2 * Economies and Values Four different economic systems have developed to address the key economic questions. Each system reflects the different prioritization of economic goals. It also reflects the values of the societies in which these systems are present. A traditional economy relies on habit, custom, or ritual to decide what to produce, how to produce it, and to whom to distribute it. There is little room for innovation or change. This type of economy revolves around the family. Work tends to be divided along gender roles, and boys tend to take on the work of their fathers, and girls the work of their mothers Traditional economies are usually communities that tend to stay relatively small and close. Often these societies work to support entire groups, rather than just themselves or their immediate families. Agricultural and hunting practices usually lie at the heart of the people s lives, laws and religious beliefs. These societies have few mechanisms in place to deal with environmental disasters. They also tend to remain stagnant, resisting change at both the individual and community level. They may be slow to adopt new technology or radical new ideas In most cases, these communities lack modern conveniences and have a low standard of living
3 * Market Economies In a Market Economy, economic decisions are made by individuals, and are based on exchange, or trade. The choices made by individuals determine what gets made and how, as well as who consumes the goods and services produced. Market economies are also called free markets, or capitalism. What do a farmer s market, a sporting goods store, the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), and the sign a friend or neighbor posts on the community bulletin board offering to babysit have in common? All are examples of markets. A market is an arrangement that allows buyers and sellers to exchange things. Markets exist because no one is self sufficient. Markets allow us to benefit from the specialization of labor, and exchange the things we have for the things we want. Specialization is the concentration of the productive efforts of individuals and firms on a limited number of activities. Because each of us specializes in producing just a few products, we need markets to sell what we have and to buy what we want. If each person were self-sufficient, producing everything he or she wanted to consume, there would be no need for markets.
4 * Free Market Economy Economic systems that are based on voluntary exchanges in markets are called free market economies. In a free market economy, individuals and businesses use markets to exchange money and products. In a free market system, individuals and privately owned businesses own the factors of production, make what they want, and buy what they want. The three economic questions of what to produce, how to produce it, and who consumes that which is produced is answered in a free market economy in the marketplace itself through the medium of price. The players in the free market economy are households and firms. Households are a person or group of people living in the same residence. Households own the factors of production, and are also the consumers of goods and services. A business, or firm, is an organization that uses resources to produce a product which it then sells. Firms transform inputs, or factors of production, into outputs, or products.
5 * Free Market Economy Firms purchase factors from households. This arena of exchange is called the factor market. Firms purchase or rent land (natural resources). They hire workers, paying them wages or salaries for their labor. They also borrow money from households to purchase capital, paying households interest or profits in return. Profit is the financial gain made in a transaction. Goods and services that firms produce are purchased by households in the product market. How is it that firms and households cooperate to give each other what they wantfactor resources, in the case of firms, and products, in the case of households? The answer, which anyone who has tried out for a team, play, or club would know, is that this is a competitive society. According to a Scottish philosopher, it is in fact competition and our own self interest that keep the marketplace functioning. And with that, we return to the founder of free market capitalism, Adam Smith.
6 * Let It Be When last we left Adam Smith, we learned from his hallmark work The Wealth of Nations that nations became wealthy from a balance of trade, and from the specialization of labor which the balance contributed to. However, these were not the only reasons Smith felt that some nations were wealthier than others, or why even the wealthier nations could not become even wealthier. A big part of his reasoning had to do with what Smith termed as rational actors making rational choices, meaning that any reasonable person makes a cost-benefit analysis, or that they take into consideration the opportunity cost before making a reasoned choice. Of course, the opportunity cost is not an objective measurement, but a subjective one based on what each person s desires, needs or wants are on an individual basis. Smith called this Self Interest.
7 * Let It Be Smith observed that an economy is made up of countless individual transactions. In each transaction the buyer and seller consider only their own personal gain, or self interest, which is the motivating force in the free market. Consumers (households), in pursuit of their self interest have the incentive to look for lower prices. An incentive is the hope of reward or the fear of punishment that encourages a person to behave in a certain way. It is what determines the factors in individual consideration of what the opportunity cost is. Consumers respond to the incentive of lower prices, because spending less on a product lowers the opportunity cost of the purchase. Firms meanwhile, seek to make greater profits by increasing sales. Lets take the example of University of Alabama hoodies. The manufacturer finds that Alabama hoodies are far outselling Notre Dame hoodies. The manufacturer then has the incentive to produce more Alabama hoodies because he can sell more thereby making more profit. Other manufacturers observing consumer s desire for Alabama hoodies also have the incentive to sell them, and with all of these manufacturers in the market, consumers have all of the Alabama hoodies they could want.
8 * Let It Be Since consumers want to spend the lowest price possible, and manufacturers want to sell the most product possible, when there are multiple firms they compete with each other to arrive at the price that will attract the most customers. Economists call this struggle amongst producers for the money of consumers competition. While self interest is the motivating force behind the free market, competition is the regulating force. These forces work together to require firms to not seek a high price, but to offer the price the consumers demand for the products they want. All of this happens without any central planning, or government involvement in directing the prices of products. Adam Smith referred to this phenomena as The Invisible Hand, which is the determination of price by the market, and not by the government or some other central authority. As a result, Adam Smith called for restricting the role of government in the economy. Smith insisted that the government must leave individuals as free as possible to pursue their own interests if a market is to run smoothly. This policy is known as laissez faire, which means let it be, or leave it alone.
9 * Let It Be The advantages of the free market include Economic Efficiency- Because it is self regulating, a free market economy responds efficiently to rapidly changing conditions. Produces make only what consumers want, when they want it, and generally at prices they are willing to pay. Economic Freedom- Free market economies have the highest degree of economic freedom of any system. This includes the freedom of workers to work where they want, of firms to produce what they want, and of individuals to consume what they want. Economic Growth- Because competition encourages innovation, free markets encourage growth. Entrepreneurs are always seeking profitable opportunities, contributing new ideas and innovations. Additional Goals- Free markets offer a wider variety of goods and services than any other system, because producers have incentives to meet consumer s desires. Consumers, in essence, decide what gets produced. This is called consumer sovereignty. Despite its advantages, no pure market economy exists on any meaningful scale, as the goals of economic equity and economic security are difficult to achieve in a pure market system.
10 * By Your Command The third type of economy is a Command Economy, also known as a centrally planned economy. In this economy, the central government alone decides how to answer all three key economic questions, or a central authority is in command of the economy. Centrally planned economies operate in direct contrast to free market economies. Command economies oppose private property, free market pricing, competition, and consumer choice. It is they who answer the three economic questions, not the consumer. A central bureaucracy operates in the following manner, bureaucrats tell each firm what and how much to produce. It is up to the bureaucrats to ensure that each firm has enough raw materials and workers to meet its production goals. In a centrally planned economy, the government owns both land and capital. In a sense it owns labor too, by controlling where individuals work and what wages they are paid. The government decides what to produce, how much to produce, and what to charge. The free market forces of self interest and competition are absent from the system, instead it is managed with the concept, from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs.
11 * X Marx the Spot The economic philosopher that first stated this sentiment and developed the central themes of command economies was a man named Karl Marx. To Marx the interests of the proletariat (workers) and the bourgeoisie (capitalists) are inherently contradictory and lead to a power struggle. Capitalists are driven to maximize profits by exploiting workers and holding their wages at the lowest possible levels. Workers suffered, and were therefore driven to overthrow the capitalist system, seize the means of production, and establish a classless society in which wealth would be distributed evenly. The capitalists and the governments they supported would use all of the power they could to stop workers from changing the social order
12 * X Marx the Spot Workers would then have to rely on the power of their numbers and overthrow their oppressors According to Marx, class conflict is built into a capitalist system To Marx, collective struggle was what was necessary, because by themselves workers had little power, but if they joined together in unions and political parties they could gain the power. Workers had to break free of the capitalist ideal of individuality and self interest and develop class consciousness, or a shared sense of their interests and problems as workers. It was only through this that the economy could be managed by a worker s bureaucracy for the equal benefit of all, and not just those that owned the factors of production.
13 * Central Command The words most often associated with centrally planned economies, and the economic and political systems that arose from Marx s theories are socialism and communism. Socialism is a social and political philosophy based on the belief that democratic means should be used to distribute wealth evenly throughout a society. Real equality, socialists argue, can only exist when political equality is coupled with economic equality. Economic equality is possible only if the public controls the centers of economic power, and although socialist nations may be democracies, socialism requires a high degree of central planning to achieve economic equality. In socialist countries the government often owns major industries, such as utilities.
14 * Central Command Communism is a political system that arose out of the philosophy of socialism. Communism is characterized by a centrally planned economy with all economic and political power resting in the hands of the central government. Unlike socialists, however, communists believed that a socialist society that can only come about after a violent revolution. While socialist economies can still allow for democracy, communist governments are authoritarian. Authoritarian governments exact strict obedience from their citizens and do not allow individual freedom of judgment and action. Throughout history, communist nations have been dominated by a single political party or dictator. The former Soviet Union was a communist nation. Central planning can be used to jumpstart selected industries and guarantee jobs and incomes in the short term. However, poor quality, serious shortages of non priority goods and services, and diminished production are the drawbacks.
15 * Central Command Perhaps the greatest disadvantage of centrally planned economies is that their performance almost always falls far short of the ideals upon which the system is built. In addition, such systems generally cannot meet consumers needs or wants. Since the government owns all production factors, workers lack any incentive to work hard. These systems also do not reward innovation, actively discouraging any kind of change because either it would be more work, or would threaten the job security of bureaucrats if it failed. The large, cumbersome, inefficient and expensive bureaucracy is unfortunately necessary to make the thousands of production and distribution decisions needed to run the economy, and lacks the flexibility to adjust to consumer demands. Decisions become overly complicated. Finally, command economies sacrifice individual freedoms in order to pursue societal goals.
16 * Mix It Up Modernized nations have mixed elements of command economies with free market capitalism in order to better meet all of the economic goals, including the United States. Many areas of the world, including several less developed countries have experimented with centrally planned economies, but most of these experiments have failed. Instead, most of these nations have moved towards the fourth type of economy. Mixed Economies are market based economic systems in which the government plays a limited role. You cannot find any economic system today that relies exclusively on central planning, or on the individual initiative of the free market. Instead, most economies are a mixture of economic systems. Most contemporary mixed economies blend the market with government intervention, or involvement, in the marketplace.
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