1 Race, Ethnicity, and Economic Outcomes in New Mexico
2 Race, Ethnicity, and Economic Outcomes in New Mexico New Mexico Fiscal Policy Project A program of New Mexico Voices for Children May 2011 The New Mexico Fiscal Policy Project is generously funded by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, the McCune Charitable Foundation, and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation. We thank the foundations listed above for their support, but acknowledge that any findings and conclusions reached in this report are solely those of the author(s) and may not reflect the opinions of the funders. New Mexico Fiscal Policy Project staff: Eric Griego Executive Director, New Mexico Voices for Children Gerry Bradley Research Director, New Mexico Voices for Children Bill Jordan Policy Director, New Mexico Voices for Children Sharon Kayne Communications Director, New Mexico Voices for Children Alicia Manzano Outreach Director, New Mexico Voices for Children Graphic Design by: Eli Quinn Special thanks to Chris Hollis, KIDS COUNT Director, New Mexico Voices for Children 2340 Alamo SE, Suite 120 Albuquerque, New Mexico (505)
3 Race, Ethnicity, and Economic Outcomes in New Mexico This report is the second in a series documenting the disparities faced by children and families of color in New Mexico. This report will also describe policies that can effectively help all children and families but especially those who face racial/ ethnic disparities and that could be implemented in this state. Our first paper in this series, Making Sure All KIDS COUNT: Disparities Among New Mexico s Children, presented data documenting disparities faced by children of color in economic, health and educational outcomes. This paper will describe economic performance of the three largest racial/ ethnic groups in New Mexico Whites, Hispanics and Native Americans as well as two much smaller racial groups Blacks and Asians. It will also try to explain what is behind those different economic outcomes. Setting the Context: Some Basic Language New Mexico Voices for Children (NM Voices) collects and reports on the most comprehensive health, economic, educational and demographic data available to show how children and families are doing. These reliable data indicate where barriers exist that keep children and families from doing well and where gaps in well-being exist among different populations. We use these data to design and promote state and local policies, programs and opportunities that support all families, especially when they face disparities* and/or go through tough times. Our state s population is increasingly diverse, and people s lives are shaped by various factors like where they live, work, learn and play, what resources they have, the people around them, and their history and race or ethnicity.** Where one starts in life in a poor or well-to-do family, in a safe or unsafe neighborhood, with or without access to health care and fine schools tends to strongly affect the kind of life one will have. For these reasons, NM Voices is making a considered effort in all its publications and work to increase the amount and types of data broken down by income, race and ethnicity, and geography to better show where barriers to well-being exist for children. It is useful to break down data by such constructs as race and ethnicity so we can see how different groups of people compare on a measure, like economic status. This helps us to identify a disparity or inequity that is particularly pronounced in one or more groups. Identifying the disparity is just the first step we must also determine what the causal factors are before we can consider how to address it. Decision-makers can then develop policies to better solve the underlying issue and promote equity for all. *Disparity: a state of being different or unequal, as in age, rank, level or amount. **Race and Ethnicity: socially-constructed terms to describe differences (diversity) among people, and to give social and political meaning to the descriptions. Race, for example, is a socially constructed way to group people based on shared traits or physical appearance, like skin color, hair type, or eye shape. Ethnicity is used to describe people with something in common, like language, religion, ancestors, place, culture or values. Though being a part of a racial or ethnic group gives many people a sense of self and social identity, the concept of race has no real scientific basis. Biology shows that, genetically, humans are basically the same.
4 NM Voices is most concerned with barriers to child well-being that are considered to be embedded racial inequities.*** An example of this was the design of the G.I. Bill after World War II. While this was a positive program that provided lowinterest mortgages and down payment waivers for returning servicemen who wanted to buy homes for their families, it did not accord the same benefits to all racial groups. Restrictive lending practices at the time favoring Whites meant that more White families could purchase homes in new suburban neighborhoods than could Black, Hispanic, Native- American or Asian servicemen. Because of this inequitable access to the mortgage benefit, this meant that, over time, Whites were better able to begin building wealth. Today, White families continue to have greater wealth (resource) accumulation than do communities of color. As much as possible, this special report presents racial and ethnic data using the U.S. Census Bureau classifications. Given this, races include: White, American Indian/Alaskan Native (we will use the term Native American), African American/Black (we will use the term Black), Asian, Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, two or more races, and other race alone. The U.S. Census considers the Hispanic (or Latino) origin an ethnicity, not a race. Since people in each race group may also be Hispanic (such as a White-Hispanic or Black-Hispanic), this report presents most data by the following categories: Hispanic (any race), White (non- Hispanic), Black, Native American, and Asian. ***Embedded racial inequities [also referred to as structural racism]: public policies, institutional practices and norms that often unintentionally make it possible for Whites to have more success than other racial/ethnic groups, thus reinforcing racial group inequities.
5 Economic Well-Being and Race/Ethnicity In New Mexico, as in much of the rest of the country, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Blacks lag behind Whites and Asians by several measures of economic success. As Table I indicates, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Blacks are more likely than Whites and Asians to live in poverty. Table I - Poverty Rate (2009) 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% All Families Married Couple Families Female Householder Total White (non-hispanic) Hispanic (any race) Native American Black Asian Total White Hispanic Native American Black Asian (non- Hispanic) (any race) All Families 13.7% 6.1% 19.7% 24.7% 18.5% 5.7% Married Couple Families 7.3% 3.3% 12.0% 15.3% 7.9% 4.0% Female Householder 33.3% 19.5% 38.7% 37.7% 37.8% 14.4% Source: US Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2009, S0201 Selected Population Profile Three times as many Hispanic families and four times as many Native American families live in poverty as White families. Race and ethnicity are not the only issues at play here, as family structure is also an important indicator. Within each group, married couple families have much lower rates of poverty than do female householder families.
6 Table II- Median Family Income (2009) $90,000 Total* $80,000 $70,000 $60,000 $50,000 $40,000 $30,000 $20,000 $10,000 White (non-hispanic)* Hispanic (any race)* Native American* Black $0 Asian Median Family Income Married Couple Male Householder Female Householder Total* White Hispanic Native Black Asian (non- Hispanic)* (any race)* American* Median Family Income $51,488 $66,250 $39,742 $38,462 $45,965 $78,202 Married Couple $63,541 $75,320 $51,294 $51,550 $61,817 $85,319 Male Householder $36,179 $41,847 $33,057 $33,730 $46,250 $78,221 Female Householder $26,355 $34,144 $22,584 $25,486 $21,261 $29,432 *Calculated by NM Voices for Children based on totals and percentages from ACS, US Census Bureau Source: US Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2009, S0201 Selected Population Profile Table II shows that there is a substantial gap about 30 percent between the median family income of Whites compared to Hispanics and Native Americans. For all types of family structures, Whites and Asians have a higher median income than Hispanics, Native Americans, and Blacks. For all groups, however, families headed by a married couple have higher median income than single-parent families.
7 Table III - Household Income by Source (2009) $90,000 $80,000 $70,000 $60,000 $50,000 $40,000 $30,000 $20,000 $10,000 $0 Total* White (non-hispanic)* Hispanic (any race)* Native American* Black Asian Median Household Income** Mean Earnings** Mean Social Security Income** Mean Cash Public Assistance Mean Retirement Income** Total* White Hispanic Native Black Asian (non- Hispanic)* (any race)* American* Median Household Income $42,737 $51,036 $36,010 $33,963 $35,624 $53,659 Mean Earnings $57,255 $66,392 $47,595 $48,664 $46,211 $77,017 Mean Social Security Income $13,971 $15,424 $11,988 $10,630 $12,441 $1,524 Mean Cash Public Assistance $3,132 $8,096 $2,881 $4,091 $7,301 $4,575 Mean Retirement Income $22,776 $25,063 $18,717 $16,552 $22,612 $32,514 *Calculated by NM Voices for Children based on totals and percentages from ACS, US Census Bureau Source: US Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2009, S0201 Selected Population Profile ** Earnings refer to wages and salaries, whereas income includes earnings and non-wage sources of income such as capital gains, interest, and Social Security payments. Not all households with income have wages, for example. The source of a family s income tells another story about that family s economic well-being (see Table III). Clearly, householders in their working years fare better than those who depend on programs like Social Security because they are retired or for other reasons. While the median income gap between the White and the Hispanic and Native American populations is nearly 30 percent, the earnings gap is about 40 percent. The earnings gap shows that disparities likely exist within the labor market and the educational systems that prepare one to join the workforce. Gaps in mean Social Security income are somewhat smaller, although still significant, but mean retirement income is significantly higher for Asians and Whites than Hispanics and Native Americans. There may be several reasons for this. Asians and Whites may be more likely to have held jobs that paid a pension or contributed to a retirement account. They may also be more likely to have had enough disposable income that some could be placed in savings or invested in income-generating ventures.
8 One interesting note is that, even though Hispanics and Native Americans have lower mean incomes and higher rates of poverty than do Whites and Asians, their mean incomes from cash assistance are significantly lower than for Whites. The underlying cause for this disparity should be the source of significant study. Questions that should be answered include: are Hispanics and Native Americans less likely to apply for cash assistance? If so, what are the reasons? Are they more likely to be turned down for assistance or to receive smaller benefit sums? If so, how much of this may be at the discretion of those programs? The demographics of each population, particularly regarding age, offer other pertinent factors, and shed some light on economic disparity. The age distributions of Whites, Hispanics, Native Americans, Black and Asians are starkly different, with Native Americans and Blacks skewing younger, and Whites skewing older. Some of the gaps seen in economic outcomes, such as family and household income and earnings, can be attributed to the youth of the Native American and Black populations. Table IV Population by Age (2009) 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Under 18 years years years 65 years and older Total White (non-hispanic) Hispanic (any race) Native American Black Asian Total White Hispanic Native Black Asian (non- Hispanic) (any race) American Under 18 years 25.5% 17.6% 22.2% 31.6% 28.9% 24.2% years 23.7% 19.1% 30.1% 27.5% 27.2% 26.6% years 38.0% 44.5% 37.6% 33.3% 34.6% 40.3% 65 years and over 12.9% 18.8% 10.1% 7.5% 9.4% 8.9% Source: US Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2009, S0201 Selected Population Profile
9 Table IV, Population by Age, shows that the age structure of Native Americans and Blacks is roughly similar, while that of Whites is markedly different. Almost a third of the Native American and Black populations, and about a quarter of the Hispanic and Asian populations, are under the age of 18, while less than a fifth of the White population is in that age group. This is relevant because, except for those in their late teens, youths in this age category do not contribute to the household income. The Hispanic, Native American, and Black populations are also larger in the next age category, 18 to 34 years. While this age group has entered the workforce, they are still attempting to establish a secure footing in the labor market entry-level jobs and many job changes are typical of this age group. Lower wages are expected for workers new to the labor market. Those in the 35 to 64 age group are considered to be in their prime earning years. Job changing has slowed down and wages are rising with job stability and movement up the job ladder. About 44 percent of Whites and 40 percent of Asians are of prime working age, compared to only about a third of Native Americans and Blacks. at a disadvantage in economic outcomes. Whites and Asians are concentrated in the prime working age group, while Blacks and Native Americans are in the youngest age groups. While these differing age demographics most clearly reflect a shift in population growth, other factors may well be at play. For example, health disparities, most notably high diabetes rates for Native Americans and Hispanics, and high rates of heart disease for Blacks, may lead to premature mortality rates for those groups. Just as birth rates may play a role in economic disparity, education levels play a role in birth rates the higher the level of maternal education in a population, the lower the birth rate. Young women who have the means to go to college have more of an incentive to delay childbirth than do young women who do not believe a professional career path is within their reach. Women who put off having a family until they are through college and have had some years in the marketplace are less likely to have as large a family as women who didn t have such options. Finally, almost 20 percent of Whites are 65 and older, compared to 9 percent of Hispanics and 6 percent of Native Americans. At that age, people have largely completed their working life and have entered retirement. As shown in Table III, Asians and Whites also have higher retirement income than Hispanics and Native Americans. Higher retirement income generally reflects higher earnings during working years. The concentration of Hispanics, Native Americans, and Blacks in the younger age groups put them
10 Table V: Educational Attainment (2009) 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Total White (non-hispanic)* Hispanic (any race)* Native American Black Asian Less than H.S. H.S. Grad. (+GED) Some College Bachelor s Graduate/Professional Total White Hispanic Native Black Asian (non- Hispanic)* (any race)* American Less than H.S. 17.4% 6.5% 29.7% 25.0% 11.1% 12.3% H.S. Grad. (+GED) 27.1% 23.0% 31.1% 34.5% 24.4% 19.1% Some College 30.6% 33.4% 26.6% 31.7% 39.7% 21.4% Bachelor s 14.5% 20.8% 8.4% 5.7% 13.4% 22.8% Graduate/Professional 10.4% 16.3% 4.3% 3.1% 11.4% 24.4% *Calculated by NM Voices for Children based on totals and percentages from ACS, US Census Bureau Source: US Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2009, S0201 Selected Population Profile From Table V, it can be seen that there is a notable discrepancy between the educational level of Asians and Whites compared to Hispanics, Native Americans, and Blacks. Hispanics and Native Americans are far more likely to have less than High School or High School Graduate levels of education, and far less likely to have completed some college, or have a bachelor s, graduate or professional degree. Whites, on the other hand, are more likely to have some college, a bachelor s degree or a professional or graduate degree. Asians have the highest rates of graduate degrees. This educational discrepancy poses a challenge to narrowing the gap in economic outcomes amongst the groups. Level of education will determine labor market outcomes, as will be seen in the next chart and table.
11 Table VI Employment by Occupation (2009) (Civilian employed population aged 16 years and over) 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Total* White (non-hispanic)* Hispanic (any race)* Native American* Black Asian Management/Professional Service Occupations Construction/Extraction Production/Transportation Total* White Hispanic Native Black Asian (non- Hispanic)* (any race)* American* Management/Professional 33.8% 44.5% 23.7% 23.7% 33.6% 48.9% Service Occupations 19.1% 13.4% 23.7% 25.5% 23.9% 24.1% Sales and Office 24.3% 24.6% 24.3% 22.4% 25.4% 14.9% Construction/Extraction 12.0% 8.7% 15.6% 14.6% 6.1% 4.7% Production/Transportation 9.8% 8.1% 11.1% 13.3% 10.8% 6.5% *Calculated by NM Voices for Children based on totals and percentages from ACS, US Census Bureau Source: US Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2009, S0201 Selected Population Profile The distribution of the labor force by occupation is telling. Due in part to the youth and lower educational levels of the Hispanic, Native American and Black populations, these groups are over-represented in the service and production/transportation occupations, which tend to be higher-paying and offer better benefits. Hispanics and Native Americans are also over-represented in the construction/extraction industries. Asians and Whites, also due in part to greater age and higher education levels, are concentrated in management and professional occupations, which tend to be higher paying and offer better benefits. It is interesting that there is parity among Whites, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Blacks in the sales and office category.
12 Table VII Native and Foreign Born and Citizenship Status (2009) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Native Born Foreign Born Foreign Born; US Citizen Foreign Born; Not US Citizen Total White (non-hispanic) Hispanic (any race) Native American Black Asian Total White Hispanic Native Black Asian (non- Hispanic) (any race) American Native Born 90.4% 97.3% 83.3% 99.5% 93.8% 36.1% Foreign Born 9.6% 2.7% 16.7% 0.5% 6.2% 63.9% Foreign Born; US Citizen 3.0% 1.4% 4.1% 0.3% 2.3% 38.5% Foreign Born; Not US Citizen 6.6% 1.3% 12.6% 0.2% 3.9% 25.4% Source: US Census Bureau, American Community Survey 2009, S0201 Selected Population Profile Citizenship status is another factor that can impact economic performance. As shown in Table VII, there is a wide discrepancy between Whites, Hispanics, and Asians in this indicator. While Whites are nearly 98 percent U.S. born, Hispanics are only 83 percent U.S. born. Also, foreign-born Hispanics are more likely not to be citizens than foreign-born Whites. Foreign-born residents who are not American citizens perform significantly worse than those who are native-born on most economic indicators. For instance, foreign-born New Mexico residents who are not citizens had a poverty rate of nearly 32 percent, while foreign-born New Mexicans who were U.S. citizens had a poverty rate of only 15.5 percent. This is a lower poverty rate than for the state as a whole, which is at 18 percent. The exception to this trend is seen in New Mexico s Asian population. While they have, by far, the highest percentage of foreign-born residents both who are citizens and who are not they fare much better economically. Across all groups, foreign-born residents who become American citizens perform well by most economic indicators, including mean earnings and median household income.
13 Policy Recommendations In conclusion, there is a substantial disparity in poverty rates, median income by household type, and household income by type of earnings between Whites and Asians on the one hand and Hispanics, Native Americans, and Blacks on the other. The disparity can be explained in part by the age distribution, educational attainment, and citizenship status of the five populations. In addition to these factors, many Native Americans contend with geographic isolation, which limits employment opportunities significantly. One key to improving economic performance for Hispanics, Native Americans, and Blacks is access to highquality comprehensive early childhood care and education programs, beginning with parental supports at birth such as voluntary parental coaching. Such programs are known to improve educational outcomes, including high school graduation and college attendance rates. They also are shown to lower the rates of teen pregnancy and youth incarceration both of which impede later economic outcomes. Putting foreignborn Hispanics on a path to citizenship through comprehensive immigration reform will also help. To the extent that educational and employment outcomes are the result of segregation and discrimination, legal and legislative action will be needed.
14 New Mexico Voices for Children 2340 Alamo SE, Suite 120 Albuquerque, New Mexico (505)
Institute for Public Policy and Economic Analysis The Institute for Public Policy and Economic Analysis at Eastern Washington University will convey university expertise and sponsor research in social,
Understanding the Immigrant Experience Lessons and themes for economic opportunity Owen J. Furuseth and Laura Simmons UNC Charlotte Urban Institute Charlotte-Mecklenburg Opportunity Task Force March 10,
An Equity Profile of the Southeast Florida Region PolicyLink and PERE An Equity Profile of the Southeast Florida Region Summary Communities of color are driving Southeast Florida s population growth, and
BLACK-WHITE BENCHMARKS FOR THE CITY OF PITTSBURGH INTRODUCTION Ralph Bangs, Christine Anthou, Shannon Hughes, Chris Shorter University Center for Social and Urban Research University of Pittsburgh March
CLACLS Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies A Profile of Latino Citizenship in the United States: Demographic, Educational and Economic Trends between 1990 and 2013 Karen Okigbo Sociology
4.02.12 California s Congressional District 37 Demographic Sketch MANUEL PASTOR JUSTIN SCOGGINS JARED SANCHEZ Purpose Demographic Sketch Understand the Congressional District s population and its unique
BIG PICTURE: CHANGING POVERTY AND EMPLOYMENT OUTCOMES IN SEATTLE January 218 Author: Bryce Jones Seattle Jobs Initiative TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 1 Executive Summary 2 Changes in Poverty and Deep
Institute for Public Policy and Economic Analysis The Institute for Public Policy and Economic Analysis at Eastern Washington University will convey university expertise and sponsor research in social,
Why disaggregate data on U.S. children by immigrant status? Some lessons from the diversitydatakids.org project Dolores Acevedo-Garcia, PhD, MPA-URP Samuel F. and Rose B. Gingold Professor of Human Development
Cornell University ILR School DigitalCommons@ILR Federal Publications Key Workplace Documents 9-2016 Labor Force Characteristics by Race and Ethnicity, 2015 Bureau of Labor Statistics Follow this and additional
Socio-Economic Mobility Among Foreign-Born Latin American and Caribbean Nationalities in New York City, 2000-2006 Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Graduate Center City University of
W A S H I N G T O N A R E A R E S E A R C H I N I T I A T I V E Racial Inequities in Montgomery County Leah Hendey and Lily Posey December 2017 Montgomery County, Maryland, faces a challenge in overcoming
Le Sueur County Demographic & Economic Profile Prepared on 7/12/2018 Prepared by: Mark Schultz Regional Labor Market Analyst Southeast and South Central Minnesota Minnesota Department of Employment and
The Foreign-Born Population in the United States Population Characteristics March 1999 Issued August 2000 P20-519 This report describes the foreign-born population in the United States in 1999. It provides
W A S H I N G T O N A R E A R E S E A R C H I N I T I A T V E Racial Inequities in the Washington, DC, Region 2011 15 Leah Hendey December 2017 The Washington, DC, region is increasingly diverse and prosperous,
OKLAHOMA KIDS COUNT ISSUE BRIEF 2013 Voices for Oklahoma s Future. www.oica.org 3909 N. Classen Blvd., Suite 101 Oklahoma City, OK 73118 (405) 236-5437 [KIDS] firstname.lastname@example.org Changing Demographics: A Catalyst
Executive Summary Tracking Oregon s Progress A Report of the Tracking Oregon s Progress (TOP) Indicators Project Many hands helped with this report. We are indebted first of all to the advisory committee
Advancing Equity and Inclusive Growth in San Joaquin Valley: Data for an Equity Policy Agenda Equity is the Superior Growth Model Image source: Flickr. Regional indicators database Coverage: 150 largest
Joint Center for Housing Studies Harvard University New Americans, New Homeowners: The Role and Relevance of Foreign-Born First-Time Homebuyers in the U.S. Housing Market Rachel Bogardus Drew N02-2 August
An Equity Profile of Albuquerque An Equity Profile of Albuquerque PolicyLink and PERE 2 Acknowledgments PolicyLink and the Program for Environmental and Regional Equity (PERE) at the University of Southern
Chapter 1: The Demographics of McLennan County General Population Since 2000, the Texas population has grown by more than 2.7 million residents (approximately 15%), bringing the total population of the
APRIL 2016 Why the Racial Gap among Firms Costs the U.S. Billions BY ALGERNON AUSTIN Businesses owned by people of color are playing an important part in restoring the health of the American economy after
The EEO Tabulation: Measuring Diversity in the Workplace ACS Data Users Conference May 29, 2014 Ana J. Montalvo Industry and Occupation Statistics Branch Social, Economic, and Housing Statistics Division
THE MEASURE OF AMERICA American Human Development Report 2008 2009 xvii Executive Summary American history is in part a story of expanding opportunity to ever-greater numbers of citizens. Practical policies
Structural Change: Confronting Race and Class THE KIRWAN INSTITUTE FOR THE STUDY OF RACE AND ETHNICITY & ISAIAH OHIO ORGANIZING COLLABORATIVE WEEKLONG TRAINING TOLEDO, OH JULY 19, 2010 Presentation Overview
Transitions to Work for Racial, Ethnic, and Immigrant Groups Deborah Reed Christopher Jepsen Laura E. Hill Public Policy Institute of California Preliminary draft, comments welcome Draft date: March 1,
The Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program Bruce Katz, Director State of the World s Cities: The American Experience Delivering Sustainable Communities Summit February 1st, 2005 State of the
Understanding Racial Inequity in Alachua County (January, 2018) Hector H. Sandoval (BEBR) Department of Economics College of Liberal Arts and Sciences University of Florida Understanding Racial Inequity
OFFICE OF THE CONTROLLER City Services Auditor 2005 Taxi Commission Survey Report February 7, 2006 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 3 SURVEY DATA ANALYSIS 5 I. The Survey Respondents 5 II. The Reasonableness
Peruvians in the United States 1980 2008 Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Graduate Center City University of New York 365 Fifth Avenue Room 5419 New York, New York 10016 212-817-8438
University of California Institute for Labor and Employment The State of California Labor, 2002 (University of California, Multi-Campus Research Unit) Year 2002 Paper Weir Income Polarization and California
University of Massachusetts Boston ScholarWorks at UMass Boston Gastón Institute Publications Gastón Institute for Latino Community Development and Public Policy Publications 9-17-2010 Latinos in Massachusetts
ANALYSIS EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES i. Describe any disparities in access to proficient schools based on race/ethnicity, national origin, and family status. ii. iii. Describe the relationship between the
The Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program Amy Liu, Deputy Director Mind the Gap: Reducing Disparities to Improve Regional Competitiveness in the Twin Cities Forum on the Business Response to
An Equity Profile of Las Cruces An Equity Profile of Las Cruces PolicyLink and PERE 2 Acknowledgments PolicyLink and the Program for Environmental and Regional Equity (PERE) at the University of Southern
Equitable Growth Profile of the Omaha-Council Bluffs Region 2018 updated analysis 2 Summary The Omaha-Council Bluffs region continues to undergo a demographic transformation that has major implications
DATA PROFILES OF IMMIGRANTS IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA LATINO IMMIGRANTS Demographics Economic Opportunity Education Health Housing This is part of a data series on immigrants in the District of Columbia
Briefing Book- Labor Market Two other briefing books focus on the importance of formal education and ESOL courses to Boston s foreign-born residents. While there are a number of reasons why improving immigrant
CLACLS Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Stud- Demographic, Economic, and Social Transformations in Bronx Community District 5: Fordham, University Heights, Morris Heights and Mount Hope, 1990
CHC BORDER HEALTH POLICY FORUM The U.S./Mexico : Demographic, Socio-Economic, and Health Issues Profile I Hotel Alburquerque Albuquerque, New Mexico Dec 11-12, 2006 La Fe Policy and Advocacy Center 1327
Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Graduate Center City University of New York 365 Fifth Avenue Room 5419 New York, New York 10016 Demographic, Economic and Social Transformations in
REPORT Key Facts on Health and Health Care by Race and Ethnicity June 2016 Prepared by: Kaiser Family Foundation Disparities in health and health care remain a persistent challenge in the United States.
Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Graduate Center City University of New York 365 Fifth Avenue Room 5419 New York, New York 10016 212-817-8438 email@example.com http://web.gc.cuny.edu/lastudies
The Status of Women in Ventura and Santa Barbara Counties March 3, 2010 Foreword March, 2010 One hundred and fifty-three years ago, thousands of women garment workers marched to change their poverty level
Massachusetts Massachusetts Community Health Needs Assessment 218 Summary of Demographics and Social Determinants of Health The total population count of MAH's primary service area is estimated at 351,764.
FEBRUARY 2018 RESEARCH BRIEF Racial Disparities in the Direct Care Workforce: Spotlight on Hispanic/Latino Workers BY STEPHEN CAMPBELL The second in a three-part series focusing on racial and ethnic disparities
An Equity Profile of Jackson An Equity Profile of Jackson PolicyLink and PERE 2 Acknowledgments PolicyLink and the Program for Environmental and Regional Equity (PERE) at the University of Southern California
info December 2013 SANDAG Poverty in the San Diego Region Table of Contents Overview... 3 Background... 3 Federal Poverty Measurements... 4 Poverty Status for Individuals in the San Diego Region... 6 Demographic
1 The Gender Wage Gap in Durham County Zoe Willingham Duke University February 2017 2 Research Question This report examines the size and nature of the gender wage gap in Durham County. Using statistical
Demographic, Economic, and Social Transformations in Queens Community District 3: East Elmhurst, Jackson Heights, and North Corona, 1990-2006 Astrid S. Rodríguez Fellow, Center for Latin American, Caribbean
January 2011 Nebraska s Foreign-Born and Hispanic/Latino Population Socio-Economic Trends, 2009 OLLAS Office of Latino/Latin American Studies (OLLAS) University of Nebraska - Omaha Off i c e o f La t i
The Big Picture Active Michigan Members by Race/Ethnicity and Gender Joining the Bar 2005-2015 Other Ethnic Origin Female, 379, 6.9% Other Ethnic Origin Male, 306, 5.5% Arab Origin Female, 101, 1.8% Arab
Occasional Papers Demographic, Social, and Economic Trends for Young Children in California Deborah Reed Sonya M. Tafoya Prepared for presentation to the California Children and Families Commission October
Chapter 1: Objectives Identify Texas political party activists and government officials to inform participation in the political affairs of the state and its counties, cities, and special districts. Understand
1 Ten years ago United Way issued a groundbreaking report on the state of the growing Latinx Community in Dane County. At that time Latinos were the fastest growing racial/ethnic group not only in Dane
Between Two Worlds: How Young Latinos Come of Age in America 81 9. Gangs, Fights and Prison Parents all around the world don t need social scientists to tell them what they already know: Adolescence and
Pacific Economic Trends and Snapshot September 213 Report to Ministry of Business, Innovation, and Employment Contents 1. Key points... 3 2. Demographic trends... 5 3. Qualifications and skills... 7 4.
THE CURRENT JOB OUTLOOK REGIONAL LABOR REVIEW, Fall 2008 The Gender Pay Gap in New York City and Long Island: 1986 2006 by Bhaswati Sengupta Working women have won enormous progress in breaking through
Demographic, Economic, and Social Transformations in Bronx Community District 9: Parkchester, Unionport, Soundview, Castle Hill, and Clason Point, 1990-2006 Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino
Pulling Open the Sticky Door Social Mobility among Latinos in Nebraska Lissette Aliaga-Linares Social Demographer Office of Latino/Latin American Studies (OLLAS) University of Nebraska at Omaha Overview
Figure 1.1 Cultural Frames: An Analytical Model Hyper-Selectivity/ Hypo-Selectivity Ethnic Capital Tangible and Intangible Resources Host Society Public Institutional Resources The Stereotype Promise/Threat
Race to Equity A Project to Reduce Racial Disparities in Dane County Wisconsin Council on Children and Families Presenters Erica Nelson and Torry Winn Overview Who we are Goals and purpose of the Project
The National Federation of Paralegal Associations, Inc. Position Statement on Diversity, Inclusion, and Equity The (NFPA) believes that a diverse group of talented legal professionals is critically important
s in Massachusetts Selected Areas Brockton and Abington by Phillip Granberry, PhD and Sarah Rustan September 17, 2010 INTRODUCTION This report provides a descriptive snapshot of selected economic, social,
Geographic Mobility Central Pennsylvania Centre, Clinton, Columbia, Lycoming, Mifflin, Montour, Northumberland, Snyder, and Union Counties Central Pennsylvania Workforce Development Corporation (CPWDC)
Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Graduate Center City University of New York 365 Fifth Avenue Room 5419 New York, New York 10016 Ecuadorians in the United States 1980 2008 212-817-8438
The Broken Pathway Uncovering the Economic Inequality in the Bay Area A JobTrain Workforce Report, 1st Edition December 2016 JobTrain was founded over 50 years ago by the Reverend Leon Sullivan (Sullivan
Youth at High Risk of Disconnection A data update of Michael Wald and Tia Martinez s Connected by 25: Improving the Life Chances of the Country s Most Vulnerable 14-24 Year Olds Prepared by Jacob Rosch,
THE STATE OF THE UNIONS IN 2013 A PROFILE OF UNION MEMBERSHIP IN LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA AND THE NATION 1 Patrick Adler and Chris Tilly Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, UCLA Ben Zipperer
FOR RELEASE MARCH 07, 2019 BY Rakesh Kochhar FOR MEDIA OR OTHER INQUIRIES: Rakesh Kochhar, Senior Researcher Jessica Pumphrey, Communications Associate 202.419.4372 RECOMMENDED CITATION Pew Research Center,
Seattle Public Schools Enrollment and Immigration Natasha M. Rivers, PhD Table of Contents 1. Introduction: What s been happening with Enrollment in Seattle Public Schools? p.2-3 2. Public School Enrollment
An Equity Profile of Sunflower County An Equity Profile of Sunflower County PolicyLink and PERE 2 Acknowledgments PolicyLink and the Program for Environmental and Regional Equity (PERE) at the University
Povery and Income among African Americans Black Median Household income: $35,481 (all races $53,657) All Black Workers 2015 weekly earnings:$624 (all races $803) Black Men weekly earnings: $652 (All men
Demographic Changes, Health Disparities, and Tuberculosis Joan M. Mangan, PhD, MST October 22, 2015 Delivering Culturally Competent Patient Education and Care to Tuberculosis Program Clients Austin, TX
Advancing Health Equity and Inclusive Growth in Fresno County 2 Summary Fresno County is an agricultural powerhouse, yet it struggles with slow economic growth, high unemployment, and an economy dominated
Millennial Migration: How has the Great Recession affected the migration of a generation as it came of age? Megan J. Benetsky and Alison Fields Journey to Work and Migration Statistics Branch Social, Economic,
94 IX. Differences Across Racial/Ethnic Groups: Whites, African Americans, Hispanics The U.S. Hispanic and African American populations are growing faster than the white population. From mid-2005 to mid-2006,
The Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program Bruce Katz, Director Redefining Urban and Suburban America National Trust for Historic Preservation September 30, 2004 Redefining Urban and Suburban
THE LITERACY PROFICIENCIES OF THE WORKING-AGE RESIDENTS OF PHILADELPHIA CITY Prepared by: Paul E. Harrington Neeta P. Fogg Alison H. Dickson Center for Labor Market Studies Northeastern University Boston,
EAST METRO PULSE KEY FINDINGS FROM THE 2016 EAST METRO PULSE SURVEY ABOUT THE SAINT PAUL FOUNDATION The Saint Paul Foundation is a community foundation with more than 75 years of history in investing in
Current and Former Welfare Recipients: How Do They Differ? Pamela J. Loprest Sheila R. Zedlewski 99 17 November 1999 Assessing the New Federalism An Urban Institute Program to Assess Changing Social Policies
An Equity Profile of the City of Detroit Supported by: An Equity Profile of the City of Detroit PolicyLink and PERE 2 Acknowledgments PolicyLink and the Program for Environmental and Regional Equity (PERE)
Unlocking Opportunities in the Poorest Communities: A Policy Brief By: Dorian T. Warren, Chirag Mehta, Steve Savner Updated February 2016 UNLOCKING OPPORTUNITY IN THE POOREST COMMUNITIES Imagine a 21st-century
University of Massachusetts Boston ScholarWorks at UMass Boston Institute for Asian American Studies Publications Institute for Asian American Studies 1-1-2007 Far From the Commonwealth: A Report on Low-
Caribbean Joint Statement on Gender Equality and the Post 2015 and SIDS Agenda Caribbean Joint Statement on Gender Equality and the Post 2015 and SIDS Agenda 1 Preamble As the Millennium Development Goals