 20.0% 0.0% 60.0% 0.0% 33.3% manufacturing and utilities Average Income - Field of Study - Agriculture, Natural Resources and Conservation Agriculture, Natural Resources and Conservation 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 Non- Immigrant Before Income levels for recent immigrants start extremely low however they do tend to rise over time. Data was not available for 2002 and There is a substantial difference in average income between established immigrants and non-immigrants. 27

30 Health, Parks, Recreation and Fitness Almost 60% of all recent immigrants in this field found employment in two key industries Health care and social assistance and Education. This is another field of study where some recent immigrants appear to be doing better than others and this could be because of the specialization of their education in this field. E.g. some credentials may be more easily recognized than others. Over 45% of recent immigrants with this background worked in the Health care and social assistance industry. For established immigrants this figure is 62.7% which is actually much higher than for non-immigrants at 55.9%. Although a high percentage of recent immigrants is working in the Health care sector, we cannot tell from this research at what level they are working i.e. they may be in the industry of choice but not necessarily in the occupation of choice. This will require further study to determine how many of these workers may be underemployed. The other industry where 12.7% of recent immigrants found employment was Educational services. The share of non-immigrants and established immigrants was 6% and 4.1% respectively. A variety of entry level type industries appear to provide employment for a number of recent immigrants, however Manufacturing does not rate highly as an industry of choice for this group. Employment by Industry - Field of Study - Health, Parks, Recreation and Fitness Field of Industries Non-immigrants Immigrants Immigrants Study Before After Health, Parks, Recreation and fitness Total - Industry 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 0.6% 0.5% 1.4% 21 Mining and oil and gas extraction 0.0% 0.3% 0.0% 22 Utilities 0.2% 0.0% 0.0% 23 Construction 0.9% 1.1% 0.0% Manufacturing 5.5% 5.8% 7.0% 41 Wholesale trade 1.8% 1.4% 0.0% Retail trade 6.8% 7.2% 11.3% Transportation and warehousing 1.0% 0.8% 1.4% 51 Information and cultural industries 0.9% 0.6% 4.2% 52 Finance and insurance 3.4% 2.3% 1.4% 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 0.6% 1.8% 0.0% 54 Professional, scientific and technical services 3.6% 2.7% 0.0% 55 Management of companies and enterprises 0.1% 0.3% 0.0% 56 Administrative and support, waste management 2.4% 1.2% 7.0% and remediation services 61 Educational services 6.0% 4.1% 12.7% 62 Health care and social assistance 55.9% 62.7% 45.1% 71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 1.3% 0.8% 1.4% 72 Accommodation and food services 2.2% 1.5% 5.6% 81 Other services (except public administration) 3.6% 3.7% 4.2% 91 Public administration 3.4% 1.1% 1.4% 28

31 Although relatively high numbers of new immigrants are finding employment in Health and Social science related occupations, many may still be working in entry level and unrelated occupations. Occupation - Field of Study - Health, Parks, Recreation and Fitness Occupations Non- Immigrants immigrants Before Total - Occupation 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% A Management occupations 6.0% 4.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% B Business, finance and administrative 15.5% 11.1% 0.0% 0.0% 15.4% 0.0% 14.3% occupations C Natural and applied sciences and 1.3% 1.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% related occupations D Health occupations 51.3% 62.0% 70.0% 50.0% 23.1% 71.4% 42.9% E Occupations in social science, education, 7.0% 3.7% 10.0% 25.0% 30.8% 0.0% 0.0% government service and religion F Occupations in art, culture, recreation 1.8% 1.5% 0.0% 0.0% 15.4% 14.3% 0.0% and sport G Sales and service occupations 11.4% 10.4% 10.0% 25.0% 15.4% 14.3% 14.3% H Trades, transport and equipment 2.0% 1.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% operators and related occupations I Occupations unique to primary industry 0.8% 0.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% J Occupations unique to processing, 2.9% 3.4% 10.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 28.6% manufacturing and utilities Average Income - Field of Study - Health, Parks, Recreation and Fitness Health, Parks, Recreation and Fitness 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 Non- Immigrant Before Established immigrants have substantially higher average incomes than their Canadian born counterparts in this field of study. Income levels among recent immigrants tends to vary quite substantially and may be reflective of their varying success. 29

32 Personal, Protective and Transportation Services One third of recent immigrants with this educational background were concentrated in three industries: Transportation and warehousing (15%); Professional, scientific and Technical (5%); and Health care and social assistance (10%). These percentages are substantially higher than for the other two groups where participation in these industries is almost identical for both established and non-immigrants. It would appear that these specific industries would likely offer employment opportunities most in line with this field of study and that perhaps more employment opportunities are being created for these skill sets. Another conclusion is that with this type of qualification, the recent immigrants are less likely to enter into entry level industries such as Administration, Accommodation and food, and Other services than the immigrants who came before them. This could indicate that credentials in these field are more easily recognized than perhaps in the past. Employment by Industry - Field of Study - Personal, Protective and Transportation Services Field of Industries Non-immigrants Immigrants Immigrants Study Before After Personal, Protective and Transportation Services Total - Industry 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 0.4% 0.0% 0.0% 21 Mining and oil and gas extraction 0.2% 0.0% 0.0% 22 Utilities 0.6% 1.0% 0.0% 23 Construction 5.5% 5.3% 20.0% Manufacturing 14.9% 15.3% 25.0% 41 Wholesale trade 3.6% 1.7% 0.0% Retail trade 8.6% 8.0% 10.0% Transportation and warehousing 10.7% 10.3% 15.0% 51 Information and cultural industries 0.9% 0.0% 0.0% 52 Finance and insurance 3.1% 4.0% 0.0% 53 Real estate and rental and leasing 0.8% 2.3% 0.0% 54 Professional, scientific and technical services 1.8% 1.0% 5.0% 55 Management of companies and enterprises 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 56 Administrative and support, waste management 5.5% 6.3% 0.0% and remediation services 61 Educational services 1.6% 3.0% 0.0% 62 Health care and social assistance 4.7% 4.7% 10.0% 71 Arts, entertainment and recreation 1.5% 0.7% 0.0% 72 Accommodation and food services 7.6% 9.0% 0.0% 81 Other services (except public administration) 17.5% 23.3% 5.0% 91 Public administration 10.6% 4.0% 0.0% 30

33 Employment success in this field is not evenly spread among new immigrants but the share in Sales and service occupations is slightly less than what would be expected for both nonimmigrants and established immigrants with this background. Occupation - Field of Study - Personal, Protective and Transportation Services Occupations Non- Immigrants immigrants Before Total - Occupation 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% A Management occupations 7.4% 8.6% 0.0% 50.0% 0.0% 33.3% 0.0% B Business, finance and administrative 14.0% 8.3% 33.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% occupations C Natural and applied sciences and 2.7% 3.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% related occupations D Health occupations 0.7% 2.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% E Occupations in social science, education, 2.6% 2.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% government service and religion F Occupations in art, culture, recreation 1.0% 0.7% 0.0% 0.0% 33.3% 0.0% 0.0% and sport G Sales and service occupations 46.1% 47.8% 33.3% 0.0% 0.0% 33.3% 33.3% H Trades, transport and equipment 17.1% 16.6% 33.3% 50.0% 33.3% 0.0% 33.3% operators and related occupations I Occupations unique to primary industry 1.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% J Occupations unique to processing, 7.5% 10.6% 0.0% 0.0% 33.3% 33.3% 33.3% manufacturing and utilities Average Income - Field of Study - Personal, Protective and Transportation Services Personal, Protective and Transportation Services 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 Non- Immigrant Before Some immigrants in this field of study seem to be earning more than others but eventually they are earning similar levels to non-immigrants. Data is not available for

34 Conclusion Drawing on specialized 2006 census data from Statistics Canada has enabled us to provide this snapshot of immigrant employment in Waterloo Region. We have made a number of comments regarding discrepancies we have seen and these are observations based on our understanding of the local community which may not necessarily reflect a true picture of the situation. These observations are provided to prompt discussion among stakeholders and identify areas where further research may be warranted. With the establishment of the Waterloo Region Immigrant Employment Network, the Region has placed escalating importance on immigrant attraction, retention and employment success. It is extremely important to understand the dynamics of the labour market and what immigrant skills are best matched to demand. By looking at individual fields of study, we have identified a number of areas where we appear to be doing a slightly better job of attracting immigrants with skills in demand who can quickly fill that need than perhaps in the past. On the other hand, there are other fields of study where recent and established immigrants are unable to utilize their skill sets within the labour force. Among individual fields of study we also see discrepancies in success rates of recent immigrants. This could be due to a variety of factors, for example, country of origin could play a role if individuals are either having problems with credential recognition or lack of English language skills. There are several fields of study which warrant further investigation to determine if this is indeed the case. It is clear that our Manufacturing industry and the IT sector are still playing an important role in immigrant attraction and providing employment opportunities. It is also clear that the mix of immigrant skills has shifted in recent years to take advantage of the specific opportunities available in the Region. We must continue to work towards a better understanding of the issues affecting employment success if we are to be able to productively use of the skills and education of our growing immigrant population. 32

35 The Workforce Planning Board of Waterloo Wellington Dufferin (WPB) is a community directed, non profit corporation leading Waterloo Region, Wellington and Dufferin County in their approach to workforce development and labour market planning. WPB functions as a neutral broker of research, disseminator of information, and facilitator of collaborative partnership development. Operating as part of the Local Boards Network of Ontario, it is one of twenty five (25) local planning board areas funded by the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities to conduct and distribute local labour market research and engage community stakeholders in a planning process that supports local solutions to local issues. The WPB mandate is to provide guidance regarding important workforce and employment challenges facing Waterloo, Wellington and Dufferin. The material contained in this report has been prepared by WPB and is drawn from a variety of sources considered to be reliable. We make no representation or warranty, expressed or implied, as to its accuracy or completeness. In providing this material, WPB does not assume any responsibility or liability. The views expressed in this document do not necessarily reflect those of Employment Ontario. This Employment Ontario project is funded by the Ontario Government. Report Authors: Dr Ashgar A Khan, Workforce Planning Board Carol Simpson, Executive Director, Workforce Planning Board October 2009 Workforce Planning Board acknowledges the contributions of our partner in this project. 33

36 218 Boida Ave., Unit 5 Ayr, Ontario, N0B 1E0 tel: fax: WPB is funded by WPB is a member of

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